Arctometatarsalia Holtz, 1994
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Holtz, 1996)
Other definitions- (arctometatarsus) (Holtz, 1994)
= "Arctometatarsalia" Holtz, 1992
= "Pneumatocrania" Holtz, 1992
= Ornithomimosauria sensu Osmolska, 1997
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Troodon formosus)
= Ornithomimosauria sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Passer domesticus) (modified)
= Ornithomimidae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Erlikosaurus andrewsi) (modified)
= Alvarezsauroidea sensu Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010
Definition- (Alvarezsaurus calvoi <- Passer domesticus)
= "Ornithomimiformes" Sereno, in press
Definition- (Ornithomimus edmontonicus <- Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
Comments- Holtz (1992) originally used Arctometatarsalia in his unpublished thesis before officially naming it for the same clade in 1994 (tyrannosaurids, ornithomimosaurs, troodontids, caenagnathids and Avimimus). These all share an arctometatarsus, with the third metatarsal pinched proximally, but tyrannosaurids, derived ornithomimosaurs, caenagnathids (including Avimimus) and derived troodontids are now known to have developed the structure in parallel. Holtz (1996) later defined the clade as the sister to Maniraptora, so while the original content and diagnostic feature no longer apply, the name can still be used. Holtz named "Pneumatocrania" in the same thesis, to contain his Arctometatarsalia plus oviraptorids, though this was left out of the 1994 published version. No subsequent analysis has recovered this group, which seems largely based on miscodings.
Sereno (in press) erected Ornithomimiformes to replace Arctometatarsalia. I actually think it's a better name for the clade in question, especially as the arctometatarsus evolved so many times and most authors would only include ornithomimosaurs in the taxon anyway (exceptions are Perez-Moreno et al., 1993-1994; possibly Russell and Dong, 1994; Holtz, 1994-2000; Sereno, 1998-in press). Also, Arctometatarsalia was originally defined as an apomorphy-based clade, and arctometatarsalian is a non-taxonomic word as well. The problem is priority, as Arctometatarsalia has about a decade of it both nomenclaturally and definitionally.
References- Holtz, 1992. An unusual structure of the metatarsus of Theropoda (Archosauria: Dinosauria: Saurischia) of the Cretaceous. Unpublished PhD thesis. Yale University. 347 pp.

Kinnareemimus Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 2009
= "Ginnareemimus" Kaneko, 2000
= "Kinareemimus" Sasidhorn and Suteethorn, 2000
K. khonkaenensis Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 2009
Valanginian-Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous
Sao Khua Formation, Thailand
Holotype
- (PW5A-100) incomplete metatarsal III
Paratypes- (PW5A-101) incomplete metatarsal II
(PW5A-102) proximal metatarsal IV
(PW5A-103) partial metatarsal III
(PW5A-104) proximal metatarsal III
(PW5A-105) incomplete metatarsal II
(PW5A-106) metatarsal IV
(PW5A-107) distal metatarsal III
(PW5A-108) proximal metatarsal IV
(PW5A-109) proximal metatarsal IV
(PW5A-110) tibia
(PW5A-111) tibia
(PW5A-112) proximal fibula
(PW5A-113) proximal pubis
(PW5A-114) proximal pubis
(PW5A-115) pedal phalanx III-1
(PW5A-116) pedal phalanx II-1
(PW5A-117) pedal phalanx III-2
(PW5A-118) pedal phalanx II-2
(PW5A-119) proximal pedal phalanx III-1 or III-2
(PW5A-120) pedal phalanx IV-1
(PW5A-121) pedal phalanx IV-3
(PW5A-122) incomplete pedal ungual
(PW5A-123) posterior dorsal centrum
(PW5A-124) (adult) incomplete mid caudal vertebra
(PW5A-125) mid caudal centrum
(PW5A-126) distal caudal centrum
(PW5A-127) distal caudal centrum
(PW5A-128) distal caudal centrum
(PW5A-129) distal caudal centrum
(PW5A-130) first caudal centrum
(PW5A-131) proximal metatarsal III
Other diagnoses- Buffetaut et al. (2009) diagnosed Kinnareemimus based on the combination of primitive (metatarsal III contacts tarsus in extensor view) and derived (metatarsal III rod-like just distal to proximal expansion; metatarsal III triangular distally) characters, but these are present in all subarctometatarsal taxa (e.g. basal troodontids, microraptorians). Their additional qualifier of Kinareemimus being an ornithomimid with these characters has yet to be defended with synapomorphies or analysis.
Comments- A pedal phalanx (III-2?) is labeled PW5A-123 in figure 7, but this is the number for the dorsal centrum in other areas of the text. It is more likely PW5A-117, as this is the only phalanx not otherwise present in the figure. Similarly, the text mentions PW5A-113 as phalanx III-2, but it is otherwise mentioned in th paper as a proximal pubis.
Buffetaut et al. (1995) and Suteethorn et al. (1995) noted a new taxon of ornithomimosaur is present in the Sao Khua Formation, while Buffetaut and Suteethorn (1998) briefly described and illustrated its metatarsus. Kaneko (2000) referred to this taxon as "Ginnareemimus" in a popular magazine article, but Olshevsky (DML, 2000) noted it would be spelled differently once formally described. Sasidhorn and Suteethorn (2000) meanwhile used the name "Kinareemimus" in a Thai article which was unknown in the west until 2009. The final description appeared in 2009, where the name was spelled Kinnareemimus.
All publications have interpreted this as an ornithomimosaur more derived than Garudimimus, but less so than arctometatarsal ornithomimids. However, no ornithomimosaur synapomorphies have ever been listed. Buffetaut et al.'s (2009) stated resemblences are either plesiomorphic (hollow caudal centra; cnemial crest continues distally as ridge; proximomedial fibular groove; proximoflexor process on metatarsal II) or vague ("general resemblence" of caudal vertebrae and tibiae; phalanges II-1 and III-2 resembling "Ornithomimus affinis" [="Dryosaurus" grandis]; phalanx IV-3 resembling Gallimimus; pedal ungual resembling Struthiomimus). The rod-like proximal portion just distal to the proximal expansion, narrow proximal exposure, and distally triangular section of metatarsal III are found in other subarctometatarsal and arctometatarsal taxa too, not just ornithomimids. Metatarsal III is proximally narrowed but still contacts the tarsus on the extansor surface, as in subarctometatarsal taxa like Microraptor, but unlike ornithomimosaurs, which seem to have evolved proximal contact between metatarsals II and IV before metatarsal III was narrowed (e.g. Archaeornithomimus). The described pedal ungual spur is part of the articular surface, not a more distally placed spur as in some ornithomimosaurs. When Kinnareemimus is entered into a revised version of Senter's (2007) coelurosaur matrix, it clades with alvarezsaurids instead. Potential alvarezsaurid characters include the median ventral ridge on one caudal vertebra, slender, apparently mesopubic pubis, and slender pedal digit III. While parvicursorines are hyperarctometatarsal, one might expect a morphology like that of Kinnareemimus to be intermediate between them and Alvarezsaurus. However, the amphicoelous caudal centra are unlike alvarezsaurids, and the possibility remains open it is a non-ornithomimoid arctometatarsalian, or another kind of basal coelurosaur.
References- Buffetaut, Suteethorn, Martin, Tong, Chaimanee and Triamwichanon, 1995. New dinosaur discoveries in Thailand. In Wannakao, Srisuk, Youngme and Lertsirivorakul (eds). Proceedings of the International
Conference on Geology, Geotechnology and Mineral Resources of Indochina (GEOINDO 2005). Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen. 157-161.
Suteethorn, Chaimanee, Triamwichanon, Suksawat, Kamsupha, Kumchoo, Buffetaut, Martin and Tong, 1995. Thai dinosaurs; An updated review. [journal name in Thai] 2538, 129-133.
Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from Thailand and their bearing on the early evolution and biogeographical history of some groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs. in Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 14, 205-210.
Kaneko, 2000. Following dinosaur tracks in Thailand. Dino Press. 1, 92-105.
Sasidhorn and Suteethorn, 2000. New dinosaur localities in Chaiyaphum Province. [journal name in Thai] 2541, 61-65.
http://dml.cmnh.org/2000Sep/msg00228.html
Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 2009. An early 'ostrich dinosaur' (Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria) from the Early Cretaceous Sao Khua Formation of NE Thailand. in Buffetaut, Cuny, Le Loeuff and Suteethorn (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 315, 229-243.

Ornithomimoidea Marsh, 1890 sensu Zhao, 1983
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox + Shuvuuia deserti) (modified from Sereno, 1999)
Comments- Zhao (1983) named this as a new superfamily of toothless Late Cretaceous coelurosaurs which excluded podokesaurids and coelurids.
References- Zhao, 1983. Phylogeny and evolutionary stages of Dinosauria. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 28(1-2), 295-306.

Ornithomimosauria Barsbold, 1976
Definition- (Ornithomimus edmontonicus <- Alvarezsaurus calvoi) (Hu, Hou, Zhang and Xu, 2009)
Other definitions- (Ornithomimus velox <- Troodon formosus) (modified from Osmolska, 1997)
(Ornithomimus velox <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Pelecanimimus polyodon + Ornithomimus edmontonicus) (Makovicky et al., 2004; modified from Padian, Hutchinson and Holtz, 1999)
(Ornithomimus edmontonicus <- Tyrannosaurus rex, Shuvuuia deserti, Therizinosaurus cheloniformis, Oviraptor philoceratops, Troodon formosus, Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
= Deinocheirosauria Barsbold, 1976
= Ornithomimidae sensu Sereno, 1999
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Shuvuuia deserti)
= Ornithomimosauria sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Ornithomimus edmontonicus <- Tyrannosaurus rex, Shuvuuia deserti, Therizinosaurus cheloniformis, Oviraptor philoceratops, Troodon formosus, Passer domesticus)
Diagnosis- (after Senter, 2007) subnarial process of premaxilla extends posterior to naris; dentary teeth absent posteriorly; laterally inclined flange along dorsal edge of surangular for articulation with lateral process of lateral quadrate condyle; manual phalanx II-1 less than twice as long as phalanx III-1.
Comments- Sereno's (in press) definition revises his earlier (1998) one which only included Passer as an external specifier, and Osmolska's (1997) which only included Troodon. Hu et al.'s (2009) recent definition functions for the present phylogeny and if alvarezsaurids are found to be maniraptorans. The only other suggested definition is Makovicky et al.'s (2004), which is a node-based first level redefinition of Padian et al.'s (1999) using Pelecanimimus and Ornithomimus edmontonicus. Sereno has a good point that a taxon directly outside Pelecanimimus + Ornithomimus (such as Deinocheirus in Makovicky et al. 2004) should be an ornithomimosaur, but wouldn't be using the node-based definition. Furthermore, Pelecanimimus is sometimes closer to alvarezsaurids in my analysis, which would force alvarezsaurids inside Ornithomimosauria. Hu et al.'s and Sereno's definitions are both problematic due to the use of Ornithomimus edmontonicus instead of O. velox. See the comments under Maniraptoriformes for details.
References- Cuff and Rayfield, 2012. Functional mechanics of ornithomimosaur crania compared to other theropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 82.
Cuff, 2013. Functional mechanics of ornithomimosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 110.

Hexing qingyi Jin, Chen and Godefroit, 2012
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Lujiatun Beds of Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China

Holotype- (JLUM-JZ07b1) (adult) skull (136 mm), mandible (115 mm), five cervical vertebrae (one partial), scapulocoracoids (scapula ~104 mm), humerus (~90 mm), radius (~76 mm), ulna (81 mm), phalanx I-1 (33 mm), manual ungual I (22 mm), metacarpal II, phalanx II-1 (25 mm), phalanx II-2 (26 mm), manual ungual II (23 mm), metacarpal III, phalanx III-1 (23 mm), phalanx III-2 (24 mm), manual ungual III (18 mm), femur (135 mm), tibiofibulotarsus, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1 (23 mm), pedal ungual I (21 mm), metatarsal II (86 mm), phalanx II-1 (22 mm), phalanx II-2 (18 mm), pedal ungual II (20 mm), metatarsal III (84 mm), phalanx III-1 (18 mm), phalanx III-2 (16 mm), phalanx III-3 (15 mm), pedal ungual III (16 mm), metatarsal IV (~79 mm), phalanx IV-1 (13.5 mm), phalanx IV-2 (13 mm), phalanx IV-3 (12 mm), phalanx IV-4 (12 mm), pedal ungual IV (16 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Jin et al., 2012) anterior portion of premaxilla deflected ventrally in front of mandible, so that its oral surface is level with the ventral border of dentary; sagittal crest on parietal; pendant paroccipital processes that extend ventrally below the level of the foramen magnum; fenestra on lateral surface of mid dentary (taphonomic?); only three phalanges on manual digit III (incorrectly listed as IV by Jin et al.); tibiotarsus/femur length ratio >137%.
Other diagnoses- Contra Jin et al., the antorbital fossa does not invade the entire lateral maxillary surface, and its depth is unknown as the medial wall is eroded away. The low ratio between manual phalanx II-2 and II-1 lengths may be plesiomorphic, shared with e.g. Nqwebasaurus and the Tugrik parvicursorine. The elongate manual phalanx III-1 may be due to the fusion of III-1 and III-2 or the loss of the ancestral III-1.
Comments- This specimen also includes parts which were added prior to its scientific acquisition. Jin et al. found it to be in a polytomy with Shenzhousaurus and more derived ornithomimosaurs in their analysis. It is placed more basally here based on the distributrion of ornithomimosaur characters found in an unpublished analysis based on Senter's (2007) matrix.
Reference- Jin, Chen and Godefroit, 2012. A new basal ornithomimosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation, Northwest China. in Godefroit (ed.). Bernissart Dinosaurs and Early Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. Indiana University Press. 464 pp.

Ornithomimosauria incertae sedis

"Sanchusaurus" Hisa, 1985
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Lower Member of the Sebayashi Formation, Japan
Material
- (GMNH-PV-028; Sanchu-ryu) (~7 m) first or second sacral centrum (110 mm)
Comments- This specimen was discovered in 1981 and 1982, and reported as a caudal centrum nearly identical to Gallimimus by Hasegawa et al. (1984). They nicknamed the specimen Sanchu-ryu, which was inappropriately made into the nomen nudum "Sanchusaurus" by Hisa (1985) in an illustrated Japanese booklet. Hasegawa et al. (1999) later described the centrum in detail as a thirteenth dorsal vertebra, based on comparison to Gallimimus. Yet the thirteenth dorsal vertebra as identified by Osmolska et al. (1987) is recognized as the first sacral vertebra by most modern workers, making "Sanchusaurus"' vertebra a sacral instead. The lateral fossae indicate this is an ornithomimosaur, as only they and Avimimus are known to have the feature among non-avian theropods. Avimimus differs in having either convex or concave ventral surfaces on its anterior sacrals (Makovicky, 1995). Though stated by Hasegawa et al. (1984, 1999) as being nearly identical to Gallimimus' first sacral, several differences are apparent. The anterior width is ~107% of its height, compared with ~80% in Gallimimus. "Sanchusaurus"' centrum is deeply amphicoelous, while Gallimimus' is slightly amphiplatyan. Finally, the centrum of "Sanchusaurus" seems more markedly constricted ventrally than Gallimimus'. According to Makovicky's (1995) description of Ornithomimus, it resembles a second sacral centrum more in having a lateral fossa, wider dimensions and ventral flattening. Shenzhousaurus' first sacral centrum (homologous to the second in Gallimimus and Ornithomimus) has a highly constricted ventral edge as in "Sanchusaurus". It is not a posterior sacral, as it lacks a ventral sulcus. Thus "Sanchusaurus" seems to be represented by a centrum homologous to the ancestral neotheropod first sacral centrum and the ornithomimid second sacral centrum. It is indeterminate within Ornithomimosauria.
References- Osmolska, Roniewicz and Barsbold, 1972. A new dinosaur Gallimimus bullatus, n. gen. n. sp. (Ornithomimidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Palaeontologica. Polonica. 27, 103-143.
Hasegawa, Kase and Nakajima, 1984. A large vertebrate fossil from the Sanchu Graben. Abstracts of the 91st Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of Japan. 219. [In Japanese]
Hisa, 1985.
Makovicky, 1995. Phylogenetic aspects of the vertebral morphology of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). M.S. thesis, Univ. Copenhagen, 311pp.
Hasegawa, Manabe, Kase, Nakajima and Takakuwa, 1999. An ornithomimid vertebra from the Early Cretaceous Sebayashi Formation, Sanchu Terrane, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History. 3, 1-6.

undescribed possible ornithomimosaurs (Britt, Eberth, Scheetz and Greenhalgh, 2004)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Material- three individuals (Britt et al., 2004)
(BYU coll.) postorbital, cervical vertebra (Turner et al., 2012)
Comments- This was listed as Ornithomimosauria indet. by Britt et al. (2004). Turner et al. (2012) noted a postorbital tentatively referred to Ornithomimidae, and a cervical claimed to be ornithomimid-like due to its elongation and strongly opisthocoelous centrum. As ornithomimosaurs have amphicoelous to amphiplatyan cervicals, this latter claim is confusing. Turner et al. also propose the possible Utahraptor ischium BYU 10978 may be ornithomimid based on the proximally placed obturator process, lack of a lateral ridge, rodlike shaft and semicircular proximolateral scar.
References- Britt, Eberth, Scheetz and Greenhalgh, 2004. Taphonomy of the Dalton Wells Dinosaur Quarry (Cedar Mountain Formation, Lower Cretaceous, Utah). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(3), 41A.
Turner, Makovicky and Norell, 2012. A review of dromaeosaurid systematics and paravian phylogeny. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 371, 1-206.

undescribed possible ornithomimosaur (Lipka, pers. comm. 2000)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Arundel Formation, Maryland, US
Material
- (large) fragmentary humeri, calcanea, incomplete pedes
Comments- Lipka informs me there are diagnostic ornithomimosaur remains preserved in the Arundel Formation (regardless of "Ornithomimus affinis"), with Holtz suggesting ornithomimid and/or basal tyrannosauroid affinities. It has yet to be published on.

undescribed possible ornithomimosaur (Kirkland, Lucas and Estep, 1998)
Late Albian, Early Cretaceous
Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Material- partial skeleton
Comments- Kirkland et al. (1998) listed Ornithomimidae? new genus and species under the Upper Cedar Mountain Formation. Kirkland (2005) noted the partial skeleton of "what may be a toothless ornithomimid" had been discovered. If this in fact an ornithomimosaur, the age suggests it may be more basal than Ornithomimidae.
References- Kirkland, Lucas and Estep, 1998. Cretaceous dinosaurs of the Colorado Plateau. in Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 14, 79-89.
Kirkland, 2005. Utah’s Newly Recognized Dinosaur Record. Utah Geological Survey: Survey Notes. 37(1), 1-5.

undescribed possible ornithomimosaur (Pereda-Suberbiola, Asibia, Murelaga, Elzorza and Gomez-Alday, 2000)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Vitoria Formation, Spain
Comment
s- Pereda-Suberbiola et al. (2000) listed Ornithomimosauria indet. as present in the Lano Quarry, which would be unique for Late Cretaceous Europe, but the material has not been described.
Reference- Pereda-Suberbiola, Asibia, Murelaga, Elzorza and Gomez-Alday, 2000. Taphonomy of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur-bearing beds of the Lano Quarry (Iberian Peninsula). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 157, 247-275.

unnamed ornithomimosaurian (Nessov, 1995)
Late Barremian-Mid Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Mogoito Member of Murtoi Formation, Russia

Material- (ZIN PH 1/13) (subadult?) femur
Comments- This femur was mentioned by Nessov (1995) as ornithomimosaurian or oviraptorosaurian, and described and illustrated by Averianov et al. (2003). It differs from Archaeornithomimus asiaticus in having a curved shaft, more inclined femoral head, and more distinct accessory trochanter. It differs from Archaeornithomimus? bissektensis in having a more proximally placed fourth trochanter and an accessory trochanter.
References- Nessov, 1995. Dinosaurs of nothern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology, and paleobiogeography. Institute for Scientific Research on the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 1-156.
Averianov, Starkov and Skutschas, 2003. Dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Murtoi Formation in Buryatia, Eastern Russia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23(3):586–594.

undescribed Ornithomimosauria (Maleev, 1954)
Early Cretaceous
Oosh Formation, Mongolia

Reference- Maleev, 1954. Pantsyrnye dinosavry verchnego mela Mongolii (Semeustvo Syrmosauridae) [The Upper Cretaceous armored dinosaurs of Mongolia (family Syrmosauridae)]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademiy Nauk SSSR. 48, 142-170.

unnamed possible ornithomimosaur (Benson, Rich, Vickers-Rich and Hall, 2012)
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Wonthoggi Formation of the Strzelecki Group, Victoria, Australia

Material- (NMV P186168) incomplete ?ninth caudal vertebra (50 mm)
Comments- Reports of ornithomimosaur vertebrae from Early Cretaceous Victoria began with Rich and Vickers-Rich (1994) mentioning "a number of vertebrae" in their description of Timimus as a member of that clade. Currie et al. (1996) also mention ornithomimosaur vertebrae from the Otway and Strzelecki Groups. While at least sixteen vertebrae are known from these groups, only one was considered by Benson et al. (2012) to be similar to ornithomimosaurs- NMV P186168, a proximal caudal. The elongate centrum, proplatyan articular ends and anteroposteriorly elongate transverse process were considered ornithomimosaur-like. Which additional vertebrae earlier authors had in mind as ornithomimosaurian is unknown.
References- Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1994. Neoceratopsians and ornithomimosaurs: Dinosaurs of Gondwana origins? National Geographic Research. 10(1), 129-131.
Currie, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 1996. Possible oviraptorosaur (Theropoda, Dinosauria) specimens from the Early Cretaceous Otway Group of Dinosaur Cove, Australia. Alcheringa. 20(1-2), 73-79.
Benson, Rich, Vickers-Rich and Hall, 2012. Theropod fauna from Southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality. PLoS ONE. 7(5), e37122.

unnamed clade
Diagnosis- metacarpal I >75% as long as metacarpal II (unknown in Hexing); distal end of metacarpal I laterally rotated (unknown in Hexing); manual phalanx I-1 longer than metacarpal II (unknown in Hexing); metacarpal II <33% of humeral length.

Deinocheiridae Osmolska and Roniewicz, 1970
Deinocheirus Osmolska and Roniewicz, 1970
D. mirificus Osmolska and Roniewicz, 1970
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia

Holotype- (ZPAL MgD-I/6) (10-13 m, 2.4-4.3 tons) two ceratobranchials, three vertebral fragments, seven partial dorsal ribs, gastralia fragments, nearly complete scapulocoracoids (1.53 m), humeri (938 mm), radii (630 mm), ulnae (688 mm), metacarpal I (214, 220 mm), phalanx I-1 (320 mm), manual ungual I, metacarpal II (230 mm), phalanx II-1 (140 mm), phalanx II-2 (226, 229 mm), manual ungual II (196 mm), metacarpal III (246, 245 mm), phalanx III-1 (110, 105 mm), phalanx III-2 (104, 100 mm), phalanx III-3 (186, 182 mm), manual ungual III, additional material
Referred- (IGM 100/127) cervical vertebrae, anterior dorsal vertebrae, posterior dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, proximal and mid caudal vertebrae, few distal caudal vertebrae, pectoral girdles, humerus (993 mm), radius, ulna, pelves, femora, tibiae, fibulae, proximal tarsals, >1100 gastroliths (Lee et al., 2013)
(IGM 100/128) (72% of IGM 100/127; subadult) dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, ilia, ischia, hindlimbs (Lee et al., 2013)
?(ZPAL MgD-I/64) (ZPAL online)
Diagnosis- (after Lee et al., 2013) extreme pneumaticity of tall, anterodorsally oriented distal dorsal neural spines (7-8 times taller than centrum height) with basal webbing; ventrally keeled sacral centra; fused sacral neural spines forming midline plate of bone that extends dorsally up to 170% height of ilium; steeply raised anterior dorsal margin of ilium; well-developed iliotibialis flange; posterodorsally projecting postacetabular process with concave dorsal margin; anteriorly inclined brevis shelf; vertically well-separated iliac blades above sacrum; completely enclosed obturator foramen on pubis; triangular pubic boot in distal view; vertical ridges on anterior and posterior edges of medial surface of the femoral head; robust femur that is longer than tibiotarsus.
Comments- On an earlier version of ZPAL's website, MgD-I/64 was listed as Deinocheirus sp.. Now it is listed as Theropoda indet.. Ryan (online 2008) notes he and Currie relocated the holotype quarry and collected more of the skeleton, though this remains undescribed. Kielan-Jaworowska (1966) originally identified the holotype as Megalosauridae indet. before it was named and described.
Despite seeming reluctance to place this taxon in Ornithomimosauria, it emerges as the basalmost member of the clade when placed in a modified version of Senter's (2007) matrix with characters and codings added from Kobayashi (2004). This is similar to what Makovicky et al. (2004) suggested without including it in their analysis, and agrees with the position Kobayashi and Barsbold (2006) found adding to the TWG analysis and Lee et al. (2013) found using new more complete specimens.
References- Kielan-Jaworowska. 1966. Third (1965) Polish-Mongolian Palaeontological Expedition to the Gobi Desert and western Mongolia. Bulletin de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences, Cl. II 14(4):249-252
Osmolska and Roniewicz, 1970. Deinocheiridae, a new family of theropod dinosaurs. Palaeontol. Polonica. 21: 5-19.
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/collect.htm
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Makovicky, Kobayashi and Currie, 2004. Ornithomimosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.Makovicky, Kobayashi and Currie, 2004. Ornithomimosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2006. Ornithomimids from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 22(1), 195-207.
Senter, 2007. A new look at the phylogeny of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 5(4), 429-463.
http://palaeoblog.blogspot.com/2008/11/gobi-2008-deinocheirus.html
Lee, Barsbold, Currie, Kobayashi and Lee, 2013. New specimens of Deinocheirus mirificus from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 161.

Ornithomimosauria sensu Makovicky et al., 2004
Definition- (Pelecanimimus polyodon + Ornithomimus edmontonicus) (Makovicky et al., 2004; modified from Padian et al., 1999)
Diagnosis- (after Senter, 2007) maxillary fenestra at anterior edge of antorbital fossa (unknown in Hexing and Deinocheirus); maxillary fenestra a small, anteroposteriorly elongate slit (unknown in Hexing and Deinocheirus); quadrate strongly inclined anteroventrally (unknown in Deinocheirus); inflated cultriform process of parasphenoid (unknown in Hexing and Deinocheirus); elongate posteroventral coracoid process; deltopectoral crest very low; manual phalanx II-2 over twice length of phalanx II-1; manual phalanx III-3 >8% longer than combined lengths of phalanges III-1 and III-2; manual unguals weakly curved or straight; flexor tubercles of manual unguals distally placed.
(after Kobayashi, 2004) promaxillary fenestra dorsal to maxillary fenestra (unknown in Hexing and Deinocheirus); neck over twice skull length (unknown in Deinocheirus); anterior dorsals lack hypapophyses (unknown in Hexing and Deinocheirus); trochlea absent on distal carpals (unknown in Hexing and Deinocheirus); dorsal and ventral portions of manual unguals subequal in width.
(suggested) manual ungual III shorter than phalanx III-3.

Pelecanimimus Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Buscalioni, Moratalla, Ortega and Rasskin-Gutman, 1994
P. polyodon Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Buscalioni, Moratalla, Ortega and Rasskin-Gutman, 1994
Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Calizas de La Huerguina Formation, Spain
Holotype
- (LH 7777) (~2-2.5 m) skull (~190 mm), mandibles (one partial), hyoid, ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, incomplete dorsal series, dorsal ribs, scapula, coracoids, sternal plates, humeri, radii, ulnae, radiale, intermedium, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, metacarpal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, skin impressions, muscle fibers
Diagnosis- (modified from Perez-Moreno et al., 1994) seven premaxillary teeth; about thirty maxillary teeth; about seventy-five dentary teeth.
Other Diagnoses- Perez-Moreno et al. (1994) also listed several other features in their diagnosis. The low snout is shared with alvarezsaurids and Shenzhousaurus. Maxillary teeth larger than dentary teeth are common in theropods. Unserrated teeth are present in other arctometatarsalians, and teeth with constricted roots are primitive for maniraptoriforms. The absence of interdental plates is also primitive for maniraptoriforms. The anteriorly limited maxillary teeth are also present in alvarezsaurids. The dentary is similarly straight in Shenzhousaurus. The tightly adhered radius and ulna are seen in most ornithomimosaurs. The intermetacarpal ratios are not unique, with Sinornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus having similar I/II ratios and Sinornithomimus, Struthiomimus and Ornithomimus having identical III/II ratios.
Comments- Though described in a preliminary report by Perez-Moreno et al. (1994), the detailed description in Perez-Moreno's thesis has yet to be published.
Perez-Moreno et al. (1994) originally reported "integumentary structures" consisting of "subparallel fibers arranged perpendicular to the bone surface, and a less conspicuous secondary syastem parallel to it." While a connection between these and feathers was initially popular, Briggs et al. (1997) determined they were muscles fibers. In addition, the preserved skin is scaleless and wrinkled. They confirmed the presence of a soft cranial crest and throat pouch.
Taquet and Russell (1998) believe Pelecanimimus could be a spinosaurid based on- seven premaxillary teeth; a median longitudinal crest in the temporal region (soft in Pelecanimimus and misinterpreted in Irritator); a jugal that does not contact the antorbital fenestra (untrue in Pelecanimimus); maxillary teeth larger than dentary teeth (true of most theropods); large number of dentary teeth (also present in Shuvuuia); absence of interdental plates (also in most maniraptoriforms); narrow and shallow skull with an elongated facial region (also in other arctometatarsalians). The large number of premaxillary teeth is best seen as a convergence, given the otherwise ornithomimosaurian skeleton.
References- Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Buscalioni, Moratalla, Ortega and Rasskin-Gutman, 1994. A unique multitoothed ornithomimosaur dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Nature. 370, 363-367.
Perez-Moreno and Sanz, 1995. The hand of Pelecanimimus polyodon, a preliminary report. II International Symposium on Lithographic Limestones. Lleida-Cuenca (Spain). Extended Abstracts. 115-117.
Briggs, Wilby, Perez-Moreno, Sanz and Fregenal-Matrinez, 1997. The mineralization of dinosaur soft tissue in the Lower Cretaceous of Las Hoyas, Spain. Journal of the Geological Society, London. 154, 587-588.
Taquet and Russell 1998. New data on spinosaurid dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Sahara. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes. 327, 347-353.
Perez-Moreno, 2004. Pelecanimimus polyodon: anatomía, sistemática y paleobiología de un Ornithomimosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda) de Las Hoyas (Cretácico Inferior; Cuenca, España). PhD Thesis. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. 149 pp.

unnamed clade (Harpymimus okladnikovi + Ornithomimus velox)
Diagnosis- (after Senter, 2007) premaxilla toothless; maxilla toothless; frontals narrow anteriorly as a wedge between nasals (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); supratemporal fenestra extended as a fossa on to the dorsal surface of the squamosal (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); kink and downward deflection in dentary buccal margin at rostral end of dentary; less than 11 dentary teeth; anterior cervical centra extend beyond posterior limit of neural arch; cervical ribs fused to vertebrae; zygapophyses of dorsal vertebrae abutting one another above neural canal, opposite hyposphenes meet to form lamina (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); flange on supraglenoid buttress on scapula (unknown in Pelecanimimus); extension of glenoid floor onto external surface of scapula (unknown in Pelecanimimus); manual phalanx I-1 bowed dorsally; pubic apron extends medially from anterior edge of anteroposteriorly flattened shaft (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); pubic boot projects anteriorly and posteriorly; in anterior view (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); metatarsal III pinched proximally (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs).
(after Kobayashi, 2004) prominence on lateral surface of lacrimal absent; posterior cervical neural arch forms X-shape in dorsal view; medial condyle of metacarpal I positioned dorsal to lateral condyle (unknown in Pelecanimimus).
Comments- While Senter's (2007) original matrix placed Harpymimus basal to Deinocheirus, Pelecanimimus and Shenzhousaurus, adding more taxa and characters leads to a more traditional placement.

Harpymimidae Barsbold and Perle, 1984
Diagnosis- antorbital fossa <145% of orbit+jugal height; quadrate head covered by squamosal in lateral view; teeth with unconstricted roots; teeth conical; metacarpal III longer than II.
Comments- This pairing has never been found in a published analysis and is based on some questionable characters. A long antorbital fossa is also present in Pelecanimimus, while Deinocheirus shares the long metacarpal III, and Harpymimus' teeth have been lost since it was originally described. Yet placing either taxon closer to ornithomimines is based on even worse character data, as both Ji et al. (2003) and Makovicky et al. (2004) have suggested Shenzhousaurus' straight ischium is more primitive than Harpymimus, but the latter taxon only preserves the ilial peduncle.

Harpymimus Barsbold and Perle, 1984
H. okladnikovi Barsbold and Perle, 1984
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Shinekhudag Formation, Mongolia

Holotype- (IGM 100/29) (~4 m; adult) incomplete skull (262 mm), eleven sclerotic plates, mandibles (242.6 mm), partial axis, third cervical vertebra (65 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (79 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (90 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (97 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (94 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (94 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (84 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (75 mm), at least seven cervical ribs, first dorsal vertebra (54 mm), second dorsal vertebra (48 mm), third dorsal vertebra (50 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (55 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (56 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (59 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (61 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (59 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (65 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (64 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (65 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (67 mm), eleven proximal dorsal ribs, first sacral vertebra (71 mm), second sacral vertebra (70 mm), third sacral vertebra (64 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (57 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (57 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (68 mm), first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra (56.5 mm), third caudal vertebra, fourth caudal vertebra (59.9 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (60.8 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (60.5 mm), seventh caudal vertebra, eighth caudal vertebra (60.6 mm), ninth caudal vertebra, tenth caudal vertebra (59.9 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (59.9 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (59.6 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (59.6 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (58.9 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (61.6 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (62.8 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (61.7 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (60.9 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (60.2 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (59.5 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (60.4 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (56.8 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (57.6 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (57.3 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (54.9 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (48.4 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra (45.6 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (48.1 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (47.7 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (46.9 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (42.7 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (40.2 mm), thirty-third caudal vertebra (34.3 mm), thirty-fourth caudal vertebra (31.8 mm), fifth to sixteenth chevrons, eighteenth chevron, twentieth to thirty-first chevrons, incomplete scapula (303 mm), partial scapula, partial coracoid, humeri (294 mm), radii (217 mm), ulnae (242 mm), radiale, intermedium, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I (48 mm), phalanx I-1 (120 mm), manual ungual I (74 mm), metacarpal II (94 mm), phalanx II-1 (49 mm), phalanx II-2 (104 mm), manual ungual II (80 mm), metacarpal III (103 mm), phalanx III-1 (31 mm), phalanx III-2 (37 mm), phalanx III-3 (81 mm), manual ungual III (77 mm), incomplete ilia (385 mm), incomplete pubes, ischial fragment, proximal femora, distal tibiae, fibular fragments, astragalus, calcaneum, distal tarsal III, incomplete distal tarsal IV, metatarsal II (292 mm), phalanx II-1 (72 mm), phalanx II-2 (51 mm), metatarsal III (310 mm), phalanx III-1 (67 mm), phalanx III-2 (54 mm), pedal ungual III, incomplete metatarsal IV (~304 mm), phalanx IV-1 (42 mm), phalanx IV-2 (34 mm), phalanx IV-3 (33 mm)
Diagnosis - (after Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2005) eleven dentary teeth; transition between anterior and posterior caudal vertebrae at eighteenth caudal; triangular-shaped depression on dorsal surface of supraglenoid buttress of scapula; low ridge dorsal to depression along posterior edge of scapular blade; small but deep collateral ligament fossa on lateral condyle of metacarpal III.
Comments- Harpymimus was originally briefly described by Barsbold and Perle (1984), with additional elements illustrated by Barsbold and Osmolska (1990). It was described in depth by Kobayashi (2004), which was published as Kobayashi and Barsbold (2005). Though Barsbold and Perle and Currie et al. (1990) describe the tooth morphology, they were apparently lost by the time Kobayashi reexamined the specimen. Holtz (1992; pers. comm. from Norell) first suggested the metatarsus may actually be arctometatarsalian and was disarticulated in the holotype. However, Kobayashi (2004) verifies no disarcticulation or distortion is present and the metatarsus really is non-arctometatarsalian.
References- Barsbold and Perle, 1984. On first new find of a primitive ornithomimosaur from the Cretaceous of the MPR. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal. 121-123.
Currie, Rigby and Sloan, 1990. Theropod teeth from the Judith River Formation of southern Alberta, Canada. in Carpenter and Currie (eds.). Dinosaur Systematics: Perspectives and Approaches. Cambridge University Press, New York. pp. 107-125.
Barsbold and Osmólska, 1990. Ornithomimosauria. in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmólska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley. 225-244.
Holtz, 1992. An unusual structure of the metatarsus of Theropoda (Archosauria: Dinosauria: Saurischia) of the Cretaceous. PhD Thesis, Yale University. 347 pp.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2005. Anatomy of Harpymimus okladnikovi Barsbold and Perle 1984 (Dinosauria; Theropoda) of Mongolia. in Carpenter (ed). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. 97-126.

Shenzhousaurus Ji, Norell, Makovicky, Gao, Ji and Yuan, 2003
S. orientalis Ji, Norell, Makovicky, Gao, Ji and Yuan, 2003
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Lujiatun Beds of Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China
Holotype
- (NGMC 97-4-002) incomplete skull (185 mm), mandible (154 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra (26 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (27 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (29 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (29 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (31 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (30 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (31 mm), ten partial dorsal ribs, eight gastralia, (sacrum 140 mm) first sacral vertebra, second sacral vertebra, third sacral vertebra, fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral vertebra, first caudal vertebra (20 mm), second caudal vertebra (19 mm), third caudal vertebra (19 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (22 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (21 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (21 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (21 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (22 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (23 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (24 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (24 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (26 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (25 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (28 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra, fourteen chevrons (20-48 mm), distal phalanx I-1 impression, incomplete manual ungual I, partial metacarpal II (~45 mm), phalanx II-1 (29 mm), phalanx II-2 (60 mm), manual ungual II (45 mm), metacarpal III (50 mm), phalanx III-1 (19 mm), phalanx III-2 (18 mm), phalanx III-3, manual unguals III (37 mm), ilium (153 mm), pubes (169 mm), ischium (153 mm), femora (191 mm), gastroliths
Diagnosis- (modified from Ji et al., 2003) differs from Harpymimus and more derived ornithomimosaurs in having a postacetabular process that is gently curved rather than truncated; and from ornithomimids in having a plesiomorphically straight ischium; differs from Pelecanimimus in having less teeth (toothless premaxilla and maxilla, ~9 dentary teeth).
Comments- This taxon was first mentioned as "unnamed toothed ornithomimid" in Makovicky et al.'s (2003) cladogram, seven months before the full description was published. While used as an OTU in their analysis, the matrix was never made public, so further information wasn't known until Ji et al.'s paper was published. Oddly, the matrix of Ji et al. (2003) was never released either.
References- Ji, Norell, Makovicky, Gao, Ji and Yuan, 2003. An early ostrich dinosaur and implications for ornithomimosaur phylogeny. American Museum Novitates. 3420, 19 pp.
Makovicky, Norell, Clark and Rowe, 2003. Osteology and relationships of Byronosaurus jaffei (Theropoda: Troodontidae). American Museum Novitates. 3402, 1-32.

Ornithomiminae Marsh, 1890 sensu Nopcsa, 1923
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Pelecanimimus polyodon, Harpymimus okladnikovi) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
Diagnosis- ventrodistal end of ischium curved anteriorly.

Beishanlong Makovicky, Li, Gao, Lewin, Erickson and Norell, 2010
= "Beishanlong" Makovicky, Li, Gao, Lewin, Erickson and Norell, 2009 online
B. grandis Makovicky, Li, Gao, Lewin, Erickson and Norell, 2010
= "Beishanlong grandis" Makovicky, Li, Gao, Lewin, Erickson and Norell, 2009 online
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
White Ghost Castle field area, Gansu, China

Holotype- (FRDC-GS GJ (06) 01-18) (subadult; 626 kg) partial fourth cervical neural arch, two dorsal neural arch fragments, three partial dorsal ribs, two proximal caudal neural spines, three mid caudal vertebrae, five distal caudal vertebrae, four mid chevrons, scapulae (622 mm), coracoids (245, 243 mm), humerus (465 mm), radius (338 mm), ulna (382 mm), phalanx I-1 (204 mm), manual ungual I (160 mm on curve), metacarpal III (169 mm), phalanx III-3 (125 mm), manual ungual III (155 mm on curve), incomplete ischium, femur (660 mm), tibiae (660 mm), fibula (622 mm), incomplete astragalus (125 mm across), calcaneum, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (366 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (403 mm), metatarsal IV (356 mm), phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, pedal ungual IV
Paratype- (FRDC-GS GJ coll.) hindlimb elements
Referred- ?(FRDC-GS JB(07)01-01) pubes (Makovicky, Li, Gao, Lewin, Erickson and Norell, 2010)
?(IVPP V12756) partial astragalus (126.85 mm across), calcaneum (21.94 mm across), metatarsal II (435 mm), phalanx II-1 (100.23 mm), phalanx II-2 (60.4 mm), pedal ungual II (53.83 mm), incomplete metatarsal III, phalanges III-1 (one distal; 94.77 mm), phalanges III-2 (one distal; ~84 mm), proximal phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-3 (36.04 mm), phalanx IV-4 (27.53 mm), pedal unguals IV (one partial; 45.54 mm) (Shapiro, You, Shubin, Luo and Downs, 2003)
Diagnosis- (after Makovicky et al., 2010) large size (also in Deinocheirus, Gallimimus and Ornithomimus? sedens); notched anterior caudal neural spine; mid caudal centra with ventral keel; at least one mid caudal vertebra with accessory neural spine; mid caudal vertebrae with prominent ridges connecting pre- and postzygapophyses; scapula with pronounced fossa at anterior end of supraglenoid buttress; coracoid with prominent lateral ridge emanating from coracoid tuber (also in Archaeornithomimus); curved manual ungual I, but straighter unguals on digits II and III (also in Harpymimus and Archaeornithomimus).
Other diagnoses- Makovicky et al. (2010) noted additional characters in their diagnosis with wider distributions. The shallow coracoid with a deep notch between the glenoid and postglenoid processes, the subarctometatarsal pes and the curved pedal unguals are symplesiomorphic for ornithomimosaurs. The curved ischial shaft is shared with ornithomimids.
Comments- Makovicky et al.'s paper was first released electronically in April 2009 but not officially published until January 2010.
IVPP V12756 was discovered in 1999 and described by Shapiro et al. (2003) as an unnamed basal ornithomimosaur. Makovicky et al. (2010) described a partial skeleton discovered in 2006 as the new taxon Beishanlong grandis. They thought IVPP V12756 and a pair of pubes found near the holotype in 2007 might be referrable as well, in addition to an undescribed specimen represented by hindlimb elements. Makovicky et al. found Beishanlong is more derived than Shenzhousaurus, but less than Garudimimus in their analysis. It has yet to be included in my ornithomimosaur analysis, so its position may change as this site is updated.
References- Shapiro, You, Shubin, Luo and Downs, 2003. A large ornithomimid pes from the Lower Cretaceous of the Mazongshan area, northern Gansu Province, People’s Republic of China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.
23(3), 695-698.
Makovicky, Li, Gao, Lewin, Erickson and Norell, 2010. A giant ornithomimosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277, 191-198.

unnamed clade (Garudimimus brevipes + Ornithomimus velox)
Diagnosis- (after Senter, 2007) premaxillary symphysis rounded, U-shaped (unknown in Beishanlong); antorbital fossa with distinct rim composed of a thin wall of bone (unknown in Beishanlong); basipterygoid processes lateroventrally projecting (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); basipterygoid processes hollow (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); symphyseal region of dentary medially recurved slightly (unknown in Beishanlong); dentary toothless (unknown in Beishanlong); retroarticular process curves dorsally (unknown in Beishanlong); pedal phalanx II-2 <60% the length of phalanx II-1.
(after Kobayashi, 2004) anterior surangular foramen absent (unknown in Beishanlong); distal articular width of calcaneum <20% of maximum transverse width of astragalus.

unnamed ornithomimosaur (Riabinin, 1939)
Late Cretaceous
Dovletsai, Tashkent Chul, Kazakhstan
References
- Riabinin, 1939. The Upper Cretaceous vertebrate fauna from the Upper Cretaceous of south Kazakhstan. I. Reptilia. Pt 1. Ornithischia. Nauchnissledoviia Geol. Inst. Trudy. 118, 1-40. [In Russian]
Nessov, 1995. Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology and paleobiogeography. Scientific Research Institute of the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia: 156 pp. + 14 pl. [in Russian with short English, German, and French abstracts].

undescribed ornithomimosaur (Efremov, 1944)
Late Cretaceous
Karaoi, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Reference
- Efremov, 1944. [Dinosaur horizon of Middle Asia and some questions of stratigraphy]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya. 3, 40-58.

undescribed ornithomimosaur (Efremov, 1944)
Late Cretaceous
Kshi-Kalkan, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Reference
- Efremov, 1944. [Dinosaur horizon of Middle Asia and some questions of stratigraphy]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya. 3, 40-58.

undescribed ornithomimosaur (Zhao, 1983)
Late Cretaceous
Zonggo Formation, Xizang Zizhiqu, China

Comments- This specimen was first reported by Zhao (1983) who while discussing the evolution of dinosaurs in China noted "ornithomimids (Ornithomimus Marsh) " in the Late Cretaceous. It might be surmised Zhao was referring to an undescribed Chinese specimen of Ornithomimus, which is strengthened by the later mention of an Ornithomimus species from the same deposits as other Late Cretaceous taxa Zhao mentions ("Megacervixosaurus"). As with other new Tibetan taxa listed by Zhao (1983), it was probably supposed to be described by Zhao in the published version of his doctoral dissertation "The Mesozoic vertebrate remains of Xizang (Tibet), China", in the second Palaeontology of Xizang volume. Yet this volume is only referenced by Zhao (1983; which was submitted in September 1981) and seems never to have been printed, though the previous volume was published by the IVPP in 1980 and the third by the NIGP in 1981. Olshevsky (DML, 1999) notes the IVPP rejected the paper as unpublishable. Zhang and Li (1997) list Ornithomimus sp. from the Zonggu Formation of Zonggu, Markam County, Xizang. Weishampel et al. (2004) list it as Ornithomimus sp. from the Zonggo Formation of Xizang Zizhiqu and refer it to Ornithomimosauria. Whether it is actually Ornithomimus is unknown, though this is doubtful given its presence in Asia
References- Zhao, "1983" [unpublished]. The Mesozoic vertebrate remains of Xizang (Tibet), China. The Series of the Scientific Expeditions to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Palaeontology of Xizang. 2, 1-200.
Zhao, 1983. Phylogeny and evolutionary stages of Dinosauria. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 28(1-2), 295-306.
Zhang and Li, 1997. Mesozoic Dinosaur Localities in China and Their Stratigraphy. In Wolberg, Sump and Rosenberg (eds.). Dinofest International, Proceedings of a Symposium sponsered by Arizona State University. A Publication of The Academy of Natural Sciences. 265-273.
Olshevsky, DML 1999. http://dml.cmnh.org/1999Nov/msg00507.html
Weishampel, Barrett, Coria, Le Loeuff, Xu, Zhao, Sahni, Gomani and Noto, 2004. Dinosaur Distribution. in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska, 2004. The Dinosauria: Second Edition.

unnamed ornithomimosaur (Averianov, 2006)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Khodzhakul Formation?, Uzbekistan
Material- (ZIN PH 864/16) coracoid
(ZIN PH 904/16) coracoid
Comments- These are more similar to the Tokubai ornithomimosaur than the Bissekty taxon (?= Archaeornithomimus? bissektensis) in having a vertical crest distal to the glenoid. They may belong to the same taxon as the Tokubai specimen.
Reference- Averianov, 2006. On an ornithomimid dinosaur (Saurischia, Ornithomimosauria) from the Cenomanian of Fergana. Paleontological Journal. 40(3), 323-327.

unnamed ornithomimosaur (Averianov, 2006)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Tokubai Formation, Kyrgyzstan

Material- (ZIN PH 1/28) partial coracoid
Diagnosis- (after Averianov, 2006) differs from Gallimimus and Anserimimus in possessing a massive horizontal crest connected to the biceps tubercle (also in Archaeornithomimus and Sinornithomimus); differs from Harpymimus, Archaeornithomimus, Sinornithomimus, Struthiomimus and Dromiceiomimus in having the infraglenoid buttress laterally turned relative to the axis of the posterior process (also in Gallimimus and Anserimimus); differs from Gallimimus in having a well developed posterior process.
Comments- This is more similar to ornithomimosaur coracoids ZIN PH 864/16 and 904/16 than the to Bissekty taxon (?= Archaeornithomimus? bissektensis) in having a vertical crest distal to the glenoid. It may belong to the same taxon as the former specimens.
Reference- Averianov, 2006. On an ornithomimid dinosaur (Saurischia, Ornithomimosauria) from the Cenomanian of Fergana. Paleontological Journal. 40(3), 323-327.

undescribed Ornithomimosauria (Nessov, 1995)
Mid-Late Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Bissekty Formation, Uzbekistan

Material- (CCMGE 431/12457) manual ungual I (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 447/12457) astragalus (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 448/12457) astragalus (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 468/12457) manual ungual (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 609/12457) pedal ungual (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 610/12457) pedal ungual (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 724/12457) femur (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 12457 coll.) tibia (Averianov, 2007)
(CCMGE 12457 coll.) two femora (Nessov, 1995)
(CCMGE 12457 coll.) metatarsals (Averianov and Sues, 2012)
(ZIN PH 16 coll.) several partial astragali (Averianov and Sues, 2012)
coracoid (Averianov, 2006)
Comments- Nessov (1995) discussed two femora which were said to be reminiscent of ornithomimids, distinguished by elevated femoral heads, an anteroposteriorly narrow femoral head articular surface, and a high, anteriorly projecting and aliform(?) (sharp from above) anterior trochanter. These were of moderate size, smaller than tyrannosaurid remains, but larger than Archaeornithomimus? asiaticus and other named coelurosaurs from the Bissekty Formation. Nessov tentatively associated the femora with labiolingually thick tyrannosauroid teeth, but this is incorrect. He assigned the manual ungual CCMGE 431/12457 tentatively to Alectrosaurus sp., but Carr (2005) determined this is not referrable to that genus, due to the short dorsal part of the proximal joint surface and the massive flexor tubercle. He found it resembled ornithomimid unguals instead, a conclusion also reached by Averianov and Sues (2012). Nessov also assigned the pedal unguals tentatively to Alectrosaurus sp., but Carr noted their lack of flexor tubercles resemble ornithomimids more closely, and they were not among the tyrannosauroid remains described by Averianov and Sues. Averianov (2006) mentioned a coracoid from the Bissekty Formation lacks the vertical crest distal to the glenoid which is found in the Tokubai and Khodzhakul ornithomimids. Averianov (2007) noted a tibia is known from the Bissekty Formation as well, which was originally assigned to Alectrosaurus by Nessov. It is more similar to Gallimimus than the Bostobe ornithomimid because the proximal end of the fibular crest is approximately level with the distal end of the cnemial crest, and the fibular crest is higher at mid-length than at either end. It differs from both taxa in lacking a trough for the fibula with a posterior crest paralleling the fibular crest. Several other remains assigned to Alectrosaurus by Nessov are also ornithomimosaurian (femora including CCMGE 724/12457, astragali including CCMGE 447/12457 and 448/12457, and metatarsals) (Averianov and Sues, 2012). Averianov and Sues also mention several partial astragali in the ZIN collection referrable to Ornithomimosauria "based on size and close resemblance". These elements may all belong to Archaeornithomimus? bissektensis.
References- Nessov, 1995. Dinosaurs of nothern Eurasia: New data about assemblages, ecology, and paleobiogeography. Institute for Scientific Research on the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg. 1-156.
Carr, 2005. Phylogeny of Tyrannosauroidea (Dinosauria: Coelurosauria) with special reference to North American forms. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of Toronto. 1170 pp.
Averianov, 2006. On an ornithomimid Dinosaur (Saurischia, Ornithomimosauria) from the Cenomanian of Fergana. Paleontological Journal. 40(3), 23-327.
Averianov, 2007. Theropod dinosaurs from Late Cretaceous deposits in the northeastern Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan. Cretaceous Research. 28(3), 532-544.
Averianov and Sues, 2012. Skeletal remains of Tyrannosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bissekty Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Turonian) of Uzbekistan. 34, 284-297.

unnamed ornithomimosaur (Averianov, 2007)
Turonian-Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Zhirkindek Formation, Kazakhstan

Material- (ZIN PH 36/49) distal caudal vertebra (21.1 mm)
Reference- Averianov, 2007. Theropod dinosaurs from Late Cretaceous deposits in the northeastern Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan. Cretaceous Research.

unnamed Ornithomimosauria (Alifanov and Averianov, 2006)
Early Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Yalovach Formation, Tajikistan
Material
- (PIN 3041/1) femur (329.5 mm)
(PIN 3041/2) incomplete humerus
(PIN 3041/4) (juvenile) proximal femur
(PIN 3041/6) manual phalanx II-2 (95.7 mm)
(PIN 3041/12) distal caudal vertebra (49.3 mm)
(PIN 3041/13) distal caudal vertebra (50.8 mm)
(PIN 3041/14) proximal caudal neural arch
(PIN 3041/20) partial frontal
(PIN coll.; lost) mandible (Rozhdestvensky, 1977)
Comments- Rozhdestvensky (1977) first mentioned ornithomimids from the Yalovach Formation, but they were first described and illustrated by Alifanov and Averianov (2006). Unlike Gallimimus, the proximal caudal prezygapophyses are dorsoventrally level with the transverse processes, though their humeri are nearly identical. The two Yalovach femora differ from one another in the proximodistal positions of their anterior and fourth trochanters and caudofemoralis longus fossa. They are more proximally positioned in PIN 3041/1 and Archaeornithomimus? bissektensis than in PIN 3041/4. Perhaps multiple ornithomimsaur species are present in the Yalovach.
References- Rozhdestvensky, 1977. The Kansai Locality of Cretaceous Vertebrates in Fergana. Ezheg. Vses. Paleontol. O–va. 20, 235–247.
Nessov, 1995. Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology and paleobiogeography. Scientific Research Institute of the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia: 156 pp. + 14 pl. [in Russian with short English, German, and French abstracts].
Alifanov and Averianov, 2006. On the finding of ornithomimid dinosaurs (Saurischia, Ornithomimosauria) in the Upper Cretaceous beds of Tajikistan. Paleontological Journal 40(1):103-108.

unnamed Ornithomimosauria (Rozhdestvensky and Khozatsky, 1967)
Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Bostobe Formation, Kazakhstan

Material- (ZIN PH 2/49) metacarpal III (69.7 mm) (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 3/49) incomplete manual ungual (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 4/49) pedal phalanx IV-1 (28.4 mm) (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 6/49) proximal caudal vertebra (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 7/49) distal caudal vertebra (54 mm) (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 8/49) proximal caudal vertebra (44.3 mm) (Averianov, 2007)
?...(ZIN PH 9/49) distal caudal vertebra (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 23/49) (juvenile) distal metatarsal II (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 26/49) (juvenile) tibial fragment (Averianov, 2007)
(ZIN PH 40/49) distal caudal vertebra (Averianov, 2007)
Comments- Rozhdestvensky and Khozatsky (1967) mentioned ornithomimid remains from the Bostobe Formation, but Averianov (2007) is the first to describe and illustrate them. The tibia differs from Gallimimus and the Bissekty ornithomimid in having a a lower and less sharp fibular crest that is of constant height along its length and extends further proximally than the distal end of the cnemial crest. It also differs from Gallimimus in having two nutrient foramina.
References- Rozhdestvensky and Khozatsky, 1967. Late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates of Asiatic part of the USSR. In: Martinson G.G. (Ed.), Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Mesozoic and Paleogene–Neogene Continental Deposits of Asiatic Part of the USSR. Nauka, Leningrad, pp. 82–92 (in Russian).
Averianov, 2007. Theropod dinosaurs from Late Cretaceous deposits in the northeastern Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan. Cretaceous Research.

undescribed ornithimomosaur (Nessov, 1995)
Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Syuk-Syuk Formation, Kazakhstan
Material
- unguals?
Comments- Nessov (1995) notes Prinada (1925, 1927) and/or Riabinin (1938, 1939) identified unguals as Ornithomimus cf. asiatus, which were later cited as Ornithomimidae by Efremov (1944). This remains uncertain pending further studies.
References- Prinada, 1925. [Search for remains of large vertebrates of Upper Cretaceous age in Turkestan. Report on the state of activities of the Geological Committee for 1924. Part II, III]. Izvyestiya Gyeologichyeskogo komityeta 44(2): 257.
Prinada, 1927. [Report on the excavation at the localities where dinosaur bones were discovered. Report on the state of activities of the Geological Committee for 1925. Part II, III]. Izvyestiya Gyeologichyeskogo komityeta 45(4): 453-454.
Riabinin, 1938. [Some results of the study of the Upper Cretaceous dinosaur fauna from the vicinity of st. Sary-Agachin, Southern Kazakhstan]. Problyemy palyeontologii 4: 125-135.
Riabinin, 1939. [Vertebrate fauna from the Upper Cretaceous of southern Kazakhstan. I. Reptilia. Part 1. 1. Ornithischia]. Trudy Tsyentral'nogo Nauchno-Isslyedovatyel'skogo Gyeologorazvyedochnogo instituta 18: 1-40.
Efremov, 1944. [Dinosaur horizon in Middle Asia and some questions of stratigraphy]. Izvyestiya AN SSSR, Seriya gyeologichyeskaya 3: 40-58.
Nessov, 1995. Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology and paleobiogeography. Scientific Research Institute of the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia: 156 pp. + 14 pl. [in Russian with short English, German, and French abstracts].

undescribed ornithomimosaur (Efremov, 1944)
Santonian-Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Kara-Cheku, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Comments- Ornithomimids were reported from this locality, but this remains uncertain pending description.
References- Efremov, 1944. [Dinosaur horizon of Middle Asia and some questions of stratigraphy]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya. 3, 40-58.
Nessov, 1995. Dinozavri severnoi Yevrasii: Novye dannye o sostave kompleksov, ekologii i paleobiogeografii [Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology and paleobiogeography], Scientific Research Institute of the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia: 156 pp. + 14 pl. [in Russian with short English, German, and French abstracts].

unnamed Ornithomimosauria (Gilmore, 1933)
Late Cretaceous
Tairum Nor Formation, Mongolia
Material
- (AMNH 6593) dorsal centrum, two partial caudal centra, proximal metatarsal IV, two pedal phalanges
Reference- Gilmore, 1933. Two new dinosaurian reptiles from Mongolia with notes on some fragmentary specimens. American Museum Novitates. 679, 1-20.

undescribed Ornithomimosauria (Maleev, 1956)
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Bayanshiree Formation, Mongolia
Reference-
Maleev, 1956. Pantsyrnye dinosavry verchnego mela Mongolii (Semeustvo Ankylosauridae) [The Upper Cretaceous armored dinosaurs of Mongolia (family Ankylosauridae)]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademiy Nauk SSSR. 62, 51-91.

undescribed Ornithomimosauria (Maryanska and Osmolska, 1975)
Cenomanian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Shiregin Gashun Formation, Mongolia
Reference-
Maryanska and Osmólska, 1975. Protoceratopsidae (Dinosauria) of Asia. Palaeontologica Polonica, 33, 133-181,

unnamed ornithomimid (Makovicky and Norell, 1998)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Djadokhta Formation, Mongolia

Material- (IGM 100/987) (adult) partial braincase, proatlantal fragment, cervical vertebrae, posterior cervical rib, anterior dorsal vertebra (33 mm)
Comments- This specimen was found in 1993 mixed with the Byronosaurus paratype. It differs from Struthiomimus and Gallimimus in having shallow basal tubera; Struthiomimus and Garudimimus in having a tubercle between the basal tubera; Struthiomimus, Sinornithomimus and Garudimimus (but not Gallimimus) in the absence of a posterior supraoccipital ridge; Gallimimus and Garudimimus in having a narrow quadrate; and Gallimimus, Sinornithomimus and Garudimimus (but not Dromiceiomimus) in having a deep posterior quadrate fossa. This was referred to Gallimimus bullatus by Kobayashi (2004) without comment.
References- Makovicky and Norell, 1998. A partial ornithomimid braincase from Ukhaa Tolgod (Upper Cretaceous, Mongolia). American Museum Novitates. 3247, 1-16.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.

unnamed ornithomimine (Ksepka and Norell, 2004)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Djadokhta Formation, Mongolia

Material- (IGM 100/1245) incomplete premaxillae, nasal fragments, anterior dentary, dentary fragment, several dorsal vertebral fragments
Comments- This material differs from Garudimimus, Sinornithomimus and Gallimimus in the shape of the mandible, and may be the same taxon as IGM 100/987 from the same formation. The latter specimen (a braincase) is much smaller than 100/1245 though, and its closed sutures suggest it is an adult. Thus 100/1245 may represent a distinct larger species of ornithomimosaur.
Reference- Ksepka and Norell, 2004. Ornithomimosaur cranial material from Ukhaa Tolgod (Omnogov, Mongolia). American Museum Novitates. 3448, 4 pp.

unnamed possible ornithomimosaur (Stilwell, Consoli, Sutherland, Salisbury, Rich, Vickers-Rich, Currie and Wilson, 2006)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Takatika Grit, New Zealand
Material
- (GNS CD 579) manual ungual (15.3 mm)
Comments- Stilwell et al. (2006) find this is similar to ornithomimosaurs in the low recurvature and distally placed flexor tubercle.
Reference- Stilwell, Consoli, Sutherland, Salisbury, Rich, Vickers-Rich, Currie and Wilson, 2006. Dinosaur sanctuary on the Chatham Islands, southwest Pacific: first record of theropods from the K-T boundary Takatika Grit. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 230, 243-250.

Garudimimidae Barsbold, 1981
Garudimiminae Barsbold, 1981 sensu Paul, 1988
Garudimimus Barsbold, 1981
G. brevipes Barsbold, 1981
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Bayanshiree Formation, Mongolia
Holotype
- (GIN 100/13) skull (252.2 mm), eleven sclerotic plates, mandibles (246.3 mm), atlas, axis (32 mm), partial third cervical neural arch, partial fourth cervical neural arch, partial fifth cervical neural arch, partial sixth cervical neural arch, partial seventh cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra (64 mm), two partial cervical ribs, incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra (36 mm), incomplete fifth dorsal vertebra (39 mm), incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra (42 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (47 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (52 mm), incomplete ninth dorsal vertebra (47 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (54 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (51 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (52 mm), nine dorsal ribs, fifteen gastralia segments, first sacral vertebra (50 mm), second sacral vertebra (54 mm), third sacral vertebra (51 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (45 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (56 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (54 mm), first caudal vertebra (47 mm), second caudal vertebra (49 mm), third caudal vertebra (48 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (47 mm), ilia (287 mm), pubes (390 mm), femora (371 mm), tibiae (388 mm), fibulae (360 mm), astragalus (66 mm wide), calcaneum, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I (43 mm), phalanx I-1 (35 mm), pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (195 mm), phalanx II-1 (63 mm), metatarsal III (229 mm), phalanx III-1 (59 mm), phalanx III-2 (45 mm), metatarsal IV (212 mm), phalanx IV-1 (43 mm), phalanx IV-2 (35 mm), phalanx IV-3 (28 mm), phalanx IV-4 (27 mm), pedal ungual IV (46 mm), metatarsal V (71 mm)
Diagnosis- (modified from Kobayashi, 2004) jaw articulation positioned more posterior than the postorbital bar; fossae at base of dorsal process of supraoccipital; paired depressions on lateral surface of neural spines at base of proximal caudal vertebra; short ilium compared to pubic length (<80%); deep groove at proximal end of lateral surface of pedal phalanges III-1 and III-2.
Comments- The supposed orbital horn is actually a disarticulated prefrontal (Kobayashi, 2004).
Garudimimus was originally briefly described by Barsbold (1981), with additional elements illustrated by Barsbold (1983) and Barsbold and Osmolska (1990). Currie and Russell (1981) illustrated the metatarsus as Oviraptor sp., incorrectly giving it an arctometatarsal condition. It was described in depth by Kobayashi (2004), which was published as Kobayashi and Barsbold (2005). Holtz (1992; pers. comm. from Norell) first suggested the metatarsus may actually be arctometatarsalian and was disarticulated in the holotype. This was also believed by Currie and Eberth (1993), and Holtz (1995) stated the arctometatarsaly was developed in similar degree to Chirostenotes. However, Kobayashi (2004) verifies no disarcticulation or disortion is present and the metatarsus really is non-arctometatarsalian. Currie and Eberth used this and the supposedly identical metatarsal length ratios to suggest Garudimimus was present in the Iren Dabasu Formation and that the metatarsus and perhaps other material currently referred to Archaeornithomimus belong to it. Yet Kobayashi showed that in addition to actually lacking arctometatarsaly, the metatarsal ratios are also quite different.
References- Barsbold, 1981. Toothless carnivorous dinosaurs of Mongolia. Transactions, Joint Soviet–Mongolian Palaeontological Expedition. 15, 28-39.
Barsbold, 1983. Carnivorous dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. Trudy, Sovmestnaa Sovetsko-Mongolskaa paleontologiceskaa ekspedicia. 19, 1-120. [in Russian]
Currie and Russell, 1988. Osteology and relationships of Chirostenotes pergracilis (Saurischia, Theropoda) from the Judith River (Oldman) Formation of Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 25, 972-986.
Paul, 1988. The Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon and Schuster Co., New York. 464 pp.
Barsbold and Osmólska, 1990. Ornithomimosauria. in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmólska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley. 225-244.
Holtz, 1992. An unusual structure of the metatarsus of Theropoda (Archosauria: Dinosauria: Saurischia) of the Cretaceous. PhD Thesis, Yale University. 347 pp.
Currie and Eberth, 1993. Palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the Iren Dabasu Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Inner Mongolia, People s Republic of China. Cretaceous Research. 14, 127-144.
Holtz, 1995. The arctometatarsalian pes, an unusual structure of the metatarsus of Cretaceous Theropoda (Dinosauria: Saurischia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14, 480-519.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2005. Reexamination of a primitive ornithomimosaur, Garudimimus brevipes Barsbold, 1981 (Dinosauria: Theropoda), from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Canadian Journal of Earth Science. 42, 1501-1521

Ornithomimidae Marsh, 1890
= Struthiomimidae Ostrom, 1972
Definition- (Ornithomimus velox <- Pelecanimimus polyodon, Harpymimus okladnikovi, Shenzhousaurus orientalis, Garudimimus brevipes) (suggested)
Other definitions- (Ornithomimus velox <- Erlikosaurus andrewsi) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Ornithomimus velox <- Shuvuuia deserti) (modified from Sereno, 1999)
(Ornithomimus edmontonicus <- Pelecanimimus polyodon, Harpymimus okladnikovi, Shenzhousaurus orientalis, Garudimimus brevipes) (Sereno, in press)
Diagnosis- manual ungual I longer than ungual II (unknown in Garudimimus and Beishanlong); proximal end of metatarsal IV does not curl around plantar side of proximal end of metatarsal III.
Comments- The first definitions published by Sereno are equivalent to Arctometatarsalia (1998) and Ornithomimosauria (1999) as commonly used. His latest (in press) definition is equivalent to Ornithomimidae's standard usage since 1981, and is accepted here except for the substitution of the type species Ornithomimus velox for O. edmontonicus. The rationale behind this is discussed in the comments for Maniraptoriformes.
Placing "Grusimimus" as an ornithomimid is extremely poorly supported, as the ischium is unknown in Garudimimus and many ornithomimids later develop subequal manual unguals I and II.
References- Ostrom, 1972. Dinosaur. in McGraw-Hill Yearbook, Science and Technology. 176-179.

"Grusimimus tsuru" Barsbold, unpublished 1997
= "Tsurumimus" Barsbold, unpublished 1997
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Shinekhudag Formation, Mongolia

Material- (GIN 960910KD) (~1.5-2 m; subadult) third cervical centrum (45 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (47 mm), incomplete fifth cervical vertebra (43 mm), incomplete sixth cervical vertebra (43 mm), seventh cervical centrum (37 mm), incomplete eighth cervical vertebra (33 mm), anterior dorsal neural spine, fourth dorsal centrum (31 mm), partial fifth dorsal vertebra (32 mm), sixth dorsal centrum (34 mm), seventh dorsal centrum (34 mm), eighth dorsal centrum (36 mm), ninth dorsal centrum (39 mm), partial tenth dorsal centrum (39 mm), eleventh dorsal centrum (37 mm), twelfth dorsal centrum (40 mm), sixteen rows of gastralia, third sacral centrum (40 mm), fifth sacral centrum (35 mm), sixth sacral centrum (35 mm), four proximal caudal vertebrae (26, 34, 28, 25 mm), eleven distal caudal vertebrae (34, 33, 39, 38, 38, 40, 39, 38, 38, 38, 36 mm), chevron, incomplete scapulae, incomplete humerus, radius (123 mm), ulnae (138 mm), phalanx I-1 (81 mm), manual ungual I (49 mm), metacarpals II (65 mm), phalanx II-1 (35 mm), phalanx II-2 (71 mm), manual ungual II (48 mm), metacarpals III (65 mm), phalanx III-1 (19 mm), phalanx III-2 (22 mm), phalanx III-3 (65 mm), manual ungual III (58 mm), partial ilia, pubes, incomplete ischia, femora (273 mm), tibiae (309 mm), fibula (290 mm), astragalus (44 mm wide), calcaneum, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I (28 mm), phalanx I-1 (25 mm), pedal ungual I (20 mm), metatarsals II (one proximal; 186 mm), phalanx II-2 (36 mm), proximal metatarsal III, phalanx III-1 (50 mm), phalanx III-2 (40 mm), partial metatarsals IV, phalanx IV-1 (32 mm), phalanx IV-2 (24 mm), pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (46 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Kobayashi, 2004) differs from Harpymimus in that is has larger cervical pleurocoels not subdivided by a lamina; deeper supraglenoid depression; less curved manual unguals; larger manual ungual flexor tubercles; larger pedal ungual flexor tubercles.
Comments- Kobayashi (2004) notes and lists the length of metatarsal II, but the illustrated complete metatarsal is labeled III. It is here assumed to be a typo in the figure.
This specimen's history is described in depth on the Dinosaur Kingdom Nakasato website. It was discovered in 1996 by Takei as part of a collaborative research project between International Internship Programs (Japan) and Mongolian Academy of Sciences, and examined by Barsbold at the GIN. Though originally thought to be a Harpymimus, it was identified as a new genus by Barsbold in October as part of a press release. Barsbold met with the Nakasato website support team in April 1997 to discuss the specimen and suggested ""Grusimimus tsuru" or "Tsurumimus" seems to be suitable for this new ostrich-mimic." Both Grus and tsuru mean crane, the latter in Japanese. Neither name has been published in print, so are nomina nuda. Kobayashi and Barsbold (2002) presented a poster and abstract on the specimen, which they found to be phylogenetically between Harpymimus and Garudimimus. Kobayashi (2004) later described the specimen in depth in his unpublished thesis as Ornithomimosauria indet. and found it to occupy an unresolved trichotomy with Harpymimus and more derived ornithomimosaurs based on a larger analysis. He did note several differences from Harpymimus (see diagnosis), though he stated these could be ontogenetic instead of taxonomic. Kobayashi and Barsbold (2005) mention the taxon as the Huren-duh ornithomimosaur. When and whether it will be formally described and named in a published paper are unknown.
References- http://www.dino-nakasato.org/en/topics/tsuru/indexTsuru-e.shtml
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2002. A new primitive ornithomimosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia and the early evolution of Ornithomimosauria. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 75A.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2005. Reexamination of a primitive ornithomimosaur, Garudimimus brevipes Barsbold, 1981 (Dinosauria: Theropoda), from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Canadian Journal of Earth Science. 42, 1501-1521.

unnamed clade (Sinornithomimus dongi + Ornithomimus velox)
Diagnosis- jugal and postorbital approach or contact quadratojugal to constrict lower temporal fenestra (unknown in "Grusimimus"); posterior jugal process concealed laterally by quadratojugal (unknown in "Grusimimus"); posterior tympanic recess present as opening on anterior surface of paroccipital process (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs except Pelecanimimus); length of mid-cervical centra markedly longer than dorsal centra; anteroposterior lengths of cervical neural spines less than one third of neural arch lengths; prezygapophyses of distal caudal vertebrae >40% centrum length; posterior edge of coracoid deeply notched just ventral to glenoid, glenoid lip everted (unknown in in Garudimimus and "Grusimimus"); posterodorsal edge of coracoid expanded, forms triangular subglenoid fossa bounded laterally by coracoid tuber (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); sternum unossified (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs except Pelecanimimus); length of long axis of ventral/medial condyle less than the same measure of the dorsal/lateral condyle (unknown in in Garudimimus and "Grusimimus"); manus <75% of femoral length; proximal end of metacarpal III is mainly palmar to that of metacarpal II; metatarsal I absent; metatarsals II-IV deeper anteroposteriorly than mediolaterally at midshaft; arctometatarsus.
Comments- This is the traditionally recognized Ornithomimidae, generally thought of as the arctometatarsal ornithomimosaurs lacking pedal digit I. The mosaic evolution around the base of this clade is shown by Pelecanimimus' ventrally placed metacarpal III, Harpymimus' elongate distal caudal prezygapophyses, and Garudimimus' elongate cervical vertebrae.

Sinornithomimus Kobayashi and Lu, 2003
S. dongi Kobayashi and Lu, 2003
Santonian-Campanian?, Late Cretaceous
Ulansuhai Formation, Nei Mongol, China

Holotype- (IVPP-V11797-10) (2.5 m; subadult) skull (183.1 mm), (cervical series 410 mm) atlas, axis (26.2 mm), third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra (52.8 mm), sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra (47.5 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (46.4 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (43.3 mm), partial cervical rib, (dorsal series 510 mm) first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra (37.6 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (37.2 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (39.9 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (38.7 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (43 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (44.7 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra, seventeen dorsal ribs, sacrum, seven proximal caudal vertebrae (1- 49 mm; 3- 43.6 mm; 5- 44.1 mm), scapula (204 mm), coracoid (85.1 mm), (forelimb 540 mm) humerus (212 mm), radius (145 mm), ulna (147 mm), carpal, metacarpal I (41.2 mm), phalanx I-1 (76.3 mm), manual ungual I, metacarpal II (54.7 mm), phalanx II-1 (19.9 mm), phalanx II-2 (59.9 mm), manual ungual II, metacarpal III (53.8 mm), phalanx III-1 (13.9 mm), phalanx III-2 (14.6 mm), phalanx III-3 (42.9 mm), manual ungual III, ilium (268 mm), pubis (330 mm), ischium (236 mm), (hindlimb 1.04 m) femur (323 mm), tibia (335 mm, +12 mm for tarsus), fibula (323 mm), astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II, phalanx II-2 (26.7 mm), pedal ungual II (38.9 mm), metatarsal III (213 mm), phalanx III-1 (50.3 mm), phalanx III-2 (39.6 mm), phalanx III-3 (30 mm), pedal ungual III (35.5 mm), metatarsal IV (197.2 mm), phalanx IV-1 (25.6 mm), phalanx IV-2 (21.8 mm), phalanx IV-3 (14.5 mm), phalanx IV-4 (12.1 mm), pedal ungual IV (31.2 mm), metatarsal V (82.4 mm), gastroliths
Paratypes- (IVPP-V11797-1) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton, gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-2) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including femur (165 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-3) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including femur (212 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-9) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton lacking skull and distal caudal vertebrae, including gastralia, scapula, pubes, femur (194 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-11) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including skull (130.6 mm), axis, humerus (120.2 mm), ilium, femur (200 mm), tibia (205.2 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-12) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including distal caudal vertebrae, humerus (108 mm), radius (72.6 mm), femur (178 mm), tibia (177.1 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-13) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including distal caudal vertebrae, radius (79.8 mm), femur (195 mm), tibia (199.7 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-14) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including humerus (102 mm), femur (184 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-15) (juvenile) nearly complete skeleton including first sacral vertebra (28.3 mm), second sacral vertebra (30.9 mm), third sacral vertebra (27.2 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (26.7 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (27.5 mm), sixth sacral vertebra, humerus (99 mm), radius (67.9 mm), ischia, femur (181 mm), tibia (180.5 mm), gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-16) (juvenile) cervical vertebrae, pectoral girdle, forelimbs, gastroliths
(IVPP-V11797-17) (juvenile) anterior skull, cervical vertebrae
(IVPP-V11797-18) (juvenile) ulna, radius, ulnare, intermedium, distal carpal II, metacarpals, manual phalanges
(IVPP-V11797-19) (adult) ulna (246 mm) (femur ~480 mm)
(IVPP-V11797-20) (juvenile) coracoid
(IVPP-V11797-21) (juvenile) sacral vertebrae, ischia, partial femur
(IVPP-V11797-22) (juvenile) femur (201 mm)
(IVPP-V11797-23) (juvenile) hindlimb including femur (190 mm), tibia, fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II, proximal phalanx II-1, metatarsal III, proximal phalanx III-1, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1
(IVPP-V11797-24) (juvenile) partial femur, tibia, fibula
(IVPP-V11797-25) (juvenile) proximal femur, distal tarsal III, metatarsal II, metatarsal III, metatarsal IV, metatarsal V
(IVPP-V11797-26) (juvenile) partial tibia, astragalus, metatarsals, pedal phalanges
(IVPP-V11797-27) (juvenile) caudal vertebra
(IVPP-V11797-28) (juvenile) proximal caudal vertebra
(IVPP-V11797-29) (adult) femur (413 mm), tibia (441.1 mm), fibula, metatarsals, pedal phalanges
(IVPP-V11797-30) (juvenile) three distal caudal vertebrae
(IVPP-V11797-31) (juvenile) posterior skull, proatlas, atlas, axis
(IVPP-V11797-32) (juvenile) caudal vertebra
(IVPP-V11797-33) (juvenile) sacral vertebra
(IVPP-V11797-34) (juvenile) sacral vertebrae, ilium
Referred- (LH PV5) (1 year old juvenile) skull (134 mm), cervical series, most cervical ribs, dorsal series, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacral centra, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 216 mm), gastroliths (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV6) (1 year old juvenile) skull (114 mm), cervical series, cervical ribs, dorsal series except some neural arches, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, ilium, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 194 mm), gastroliths (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV7) (7 year old subadult) skull, partial dorsal series, dorsal ribs, gastralia, partial caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 364 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV8) (juvenile) skull, cervical series, cervical ribs, dorsal ribs, gastralia, caudal series except some proximal neural arches, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 183 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV9) (juvenile) skull, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, partial caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 195 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV10) (juvenile) dorsal series, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur ~200 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV11) (juvenile) cervical series, cervical ribs, dorsal series, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, ilium, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur ~180 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV12) (juvenile) sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, ilium, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur ~220 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV13) (subadult) dorsal ribs, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, ilium, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 305 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV14) (juvenile) partial skull, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, partial caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur ~230 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV15) (juvenile) dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur ~200 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV16) (juvenile) dorsal ribs, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur ~200 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
(LH PV17) (juvenile) dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal series, chevrons, scapulocoracoids, forelimbs, pubes, ischia, hindlimbs (femur 205 mm) (Varricchio et al., 2008)
Diagnosis- (after Kobayashi and Lu, 2003) depression on dorsolateral surface of posterior process of parietal; fenestra within quadratic fossa divided into two by vertical lamina; low ridge on ventral surface of parasphenoid bulla; loss of posterolateral extension of proatlas.
Comments- The skeletons were discovered in 1997 and described briefly by Kobayashi et al. (1999, 2001) before Kobayashi described them in depth as a new taxon in his 2004 thesis (published as Kobayashi and Lu, 2003).
References- Kobayashi, Lu, Dong, Barsbold, Azuma and Tomida, 1999. Herbivorous diet in an ornithomimid dinosaur. Nature. 402, 480-481.
Kobayashi, Azuma, Dong and Barsbold, 2001. Bonebed of a new gastrolith-bearing ornithomimid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Ulansuhai Formation of Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 68A-69A.
Kobayashi and Lu, 2003. A new ornithomimid dinosaur with gregarious habits from the Late Cretaceous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 48 (2), 235-259.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Varricchio, Sereno, Zhao, Tan, Wilson and Lyon, 2008. Mud-trapped herd captures evidence of distinctive dinosaur sociality. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(4), 567-578.

Qiupalong Xu, Kobayashi, Lu, Lee, Liu, Tanaka, Zhang, Jia and Zhang, 2011
= "Qiupalong" Xu, Kobayashi, Lu, Lee, Liu, Tanaka, Zhang, Jia and Zhang, 2010 online
Q. henanensis Xu, Kobayashi, Lu, Lee, Liu, Tanaka, Zhang, Jia and Zhang, 2011
= "Qiupalong henanensis" Xu, Kobayashi, Lu, Lee, Liu, Tanaka, Zhang, Jia and Zhang, 2010 online
Late Cretaceous
Qiupa Formation, Henan, China
Holotype
- (HGM 41HIII-0106) (larger individual) tibia (384 mm), incomplete astragalus (57.4 mm wide), calcaneum, metatarsal II (224 mm), incomplete metatarsal III, pedal ungual III (29.7 mm), metatarsal IV (233 mm)
(smaller individual) partial ilia, pubes (one incomplete; 320 mm), proximal ischia, phalanx II-2 (31.3 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Xu et al., 2011) notch on lateral surface of medial posterior process of proximal end of tibia; small pit at contact between astragalus and calcaneum.
Comments- Xu et al.'s paper was available online in December 2010 but not officially published until April 2011.
This taxon was entered into a version of Kobayashi's ornithomimosaur analysis and found to be sister to Dromiceiomimus+Struthiomimus. This site uses a different phylogeny, which tentatively places Qiupalong outside the clade including American ornithomimids based on the robust metatarsus, and definitely outside the Gallimimus+Ornithomimus clade.
Reference- Xu, Kobayashi, Lu, Lee, Liu, Tanaka, Zhang, Jia and Zhang, 2011. A new ornithomimid dinosaur with North American affinities from the Late Cretaceous Qiupa Formation in Henan Province of China. Cretaceous Research. 32(2), 213-222.

Archaeornithomimus? bissektensis Nessov, 1995
Mid-Late Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Bissekty Formation, Uzbekistan

Holotype- (CCMGE 479/12457) (juvenile) femur
Diagnosis- (after Nessov, 1995) differs from Archaeornithomimus asiaticus in- shaft more curved; slightly narrower area of greater trochanter in proximal view; less prominent anterior trochanter; medial condyle more projected distally.
Comments- Alifanov and Averianov (2006) noted the specimen is juvenile and more similar to Yalovach ornithomimid femur PIN 3041/1 than to PIN 3041/4 from the same formation in having more proximally positioned anterior and fourth trochanters. Averianov (2006) noted it has a similar phylogenetic position to the partial coracoid ZIN PH 1/28, that is, between Archaeornithomimus and Sinornithomimus. This was seemingly based on Averianov and Sues (2004), which will be elaborated on by Sues and Averianov (in prep.). It is thus uncertain if this species is properly referred to Archaeornithomimus. More ornithomimid elements from the Bissekty Formation may belong to it.
References- Nessov, 1995. Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology and paleobiogeography. Scientific Research Institute of the Earth's Crust, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia: 156 pp. + 14 pl. [in Russian with short English, German, and French abstracts].
Averianov and Sues, 2004. Predatory Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Central Asia. in Manankov, Bolshakov and Sychevskaya (eds). Problems of Paleontology of Central Asia (to 35th Anniversary of the Joint Russian-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition). Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Moscow [in Russian].
Alifanov and Averianov, 2006. On the finding of ornithomimid dinosaurs (Saurischia, Ornithomimosauria) in the Upper Cretaceous beds of Tajikistan. Paleontological Journal. 40(1),103-108.
Averianov, 2006. On an ornithomimid dinosaur (Saurischia, Ornithomimosauria) from the Cenomanian of Fergana. Paleontological Journal. 40(3), 323-327.

undescribed ornithomimid (Barsbold, Kobayashi and Kubota, 2007)
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Bayanshiree Formation, Mongolia

Material- skeleton including femur and pes
Comments- This specimen is reported to lack pedal digit I and have an arctometatarsus, as in the Sinornithomimus+Ornithomimus clade. It is also said to possess distinctive characters such as an anterior intercondylar fossa on the femur and robust metatarsal V. It may belong to "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis" from the same formation.
Reference- Barsbold, Kobayashi and Kubota, 2007. New discovery of dinosaur fossils from the Upper Cretaceous Bayanshiree Formation of Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 44A.

unnamed clade (Dromiceiomimus brevitertius + Ornithomimus velox)
Diagnosis- premaxilla >58% of orbit+jugal height; subotic recess (pneumatic fossa ventral to fenestra ovalis) (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); basisphenoid recess entirely within basisphenoid (unknown in more basal ornithomimosaurs); posterior surangular foramen absent; prezygapophyses of distal caudal vertebrae >60% centrum length; distal articular ends of metacarpals I and II rounded; ilium longer than femur; semicircular scar on posterior part of the proximal end of the ischium; metatarsus over eight times longer than wide at midshaft; in anterior view, metatarsal III pinched both proximally and through midshaft;
Comments- This clade is similar to that found in Kobayashi's work, except for the deep nesting of Archaeornithomimus, which was excluded due to its anteroposteriorly elongate cervical neural spines. Senter (2007) also places it outside the other members of this clade due to its ginglymoid metacarpals I and II, broad metatarsus, and less pinched third metatarsal at midshaft. Yet the addition of more character data suggests Archaeornithomimus clades with derived ornithomimids, which may not be surprising given recent redating of the Iren Debasu Formation. All Late Cretaceous American ornithomimosaur specimens are provisionally placed in this clade, as all valid taxa from that place and time belong to it.

"Coelosaurus" Leidy, 1865 (preoccupied Owen, 1854)
"C". antiquus Leidy, 1865
= Ornithomimus antiquus (Leidy, 1865) Baird and Horner, 1979
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Navesink Formation, New Jersey, US

Lectotype- (ANSP 9222) tibiae (396 mm)
Referred- ? fragmentary tibia (Baird, 1986)
? caudal vertebra (Baird, 1986)
? caudal vertebra (Baird, 1986)
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte et al., 2012) bulbous medial condyle on tibia.
(suggested) cnemial crest anteroposteriorly deep, with anteroproximally sloping proximal edge and angled anterior edge.
Comments- Leidy described the tibiae ANSP 9222 as the new species Coelosaurus antiquus, provisionally assigning AMNH 2550-2553 to the species as a syntype. Cope (1868) made the AMNH specimens the holotype of his new species Laelaps macropus, which was synonymized with C. antiquus again by Matthew and Brown (1922). However, this specimen seems to be a dryptosaurid tyrannosauroid (see entry for Dryptosaurus? macropus).
Baird and Horner (1979) realized the theropod genus Coelosaurus was preoccupied by Coelosaurus (Owen, 1854), an indeterminate centrum with a broken but fused neural arch and subcircular amphicoelous ends. They thus placed the species in Ornithomimus instead, though they did not compare it to other ornithomimids. Baird (1986) referred additional material to this species, including three specimens from the Severn Formation of Maryland and a partial femur from the Mount Laurel or Wenonah Formation of New Jersey. Only three are from the same formation as the lectotype, and of those only the fragmented tibial shaft is comparable. It's doubtful any can be referred to antiquus. Baird also stated a pedal phalanx III-1 (MMNS VP103) from the Eutaw Formation of Mississippi was identical to antiquus, but this is probably tyrannosauroid instead. Russell (1972) and Holtz (1992) considered the lectotype indeterminate, Russell within Ornithomimidae and Holtz within Theropoda. Sullivan (1997) sunk Ornithomimus velox and O. edmontonicus into antiquus as Ornithomimus antiquus, because the edmontonicus holotype and the antiquus lectotype share a distinctive cnemial crest morphology, and because Russell (1972) and most later authors found O. edmontonicus and O. velox to be morphologically identical. Specifically, antiquus has a cnemial crest which has a straight edge parallel to the shaft proximally and then abruptly angles toward the shaft. Indeed, this is absent in Garudimimus, Sinornithomimus, Anserimimus, Gallimimus bullatus and "G." "mongoliensis", but present in Dromiceiomimus brevitertius (including the edmontonicus holotype), D. samueli, Ornithomimus? sedens, and Archaeornithomimus. Struthiomimus is somewhat intermediate. As O. velox is in fact distinct from Dromiceiomimus and doesn't preserve the proximal tibia, this character cannot be used to synonymize it with antiquus or even to place antiquus into Ornithomimus. Ornithomimus? sedens and Dromiceiomimus differ in having a shallower and less proximally angled cnemial crest, while that of Archaeornithomimus is even less angled proximally. Archaeornithomimus further differs in having a large medial bulge placed just posterior to the cnemial crest and in being more flared distally. There are no characters placing antiquus closer to Dromiceiomimus than to Ornithomimus? sedens, so while the tibia does differ from other ornithomimids, it cannot be placed in a known genus or species. Brusatte et al. (2012) agree, finding the taxon to be valid and inside the Gallimimus+Ornithomimus clade.
References- Owen, 1854. Descriptive catalogue of the fossil organic remains of Reptilia and Pisces contained in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Taylor & Francis, London. 184 pp.
Leidy, 1865. Memoir of the extinct reptiles of the Cretaceous formations of the United States. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. 14, 1-135.
Cope, 1868. On the genus Laelaps. American Journal of Science. 2(66), 415-417.
Matthew and Brown, 1922. The family Deinodontidae, with notice of a new genus from the Cretaceous of Alberta. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 46(6), 367-385.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Baird and Horner, 1977. A fresh look at the dinosaurs of New Jersey and Delaware. Bulletin, New Jersey Academy of Science. 22, 50.
Baird and Horner, 1979. Cretaceous dinosaurs of North Carolina. Brimleyana. 2, 1-28.
Baird, 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. The Mosasaur. 3, 63-85.
Holtz, 1992. An unusual structure of the metatarsus of Theropoda (Archosauria: Dinosauria: Saurischia) of the Cretaceous. PhD Thesis, Yale University. 347 pp.
Sullivan, 1997. A juvenile Ornithomimus antiquus (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria), from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Four Corners Region. 249-254.
Brusatte, Choiniere, Benson, Carr and Norell, 2012. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Eastern North America: Anatomy, systematics, biogeography and new information from historic specimens. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 70.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (AMNH online)
Late Cretaceous
North Dakota, US
Material
- (AMNH 2478) caudal vertebra (AMNH online)

Ornithomimidae indet. (Britt, 1993)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Alberta?, Canada
Material
- (ROM 37207) specimen including femur (448 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 80.16.796) pedal phalanx III-1 (Sullivan et al., 2000)
(RTMP 81.10.10) specimen including femur (178 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 87.54.1) sacrum, pelvis, metatarsal III (Britt, 1993)
(RTMP 91.36.569) specimen including femur (374 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 91.36.854) specimen including femur (369 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 92.35.1) specimen including femur (367 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 92.36.696) specimen including femur (383 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 94.12.817) posterior cervical centrum (Makovicky, 1995)
(RTMP 94.12.836) seventh dorsal vertebra (Makovicky, 1995)
(RTMP 99.26.1) metatarsal IV (Sullivan et al., 2000)
(RTMP 99.55.118) metatarsal IV (Sullivan et al., 2000)
(RTMP 99.55.337) specimen including femur (458 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 2009.12.11) specimen including femur (414 mm) (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP coll.; lost) pedal phalanges IV-2+3 or IV-3+4 (Sullivan et al., 2000)
Comments- Britt (1993) examined sacral morphology in RTMP 87.54.1, while Snively used the third metatarsal in his 2000 thesis examining arctometatarsaly and the resulting publications. Though Britt described the posterior cervical vertebrae RTMP 81.37.15 and 92.36.1212 as ornithomimids, Makovicky (1995) indicated they were actually Troodon. The specimens mentioned by Sullivan et al. (2000) are all pathological.
References- Britt, 1993. Pneumatic postcranial bones in dinosaurs and other archosaurs. PhD Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada), Alberta.
Makovicky, 1995. Phylogenetic aspects of the vertebral morphology of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). M.S. thesis, Univ. Copenhagen, 311pp.
Snively, 2000. Functional morphology of the tyrannosaurid arctometatarsus. MS Thesis. University of Calgary. 273 pp.
Sullivan, Tanke and Rothschild, 2000. An impact fracture in an ornithomimid (Ornithomimosauria: Dinosauria) metatarsal from the upper Cretaceous (late Campanian) of New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 17, 109-111.
Zelenitsky, Therrien, Erickson, DeBuhr, Kobayashi, Eberth and Hadfield, 2012. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins. Science. 338(6106), 510-514.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Ryan and Russell, 2001)
Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Milk River Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- (RTMP coll.) phalanges
Reference- Ryan and Russell, 2001. The dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves). in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 279-297.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Gilmore, 1923)
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Judith River Group, Alberta, Canada
Material
- ungual (Gilmore, 1923)
phalanx (Russell, 1935)
Reference- Gilmore, 1923. A new species of Corythosaurus with notes on other Belly River Dinosauria. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 37, 46-52.
Russell, 1935. Fauna of the upper Milk River Beds, southern Alberta. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, series 3. 4(29), 115-128.

Ornithomimidae gen. et sp. nov. (Longrich, 2008)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Dinosaur Park Formation of the Judith River Group, Alberta, Canada

Material- (AMNH 21592) pedal ungual
(CMN 1349) incomplete pedal ungual
(ROM 41844) incomplete manual ungual (~150 mm)
(RTMP 64.21.9) partial manual ungual
(RTMP 67.9.150) distal caudal vertebra
(RTMP 67.19.145) proximal pedal ungual
(RTMP 79.14.715) distal caudal vertebra
(RTMP 79.14.725) distal caudal vertebra
(RTMP 80.16.1644) partial manual ungual
(RTMP 81.16.199) pedal ungual
(RTMP 92.36.117) frontal (~65 mm)
(RTMP 93.36.155) distal caudal vertebra
(RTMP 94.12.964) pedal ungual
(RTMP 98.12.81) pedal ungual
(RTMP 2000.12.3) proximal manual ungual
Diagnosis- (after Longrich, 2008) an orbital rim on the frontal with a scalloped shape in dorsal view; strong transverse expansion of the frontal over the prefrontal; medially placed supratemporal fossa; distal caudal prezygapophyses are medially expanded to interlock with the preceding neural spine; distal caudal neural spine is more broadly expanded and posteriorly placed; manual ungual flexor tubercle divided by a deep transverse groove.
Reference- Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Lambe, 1902)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Dinosaur Park Formation of the Judith River Group, Alberta, Canada

Material- (AMNH 5380) posterior skeleton (Russell, 1972)
(AMNH 6175) pedal unguals (Russell, 1972)
(BMNH R4861) pedal elements (Russell, 1972)
(CMN 12224) posterior sacrum, ilium, proximal pubis, ischia (Russell, 1972)
(CMN field number 17, 1913) pedal elements (Russell, 1972)
(CMN coll.) proximal caudal vertebra, pedal ungual (Lambe, 1902)
(MSNM V5178) (Maganuco, 2004)
(RTMP coll.) fourteen fragments (Ryan et al., 2001)
(RTMP coll.) thirteen mid and distal caudal vertebrae, seven chevrons (Rauhut, 2003)
(UA field number 21, 1921) skeletal material (Russell, 1972)
pedal phalanx (Lambe, 1902)
partial caudal vertebra, manual phalanx, pedal phalanges (Lambe, 1902)
Comments- Lambe (1902) referred several specimens to his new taxon Ornithomimus altus, but they may be either Dromiceiomimus samueli, Struthiomimus altus or Longrich's unnamed large taxon with the little information currently known. Similar things could be said about the tail illustrated by Rauhut (2003), which he referred to Ornithomimosauria indet.. Russell (1972) listed several specimens as indeterminate.
References- Lambe, 1902. New genera and species from the Belly River Series (mid-Cretaceous). Geological Survey of Canada Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology. 3(2), 25-81.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Ryan, Russell, Eberth and Currie, 2001. The taphonomy of a Centrosaurus (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae) bone bed from th Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian), Alberta, Canada, with comments on cranial ontogeny. Palaios. 16, 482-506.
Rauhut, 2003. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69, 1-213.
Maganuco, 2004. New dinosaur bones from the Dinosaur Provincial Park (Alberta, Canada) expedition of 1922. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. 145(1), 69-77.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Dodson, 1986)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Judith River Formation, Montana, US
Material
- (MOR-41) ungual
(MOR-51) two phalanges
(MOR-460) three limb fragments
(UCMP 154579) ilium (Hutchinson, 2001)
material (Dodson, 1986)
material (Fiorillo, 1989)
Comments- UCMP 154579 was mislabeled 154759 by Hutchinson (2001) when he figured it as an ornithomimid ilium.
References- Dodson, 1986. Avaceratops lammersi: a new ceratopsid from the Judith River Formation of Montana. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 138(2), 305-317.
Fiorillo, 1989. The vertebrate fauna from the Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Wheatland and Golden Valley counties, Montana. Mosasaur. 4.
Hutchinson, 2001. The evolution of pelvic osteology and soft tissues on the line to extant birds (Neornithes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 131, 123-168.

undescribed Orithomimidae (Varricchio, 1995)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Two Medicine Formation, Montana, US
Material
- (MOR-274) phalanx II-2 (MOR online)
(MOR 450) tibia, fibula, metatarsals, pedal phalanges (MOR online)
(MOR-458) limb fragment (MOR online)
(MOR-491) phalanx III-3 (MOR online)
(MOR-537) tibia (MOR online)
(MOR-1089) forelimb (MOR online)
Reference- Varricchio, 1995. Taphonomy of Jack's Birthday Site, a diverse dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 114, 297-323.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Gasaway, Sankey, Oritz and Meredith, 2007)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Aguja Formation, Texas, US

Reference- Gasaway, Sankey, Oritz and Meredith, 2007. Paleoecology of a Chasmosaurus mariscalensis bonebed, Late Cretaceous (late Campanian), Big Bend National Park, Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 79A.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Fiorillo and Gangloff, 2003)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Prince Creek Member of the Colville Formation, Alaska, US
Reference
- Fiorillo and Gangloff, 2003. Preliminary notes on the taphonomic and paleoecologic setting of a Pachyrhinosaurus bonebed in northern Alaska. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23(3), 50A.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Ryan and Russell, 2001)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Bearpaw Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- (RTMP 78.28.16) metatarsal
Reference- Ryan and Russell, 2001. The dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves). in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 279-297.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Fruitland Formation, New Mexico
Material
- (NMMNH P 26232; = UNM B-476) manual ungual II
(NMMNH coll.; = UNM B-479A)
Comments- NMMNH P 26232 was referred to Ornithomimus ?edmontonicus by Lucas et al. (1987).
References- Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977. Paleontological survey, resource assessment, and mitigation plan for the Bisti-Star Lake Area, northwestern New Mexico. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1525 pp.
Lucas, Mateer, Hunt and O'Neill, 1987. Dinosaurs, the age of the Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Fassett and Rigby (eds.). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins, New Mexico and Colorado. Geological Society of America Special Paper. 209, 35-50.
Sullivan, 1997. A juvenile Ornithomimus antiquus (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria), from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Four Corners Region. 249-254.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hunter Wash Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, US
Material
- (NMMNH P 22525; = UNM B-433C) distal phalanx
References- Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977. Paleontological survey, resource assessment, and mitigation plan for the Bisti-Star Lake Area, northwestern New Mexico. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1525 pp.
Lucas, Mateer, Hunt and O'Neill, 1987. Dinosaurs, the age of the Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Fassett and Rigby (eds.). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins, New Mexico and Colorado. Geological Society of America Special Paper. 209, 35-50.
Sullivan, 1997. A juvenile Ornithomimus antiquus (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria), from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Four Corners Region. 249-254.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Farmington or De-na-zin Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, US
Material
- (NMMNH P 22911; = UNM B-741A) ungual
References- Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977. Paleontological survey, resource assessment, and mitigation plan for the Bisti-Star Lake Area, northwestern New Mexico. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1525 pp.
Lucas, Mateer, Hunt and O'Neill, 1987. Dinosaurs, the age of the Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Fassett and Rigby (eds.). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins, New Mexico and Colorado. Geological Society of America Special Paper. 209, 35-50.
Sullivan, 1997. A juvenile Ornithomimus antiquus (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria), from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Four Corners Region. 249-254.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Sullivan, 1997)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
De-na-zin Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, US
Material
- (SMP VP-714) (juvenile) tibia (250 mm) (Sullivan, 1997)
(SMP VP-971) metatarsal IV (190 mm) (Sullian et al., 2000)
Comments- Sullivan (1997) referred SMP VP-714 to Ornithomimus antiquus (under which he also included O. velox and O. edmontonicus) based on the cnemial crest morphology, but the same morphology is also present in Dromiceiomimus, Archaeornithomimus and Ornithomimus? sedens (see "Coelosaurus" entry). While the proximal angle of the crest does resemble "Coelosaurus" antiquus more than these other taxa, the bone is crushed to exaggerate this, which also makes its anteroposterior depth uncertain.
References- Sullivan, 1997. A juvenile Ornithomimus antiquus (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria), from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Four Corners Region. 249-254.
Sullivan, Tanke and Rothschild, 2000. An impact fracture in an ornithomimid (Ornithomimosauria: Dinosauria) metatarsal from the upper Cretaceous (late Campanian) of New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 17, 109-111.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Lambe, 1902)
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

Material- (AMNH 5262) partial cervical vertebrae, distal caudal vertebrae, two pedal phalanges (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5264) pedes (Osborn, 1916)
(CMN 12227) tibial fragments, distal metatarsal II, distal metatarsal III, metatarsals IV (one distal), three pedal phalanges (Russell, 1972)
(Regina Museum coll.; = CMN field number 3, 1916) pedal elements (Russell, 1972)
partial caudal vertebra, pedal phalanges (Lambe, 1902)
(three individuals, 2, 3 and 4 years old) bonebed including femora, tibiae, fibulae, metatarsals and pedal phalanges (Cullen et al., 2012)
Comments- Lambe (1902) referred some material to his new taxon Struthiomimus altus, while Osborn (1916) questionably referred AMNH 5262 and 5264 to Ornithomimus velox. Russell (1972) listed the AMNH specimens, CMN 12227 and the Regina Museum specimen as indeterminate. He also listed ROM field number 1, 1923 as an indeterminate ornithomimid, but this has been described as a Chirostenotes specimen (ROM 43250). The material is probably Struthiomimus sp. nov. or Dromiceiomimus brevitertius based on stratigraphy, but has not been described.
References- Lambe, 1902. New genera and species from the Belly River Series (mid-Cretaceous). Geological Survey of Canada Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology. 3(2), 25-81.
Osborn, 1916. Skeletal adaptation of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 35, 733-771.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Cullen, Ryan, Evans, Currie and Kobayashi, 2012. Multi-element histological analysis of an ornithomimid (Dinosauria) bone bed from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 82-83.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Langston, 1975)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
St. Mary River Formation, Alberta, Canada; Montana, US
Material
- (CMN 10653) distal metatarsal IV (Langston, 1975)
(MOR-609-88-31) frontal (Witmer and Weishampel, 1993)
(MOR coll.) pedal elements (Witmer and Weishampel, 1993)
Comments- MOR-609-88-31 was noted as being probably Dromiceiomimus by Witmer and Weishampel (1993), but with no justification given.
References- Langston, 1975. The ceratopsian dinosaurs and associated lower vertebrates from the St. Mary River Formation (Maestrichtian) at Scabby Butte, southern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 12, 1576-1608.
Witmer and Weishampel, 1993. Remains of theropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous St. Mary River Formation of northwestern Montana, with special reference to a new maniraptoran braincase. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 13(3), 63A.
Ryan and Russell, 2001. The dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves). in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 279-297.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Ryan and Russell, 2001)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Wapiti Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- (RTMP 89.53.35) vertebra
Reference- Ryan and Russell, 2001. The dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves). in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 279-297.

undescribed ornithomimid (Sternberg, 1924)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Ravenscrag Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada
Comments
- This was referred to Ornithomimus sp. by Sternberg (1924).
Reference- Sternberg, 1924. Report on a collection of vertebrates from Wood Mountain, southern Saskatchewan, collected by C. M. Sternberg, 1921. Canada Department of Mines Geological Survey Bulletin (Geological Series). 38(43), 27-28.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Osborn, 1916)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, US

Material- (AMNH 1006) three vertebrae (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5003) caudal vertebrae, phalanges (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5016) metatarsus (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5017) two metatarsals, three phalanges (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5018) eight phalanges, ungual (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5051) caudal vertebra, phalanges (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5884) femur (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 30045) manual ungual (AMNH online)
(MOR-1101) ilium (MOR online)
(MOR-1105) partial skeleton (MOR online)
(MOR-1181) pes (MOR online)
(MOR-1189) partial skeleton, pes (MOR online)
(YPM PU 18072) pedal ungual II (YPM online)
(YPM 56943, 56959, 56984, 56990, 57000, 57253, 57274, 57299, 57349, 57377, 57659) (YPM online)
(Daeschler and Fiorillo, 1989)
sixteen specimens (Pearson et al., 2002)
Comments- Osborn (1916) questionably referred most of the AMNH material to Ornithomimus velox, but Russell (1972) noted they were generically indeterminate ornithomimids. They may belong to O. velox, O? sedens or "Orcomimus". AMNH 30045 is a manual ungual which is elongate and straight as in Dromiceiomimus, Anserimimus, "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis" and Archaeornithomimus. AMNH 5884 and 30045 are referred to Ornithomimus sp. on the AMNH online catalogue.
References- Osborn, 1916. Skeletal adaptation of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 35, 733-771.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Daeschler and Fiorillo, 1989. Rediscovery of fossil material at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia from Edward Drinker Cope's 1893 expedition to the Dakotas. The Mosasaur. 4, 143-148.
Pearson, Schaefer, Johnson, Nichols and Hunter, 2002. Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Hell Creek Formation in southwestern North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota. The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Hartman, Johnson and Nichols (eds.). Geological Society of America Special Paper. 361, 145-167.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Estes, 1964)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Material
- (UC coll.) caudal vertebrae, pedal phalanges
(YPM 4191) (TPM online)
(YPM PU 16518) proximal caudal vertebra, manual ungual (YPM online)
Comments- Estes (1964) referred the US specimens to cf. Ornithomimus sp., stating the caudals have elongate prezygapophyses and a phalanx resembles the pedal phalanges of Struthiomimus. The YPM specimens are catalogued as Ornithomimus sp.. They all may belong to O. velox, O? sedens or "Orcomimus".
Reference- Estes, 1964. Fossil vertebrates from the Late Cretaceous Lance Formation, eastern Wyoming. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences. 49, 1-180.

undescribed ornithomimid (Russell, 1972)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- (CMN 9560) manual ungual (Russell, 1972)
Comments- Russell (1972) noted a manual ungual from the Scollard Formation which is more elongate and straighter than Struthiomimus. This sounds similar to Dromiceiomimus, Anserimimus, Archaeornithomimus and "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis".
Reference- Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Lillegraven and Eberle, 1999)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Ferris Formation, Wyoming, US
Material
- (UW 26316)
(UW 26318)
(UW 27229)
(UW 27230)
(UW 27422)
Comments- UW 26318 was referred to cf. Struthiomimus sp. and the rest to Ornithomimidae indet. by Lillegraven and Eberle (1999), based on Wroblewski (1997).
Reference- Wroblewski, 1997. Non-mammalian paleontology of the Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Ferris Formation, western Hanna Basin. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University of Wyoming. 239 pp.
Lillegraven and Eberle, 1999. Vertebrate faunal changes through Lancian and Puercan time in southern Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology. 73(4), 691-710.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Naashoibito Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, US
Material
- (NMMNH P 22660; = UNM FK-019) partial ungual
References- Kues, Froehlich, Schiebout and Lucas, 1977. Paleontological survey, resource assessment, and mitigation plan for the Bisti-Star Lake Area, northwestern New Mexico. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1525 pp.
Lucas, Mateer, Hunt and O'Neill, 1987. Dinosaurs, the age of the Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Fassett and Rigby (eds.). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins, New Mexico and Colorado. Geological Society of America Special Paper. 209, 35-50.
Sullivan, 1997. A juvenile Ornithomimus antiquus (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria), from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of the Four Corners Region. 249-254.

unnamed possible ornithomimid (Langston, 1960)
Late Santonian-Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Mooreville Chalk, Alabama, US
Material
- pedal phalanx ?-3
Comments- This was identified as Theropoda indet. by Langston (1960), but as an ornithomimid by Baird (1986).
References- Langston, 1960. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part VI. The dinosaurs. Fieldiana: Geology Memoirs. 3(6), 315-361.
Baird, 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. The Mosasaur. 3, 63-85.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Baird, 1986)
Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Merchantville Formation, Delaware, US
Material
- (YPM PU 21795) partial metatarsus (Baird and Galton, 1981)
(YPM PU 22416) proximal caudal centrum (Baird, 1986)
References- Baird and Galton, 1981. Pterosaur bones from the Upper Cretaceous of Delaware. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1(1), 67-71.
Baird, 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. The Mosasaur. 3, 63-85.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Schwimmer, Williams, Dobie and Siesser, 1993)
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Blufftown Formation, Georgia, US

Reference- Schwimmer, Williams, Dobie and Siesser, 1993. Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Blufftown Formation in western Georgia and eastern Alabama. Journal of Paleontology. 67(2), 288-296.

undescribed ornithomimid (Gallagher, 1997)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Marshalltown Formation, Delaware, US
Material
- (A124) ungual
References- Baird, 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. The Mosasaur. 3, 63-85.
Gallagher, 1997. When Dinosaurs Roamed New Jersey. 176 pp.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Baird, 1986)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Mount Laurel or Wenonah Formation, New Jersey, US
Material
- partial femur (Baird 1986)
Comments- Baird (1986) referred this to "Coelosaurus" antiquus (his Ornithomimus antiquus), but it is not comparable to that specimen and could be from any ornithomimid.
Reference- Baird, 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. The Mosasaur. 3, 63-85.

Ornithomimidae indet. (Baird, 1986)
Middle Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Severn Formation, Maryland, US
Material
- (Miller private coll.) long bone fragment (Baird, 1986)
(USNM 256614) femur (Baird, 1986)
(YPM PU 23503) incomplete distal caudal vertebra (Baird, 1986)
Comments- Baird (1986) referred these to "Coelosaurus" antiquus (his Ornithomimus antiquus), but they are not comparable to that specimen and could be from any ornithomimid.
Reference- Baird, 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. The Mosasaur. 3, 63-85.

undescribed Ornithomimidae (Montellano-Ballesteros, Hernández-Rivera, Álvarez-Reyes, Andrade-Ramos and Martín-Medrano, 2000)
Late Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Aguja or Javelina Formation, Mexico

Reference- Montellano-Ballesteros, Hernández-Rivera, Álvarez-Reyes, Andrade-Ramos and Martín-Medrano, 2000. Discovery of Late Cretaceous vertebrate local faunas in northern Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 58A-59A.

unnamed clade (Anserimimus planinychus + Dromiceiomimus brevitertius)
Diagnosis- metacarpal I longer than metacarpal II; medial and lateral condyles of metacarpal I dorsoventrally level; metacarpals II and III appressed for their entire lengths; manual phalanx II-1 more than twice the length of phalanx III-1; manual unguals almost straight.
Comments- This grouping has been found by the TWG matrices (with their Ornithomimus edmontonicus here recognized as Dromiceiomimus), whereas in Kobayashi's matrices Anserimimus clades with Gallimimus due to two coracoid characters. One confounding factor is probably the use of a single OTU for Gallimimus in the latter matrices, as "G." "mongoliensis" seems not to be a member of that genus.

Anserimimus Barsbold, 1988
A. planinychus Barsbold, 1988
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia

Holotype- (IGM 100/300) nine cervical vertebrae, twelve dorsal vertebrae, at least fourteen dorsal ribs, six sacral vertebrae, first caudal vertebra (61.3 mm), second caudal vertebra (61.5 mm), third caudal vertebra (62 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (58.1 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (60.5 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (56.5 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (58.5 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (58.7 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (58.1 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (59.7 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (58.5 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (60 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (58 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (58.4 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (58.3 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (59 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (63.3 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra, nineteenth caudal vertebra (63 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra, twenty-first caudal vertebra (62.1 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (64 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (59.4 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (60 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (52.9 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (50.5 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra, twenty-eighth caudal vertebra, twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (34 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (30 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra, thirty-second caudal vertebra (22.5 mm), thirty-third caudal vertebra (20.5 mm), thirty-fourth caudal vertebra (18.5 mm), thirty-fifth caudal vertebra (23 mm), sixteen chevrons, partial scapulocoracoid, humeri (260 mm), radii (208 mm), ulnae, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpals I (73.5 mm), phalanges I-1 (103 mm), manual unguals I (75 mm), metacarpals II (73 mm), phalanx II-1 (49 mm), phalanx II-2 (74 mm), manual ungual II (~65 mm), metacarpals III (73.6 mm), phalanx III-1 (32 mm), phalanx III-2 (22 mm), phalanx III-3 (49 mm), ilium (480 mm), pubes (465 mm), ischium, femora (435 mm), tibiae (~486 mm), fibulae, astragalus, metatarsals II (265 mm), phalanx II-1 (66.7 mm), phalanx II-2 (31.8 mm), metatarsals III (295 mm), metatarsals IV (280 mm), pedal phalanges, metatarsal V
Referred- (ZPAL MgD-I/23) manual ungual (Bronowicz, 2005)
(ZPAL MgD-I/65) axial centrum, anterior cervical centrum, partial anterior cervical vertebra, mid cervical centrum, mid cervical centrum, partial ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical centrum, first dorsal centrum, second dorsal centrum, incomplete dorsal centrum, dorsal central fragment, two sacral centra, first caudal centrum, second caudal centrum, third caudal centrum, fourth caudal centrum, fifth caudal centrum, sixth caudal centrum, scapular fragments, proximal metacarpal I, proximal phalanx I-1, incomplete manual ungual I, metacarpals II (99 mm), proximal phalanx II-1, phalanges II-2, fragmentary manual ungual II, phalanges III-3 (77 mm), fragmentary pubis, fragmentary ischium, femoral fragments, partial phalanges II-1, proximal phalanx II-2, partial phalanges III-1, phalanx III-2, incomplete phalanx III-3, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV (Bronowicz, 2005)
(ZPAL MgD-I/66) manual ungual I, manual phalanx III-3 (Bronowicz, 2005)
(ZPAL MgD-I/223) fragmentary manual phalanges (Bronowicz, 2005)
(ZPAL MgD-I/231) manual ungual (Bronowicz, 2005)
(ZPAL MgD-I/232) manual ungual III (Bronowicz, 2005)
(ZPAL MgD-I/233) manual ungual (Bronowicz, 2005)
Diagnosis- widened, massive epipophyses of humerus; high, thickened deltopectoral crest; fused metacarpus; manual phalanx II-2 <150% of phalanx II-1; manual phalanx III-2 <70% of III-1; ligament pits absent on manual phalanges III-1 and III-2; arctometatarsalian condition well developed (mt's II and IV contact for ~40% of length).
Comments- Barsbold (1988) only briefly described some of the material - the pectoral girdle, manus and metatarsus. However, Hwang et al. (2004) and especially Kobayashi (2004 and resulting publications) have both coded it for their data matrices, and the latter describes numerous features as well. Kobayashi and Barsbold (2006) illustrated the humerus and manus and described some further aspects of the taxon. The holotype is mounted and online photographs reveal it to be nearly complete. Bronowicz (2005) describes and illustrates additional fragmentary specimens in his thesis.
References- Barsbold, 1988. A new Late Cretaceous ornithomimid from the Mongolia People’s Republic. Journal of Paleontology. 1988(1), 122-125.
Hwang, Norell, Ji and Gao, 2004. A large compsognathid from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. Journal of Systematic Palaentology. 2(1), 13-30.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Bronowicz, 2005. Upper Cretaceous dinosaur Anserimimus planinychus (Theropoda: Ornithomimidae) from Mongolia. MS Thesis. Warsaw University.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2006. Ornithomimids from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 22(1), 195-207.

Dromiceiomimus Russell, 1972
Diagnosis- (after Longrich, 2008) relatively straight ventral edge of the maxilla (unknown in Anserimimus); an orbital rim on the frontal that is relatively straight in dorsal view (unknown in Anserimimus); dorsally convex distal caudal centra (in posterior view) (unknown in Anserimimus); distal caudal neural spines not in trough on neural arch (unknown in Anserimimus); slender distal caudal neural arch placed anteriorly (unknown in Anserimimus); slender distal caudal prezygapophyses (unknown in Anserimimus); pedal unguals narrow in ventral view (also in Ornithomimus); ventral surface of pedal unguals weakly concave (unknown in Anserimimus); one or both ventrolateral edges of pedal unguals sharp (unknown in Anserimimus).
(after Kobayashi et al., 2006) accessory process of the anterior process of the postorbital (unknown in Anserimimus); ridge and groove articulation between prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses of the distal caudal vertebrae (unknown in Anserimimus).
(after Makovicky et al., 2004) bifurcated dorsal process of the quadratojugal (unknown in Anserimimus); deep embayment along the posterior border of the quadratojugal for the paraquadratic foramen (unknown in Anserimimus).
(modified from Russell, 1972) length of presacral vertebral column less than combined lengths of femur, tibia-astragalus and metatarsal III; posterior width of proximal 15 caudal centra less than half of central length (unknown in Anserimimus); transition point between proximal and distal segments of tail occurs before caudal 14.
differs from Anserimimus in - slender humerus (proximal width <20% of length) (also in Sinornithomimus and Gallimimus); pubic boot >40% of pubic length (also in Struthiomimus and Qiupalong); pubic boot ventrally convex (also in Struthiomimus, Qiupalong, Ornithomimus? sedens and "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis").
Comments- Russell (1972) was the first to justify generic separation of Struthiomimus from Ornithomimus on valid morphological grounds, also moving two former species of Struthiomimus (S. brevetertius and S. samueli) to a new genus - Dromiceiomimus. Dromiceiomimus supposedly differed from Ornithomimus edmontonicus in - humerus shorter than scapula; ulna ~70% femoral length; preacetabular process, tibia, metatarsus and pedal digit III longer compared to femur. Makovicky et al. (2004) stated there is no statistical support for Dromiceiomimus using Russell's ratios and synonymized Dromiceiomimus with Ornithomimus edmontonicus, but did not go into details. The scapula and humerus are only both known in three specimens (ROM 851 from the Horseshoe Canyon and ROM 840 and RTMP 95.110.1 from the Dinosaur Park), of which the first has a scapula shorter than its humerus, and the latter two have scapulae longer than their humeri. The first was referred to edmontonicus by Russell and the second to Dromiceiomimus. This could just as easily be attributed to D. brevitertius and D. samueli as defined below, but is based on a very small sample size. No Dromiceiomimus (sensu Russell) specimen preserves the ulna and femur, and no specimen is preserved with such an elongate ulna, the 71% ratio cited by Russell resulting from assuming the estimated ulnohumeral ratio of ROM 840 is present in AMNH 5201. But ROM 840 has a crushed radius and ulna which makes measurements tentative (Parks, 1928) and if we assume an ulnohumeral ratio more like CMN 8632 and ROM 851 (which are from the same formation as AMNH 5201), we get a more reasonable 55-57%. Those specimens with preserved ulnae and femora (ROM 851 from the Horseshoe Canyon and CMN 12441 and RTMP 95.110.1 from the Dinosaur Park) have lower and similar ratios (47%, 50% and 51% respectively). AMNH 5201's ratio is still larger because it has a longer humerus (75% of femoral length compared to 63% in ROM 12441 and 65% in ROM 851). This may be diagnostic, but the sample sizes are again small. Measured from the tip to the anterior pubic peduncle edge, the preacetabular process of ROM 852 (22%) actually seems shorter than that of ROM 851 (28%), the former being referred to Dromiceiomimus by Russell and the latter to edmontonicus. Dromiceiomimus specimen CMN 12228 has a ratio of 35%, and RTMP 95.110.1's is 29%. So this does not support Russell's grouping. As for the hindlimb proportions, only two specimens referred to edmontonicus by Russell preserve tibiofemoral ratios (ROM 851 109% and CMN 12441 110%), which have smaller ratios than the six Dromiceiomimus specimens (119-136%). Only one specimen referred to edmontonicus by Russell preserves the metatarsofemoral ratio (ROM 851 73%), which is lower than five Dromiceiomimus specimens (74-85%). However, not only is this very slightly lower than the lowest Dromiceiomimus ratio (in ROM 797), it also seems to be an allometric trend, as the data points line up with larger specimens having comparatively longer metatarsi. Further evidence against these ratios having taxonomic value comes from newly discovered RTMP 95.110.1, which has a tibia in the edmontonicus range, but a metatarsus in the Dromiceiomimus range. Finally, only one specimen referred to edmontonicus preserves pedal digit III (ROM 851 38% excluding the ungual), which is indeed lower than the two Dromiceiomimus specimens (ROM 797 40% and ROM 852 43%), but again not by much, and again it follows an allometric trend. RTMP 95.110.1 doesn't preserve pedal digit III, unfortunately. In conclusion, scapulohumeral ratios are ambiguous, AMNH 5201 has a 10-12% longer humerus than two other specimens, preacetabular lengths don't follow Russell's divisions, ROM 851 and CMN 12441 have tibiae 9-10% shorter than the shortest Dromiceiomimus, and metatarsal and pedal lengths are allometric. One might argue that despite the small sample sizes, the differences in humerus and tibia length are expressed consistantly, but the specimen with the elongate humerus plots between edmontonicus and other Dromiceiomimus in tibiofemoral ratio, so doesn't necessarily group with Dromiceiomimus. Notably Russell also diagnosed Ornithomimus with several manual characters and Dromiceiomimus with two caudal characters, but the manus of Dromiceiomimus and tail of Ornithomimus were poorly known at the time and new specimens like RTMP 95.110.1 show both sets of characters (<15 caudal vertebrae with transverse processes; metacarpal I longer than II). This would all support Makovicky et al.'s synonymization except that both he and Russell used Ornithomimus edmontonicus as a stand in for Ornithomimus, but O. velox is the type species of the genus. Russell only placed edmontonicus in Ornithomimus because of its long metacarpal I, and Makovicky et al. did not list any additional justification. Yet O. velox has never been included in a published cladistic analysis as a separate OTU, and when it is (unpublished data), it does not clade with brevitertius (= edmontonicus) or samueli. For instance, O. velox lacks appressed metacarpals II and III and seems to have a medial distal condyle on metacarpal I positioned higher than its lateral condyle, both less similar to Dromiceiomimus than Anserimimus is.
Additional characters used by Russell to separate Dromiceiomimus and/or edmontonicus from Struthiomimus have a broader distribution when examined in a cladistic context. The short manus (<107% of humeral length) is primitive for ornithomimids, also being found in Sinornithomimus, Anserimimus, Gallimimus and "G." "mongoliensis". The elongate metacarpal I is shared with Anserimimus. The short manual unguals (III shorter than phalanx III-3) are plesiomorphic, also found in Sinornithomimus, "Grusimimus", Harpymimus, Shenzhousaurus and Pelecanimimus. The subequally sized manual unguals I and II are also seen in many other ornithomimosaurs (Deinocheirus, Shenzhousaurus, Harpymimus, Gallimimus, "G." "mongoliensis" and Ornithomimus? sedens).
Similarly, some characters used by Longrich (2008) to distinguish edmontonicus and samueli from Struthiomimus are problematic. The comparatively tall distal caudal centra (>60% of width) are plesiomorphic, being present in Gallimimus and Sinornithomimus as well. The poorly developed posterodorsal process on pedal unguals is also found in Gallimimus, Ornithomimus velox, O? sedens and Archaeornithomimus.
References- Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Makovicky, Kobayashi and Currie, 2004. Ornithomimosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Kobayashi, Makovicky and Currie, 2006. Ornithomimids (Theropoda: Dinosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 86A.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
D. brevitertius (Parks, 1926) Russell, 1972
= Struthiomimus brevitertius Parks, 1926 (as brevetertius)
= Ornithomimus brevitertius (Parks, 1926) Russell, 1930
= Ornithomimus edmontonicus Sternberg, 1933
= Struthiomimus currellii Parks, 1933
= Struthiomimus ingens Parks, 1933
= Ornithomimus currellii (Parks, 1933) Russell and Chamney, 1967
= Ornithomimus ingens (Parks, 1933) Russell and Chamney, 1967
= Struthiomimus edmontonicus (Sternberg, 1933) Paul, 2010
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

Holotype- (ROM 797) two partial dorsal ribs, sacrum (350 mm), first caudal vertebra (56 mm), second caudal vertebra (50 mm), third caudal vertebra (45 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (55 mm), seven distal caudal vertebrae (52 mm), three chevrons (45-95 mm), ilium (~320 mm), pubis (415 mm), ischium (285 mm), femora (390 mm), tibiae (483 mm), fibulae, astragali, calcanea, metatarsals II (255 mm), phalanges II-1 (73 mm), phalanges II-2 (34 mm), pedal unguals II (45 mm), metatarsals III (~288 mm), phalanges III-1 (70 mm), phalanges III-2 (58 mm), phalanges III-3 (40 mm), pedal unguals III (42 mm), metatarsals IV (273 mm), phalanges IV-1 (47 mm), phalanges IV-2 (30 mm), phalanges IV-3 (27 mm), phalanges IV-4 (21 mm), pedal unguals IV (37 mm), metatarsals V (100 mm)
Referred- (AMNH 5201) humeri (283 mm), pubes (372 mm), ischia, femur (378 mm), tibiae (448 mm with astr), fibulae, metatarsal fragments, pedal phalanges (Osborn, 1916)
(CMN 8632; holotype of Ornithomimus edmontonicus) three vertebral fragments, twenty-four partial dorsal ribs, fifteen gastralia rows, proximal scapulae, coracoids, humeri (280 mm), radius (195 mm), ulna (215 mm), metacarpal I (90 mm), phalanx I-1 (107 mm), manual ungual I (~65 mm), metacarpal II (84 mm), phalanx II-1 (32 mm), phalanx II-2 (90 mm), manual ungual II (65 mm), metacarpal III (83 mm), phalanx III-1 (23 mm), phalanx III-2 (26 mm), phalanx III-3 (75 mm), manual ungual III 65 mm), incomplete pubes, distal femur (~443 mm?), tibiae (455 mm), fibulae, astragali, metatarsus (315 mm), metatarsal II (300 mm), phalanx II-1 (83 mm), phalanx II-2 (41 mm), pedal ungual II (26 mm), metatarsal III (~315 mm), phalanx III-1 (76 mm), phalanx III-2 (63 mm), phalanx III-3 (48 mm), metatarsal IV (310 mm), phalanx IV-1 (44 mm), phalanx IV-2 (38 mm), phalanx IV-3 (33 mm), phalanx IV-4 (30 mm) (Sternberg, 1933)
(CMN 12068) posterior dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, ilium, pubes, ischia, femora (440 mm), tibiae (527 mm), fibulae, astragali, calcanea, metatarsi (353 mm), pedes (Russell, 1972)
(CMN 12069) fifth caudal vertebra (43 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (43 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (43 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (43 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (43 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (41 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (40 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (37 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (31 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (26 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (24 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (23 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (18 mm), distal pubes, distal ischia, femur (376 mm), tibiae (511 mm), fibulae, metatarsi (308 mm), pedes (Russell, 1972)
(CMN 12070) distal tibiae, metatarsi (350 mm), pedal phalanges (Russell, 1972)
(CMN 12228) (3.66 m, 144 kg) partial skull (~240 mm), partial mandibles, third cervical vertebra (65 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (76 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (75 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (75 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (78 mm), eighth cervical vertebrae (80 mm), ninth cervical vertebrae (~75 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (~61 mm), (dorsal series ~712 mm) fourth dorsal vertebra (58 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (57 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (58 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (59 mm), (sacrum ~373 mm), second caudal vertebra (55 mm), third caudal vertebra (54 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (57 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (55 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (57 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (57 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (57 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (59 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (63 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (58 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (60 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (57 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (59 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (58 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (59 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (63 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (64 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (62 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (60 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (57 mm), ilium (478 mm), pubes, ischia, femur (468 mm), tibia (578 mm with astr), fibula, metatarsus (~397 mm), two pedal phalanges (Russell, 1972)
(ROM 851; holotype of Struthiomimus currellii) (3.3 m, 110 kg) skull (234 mm), mandible, axis (~34 mm), third cervical vertebra (45 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (45 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (45 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (64 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (64 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (70 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (71 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (57 mm), first dorsal vertebra (47 mm), second dorsal vertebra (47 mm), third dorsal vertebra (45 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (45 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (43 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (45 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (47 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (45 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (50 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (56 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (48 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (45 mm), dorsal ribs, (sacrum 393 mm) first sacral vertebra (69 mm), second sacral vertebra (69 mm), third sacral vertebra (61 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (61 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (64 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (69 mm), scapula (260 mm), coracoids (102 mm), humeri (276, 282 mm), radii (194, 160 mm), ulnae (206, 168 mm), carpals, metacarpals I (107.1 mm), phalanges I-1 (116, 108 mm), manual unguals I (64, 64 mm), metacarpals II (104.4, 98 mm), phalanges II-1 (36, 33 mm), phalanges II-2 (90, 83 mm), manual unguals II (67, 64 mm), metacarpals III (100.5 mm), phalanges III-1 (31, 23 mm), phalanges III-2 (23, 20 mm), phalanges III-3 (74, 72 mm), manual unguals III (63, 63 mm), ilium (398 mm), pubes (411 mm), ischia (320 mm), femur (435 mm), tibia (475 mm with astr.), fibula (448 mm), astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II (265 mm), phalanx II-1 (78.2 mm), phalanx II-2 (35.2 mm), pedal ungual II (49 mm), metatarsal III (317 mm), phalanx III-1 (74 mm), phalanx III-2 (50 mm), phalanx III-3 (43 mm), pedal ungual III (48 mm), metatarsal IV (295 mm), phalanx IV-1 (39 mm), phalanx IV-2 (29 mm), phalanx IV-3 (17 mm), phalanx IV-4 (17 mm), pedal ungual IV (48 mm), metatarsal V (~100 mm) (Parks, 1933)
(ROM 852; holotype of Struthiomimus ingens) tenth dorsal vertebra (58 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (59 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (64 mm), four dorsal ribs (205-230 mm), gastralia, (sacrum 393 mm) first sacral vertebra (60 mm), second sacral vertebra (70 mm), third sacral vertebra (62 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (84 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (60 mm), first caudal vertebra (69 mm), ilium (435 mm), pubis (400 mm), ischium (~335 mm), femora (432 mm), tibiae (537 with astr mm), fibulae (one proximal), astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II (325 mm), phalanx II-1 (80 mm), phalanx II-2 (39 mm), metatarsal III (340 mm), phalanx III-1 (81 mm), phalanx III-2 (60 mm), phalanx III-3 (43 mm), metatarsal IV (340 mm), phalanx IV-1 (47 mm), phalanx IV-2 (29 mm), phalanx IV-3 (19 mm), phalanx IV-4 (17 mm), pedal ungual IV (56 mm), metatarsal V (120 mm) (Parks, 1933)
?(RTMP 2001.45.85) pedal ungual (Longrich and Currie, 2009)
(RTMP 2008.70.1) (~3.4 m; adult) partial skull, sclerotic plates, eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, cervical ribs, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sexth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, partial dorsal ribs, scapula (252 mm), proximal humerus, two manual unguals, pelvic fragments, tibia, metatarsals, feathers (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(RTMP 2009.110.1) (~1.5 m; <1 year old juvenile) skull, mandible, posterior cervical vertebrae, dorsal series, dorsal ribs, proximal chevrons, forelimbs including incomplete humerus, proximal radius, proximal ulna, metacarpal III fragment and two manual unguals, partial pelvis including incomplete ilium, proximal femur (~182 mm), partial tibiotarsi, pes, distal metatarsus, pedal phalanges, feathers (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
(UA 16182) cranial elements, mandibular elements, partial skeleton including posterior dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, pelvis, tibia, partial astragalus (Nicholls and Russell, 1981)
? (Russell, 1967)
Diagnosis- humerus longer than scapula.
Comments- AMNH 5201 was originally questionably referred to Ornithomimus velox by Osborn (1916), though the humeri were illustrated as Struthiomimus in his figure. The brevitertius holotype was discovered in 1924 and described by Parks in 1926 as a species of Struthiomimus due to its preserved fifth metatarsal. Parks spelled his new species brevetertius throughout the article, though Russell (1930) was the first of many authors to spell it brevitertius instead. However, Sternberg (1933) emended it to brevitertius because it is "evidently a typographical error." As there is no proof of this in Parks' original paper, and indeed he continues to use brevetertius in future papers (e.g. Parks, 1933). This would make Sternberg's emendation unjustified (ICZN Article 33.3.3), except that the spelling brevitertius has become prevailing (10 vs. 2 citations on the Paleobiology Database; 16 vs. 5 on Google Scholar and 672 vs. 123 in Google) and is attributed to the original author and date, which makes it a justified emendation (ICZN Article 33.2.3.1). The holotype is unique among ornithomimids (and seemingly abnormal among its species) in lacking the proximal portion of metatarsal III, as in Avimimus and parvicursorines. The holotype of Ornithomimus edmontonicus was discovered in 1916 and described by Sternberg in 1933. Its femur is here estimated as ~443 mm long based on a linear regression of Ornithomimus metatarsofemoral ratios, and is also highly congruent with the linear regression of digitofemoral and tibiofemoral ratios. He distinguished it from the O. brevitertius holotype due to the longer and narrower pubic boot, slightly different hindlimb proportions (shorter tibiofemoral ratio, longer metatarsus and pes compared to tibia), longer metatarsal II compared to IV (97% vs. 93%), and proximally complete metatarsal III. Intermediates are now known for the hindlimb and metatarsal ratios, while pubic boot shape seems to vary quite a lot within Ornithomimus. The holotypes of currellii and ingens were discovered in 1931 and described by Parks in 1933, again as Struthiomimus due to the preserved metatarsal V. The currellii specimen is very complete though also quite crushed, and was only distinguished from brevitertius due to the divergent metatarsal II and slight proportional differences. The holotype of ingens is far less complete and largely distinguished from currellii by its larger size, comparatively longer sacral five and shorter sacrals one and six, more robust and comparatively longer hindlimb, straighter femur, more laterally twisted metatarsal III, and slightly different hindlimb proportions. Sternberg (1934) first synonymized currellii with edmontonicus. Russell (1972) noted several new specimens and referred most specimens (AMNH 5201, CMN 12068-12070, CMN 12228, ROM 797 and ROM 852) to his new genus Dromiceiomimus, sinking ingens into brevitertius. The supposed differences are discussed above under the Dromiceiomimus comments. Nicholls and Russell (1981) included UA 16182 as Ornithomimus in their table of proportions, but did not describe it. Britt (1993) examined its sacrum, and it is identified as Dromiceiomimus on the UA online collections. Zelenitsky et al. (2012) described two new young specimens (RTMP 2009.110.1 and 2008.70.1) which preserve feather impressions. Makovicky et al. (2004), Kobayashi et al. (2006) and Longrich (2008) have synonymized Dromiceiomimus with Ornithomimus edmontonicus, which seems correct (again, see Dromiceiomimus comments). These authors have all used Ornithomimus edmontonicus for this species, but brevitertius was named seven years earlier, and given the species' somewhat distant relationship to Ornithomimus velox, Dromiceiomimus brevitertius should be the combination which is used.
References- Osborn, 1916. Skeletal adaptation of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 35, 733-771.
Parks, 1926. Struthiomimus brevetertius - A new species of dinosaur from the Edmonton Formation of Alberta. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, series 3. 20(4), 65-70.
Russell. 1930. Upper Cretaceous dinosaur faunas of North America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 69(4), 133-159.
Parks, 1933. New species of dinosaurs and turtles from the Upper Cretaceous formations of Alberta. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series. 34, 1-33.
Sternberg, 1933. A new Ornithomimus with complete abdominal cuirass. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 47(5), 79-83.
Sternberg, 1934. Notes on certain recently described dinosaurs. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 48, 7-8.
Russell, 1967. Palaeontology of the Swan Hills area, north-central Alberta. Life Science Contribution, Royal Ontario Museum. 71 ,1-31.
Russell and Chamney, 1967. Notes on the biostratigraphy of dinosaurian and microfossil faunas in the Edmonton Formation (Cretaceous), Alberta. National Museum of Canada Natural History Papers, 35, 1-22.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Britt, 1993. Pneumatic postcranial bones in dinosaurs and other archosaurs. PhD Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada), Alberta.
Makovicky, Kobayashi and Currie, 2004. Ornithomimosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Kobayashi, Makovicky and Currie, 2006. Ornithomimids (Theropoda: Dinosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 86A.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252.
Paul, 2010. The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. Princeton University Press. 320 pp.
Zelenitsky, Therrien, Erickson, DeBuhr, Kobayashi, Eberth and Hadfield, 2012. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins. Science. 338(6106), 510-514.
D. samueli (Parks, 1928) Russell, 1972
= Struthiomimus samueli Parks, 1928
= Ornithomimus samueli (Parks, 1928) Russell, 1930
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Dinosaur Park Formation of the Judith River Group, Alberta, Canada

Holotype- (ROM 840) skull (258 mm), mandibles, sclerotic rings, two fragmentary anterior cervical vertebrae, fifth cervical vertebra (78 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (83 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (90 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (82 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (75 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (65 mm), five cervical ribs (60-76 mm), seven anterior dorsal vertebrae (53-58 mm), dorsal ribs (first 133 mm), gastralia, scapulae (317 mm), coracoids, humeri (294 mm), radius (~270 mm), ulna (~280 mm), two carpals, proximal metacarpal I, proximal metacarpal II, proximal metacarpal III, two manual unguals (52, 48 mm)
Referred- (AMNH 5394) pedal ungual (Longrich, 2008)
?(CMN coll.) distal caudal vertebra (Lambe, 1902)
(CMN 12441) several dorsal ribs, caudal vertebrae, humerus (317 mm), radii, ulnae (252 mm), several metacarpals, phalanx II-2 (95 mm), manual phalanges, femora (500 mm), tibiae (538 mm), fibulae, astragali (Russell, 1972)
(RTMP 80.28.1) distal caudal vertebra (Makovicky, 1995)
(RTMP 93.62.1) (subadult) axis, third-tenth cervical vertebrae, first-twelfth dorsal vertebrae, ribs, sacrum, most caudal vertebrae, ilia (~380 mm), pubes, ischia, partial hindlimbs including femur (391 mm) (Makovicky, 1995)
(RTMP 95.110.1) (3.6 m; adult) skull (236 mm), mandible, keratinous beak, axis, nine postaxial cervical vertebrae, eight dorsal neural spines, twelve dorsal ribs, fourteen gastralia rows, six sacral vertebrae, first caudal vertebra (60 mm), second caudal vertebra (55.9 mm), third caudal vertebra (53.3 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (53.6 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (52.8 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (55.3 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (51.4 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (51.9 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (53.3 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (59.3 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (49 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (51.4 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (50.5 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (53.2 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (54.1 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (55.9 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (60.2 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (62.5 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (66.4 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (65.6 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (64.5 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (64.5 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (63.5 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (70 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra, twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (54.7 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra (51.3 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (45.7 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (41.6 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (36.7 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (31.7 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (29.5 mm), chevrons, scapula (260 mm), coracoid, humerus, ulna (~217 mm), radiale, intermedium, pisiform, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, distal carpal III, metacarpal I (94.2 mm), metacarpal II (86.7 mm), metacarpal III (81.5 mm), ilium (409 mm), pubis (440 mm), ischium, femur (425 mm), tibiae (485 mm), fibula, astragali, calcaneum, distal tarsals, metatarsal II (300 mm), phalanx II-1 (68 mm), phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II (52 mm), metatarsals III (337 mm), metatarsals IV (311 mm), phalanx IV-1 (40 mm), phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3 (22 mm), phalanx IV-4 (21 mm), pedal ungual IV, metatarsals V, covert feather impressions (Sereno et al., 1996)
(RTMP 2005.9.4) distal caudal vertebra (Longrich, 2008)
(RTMP 2005.49.21) manual ungual (Longrich, 2008)
Diagnosis - differs from D. brevitertius in - humerus shorter than scapula.
Comments- Lambe (1902) referred several isolated elements to his new species Ornithomimus altus, but the distal caudal vertebra in plate XV figure 1-2 may be Dromiceiomimus instead based on its slender proportions. It would be D. samueli based on stratigraphy. The holotype of samueli was discovered in 1926 and described by Parks (1928) as a new species of Struthiomimus, since it preserved metatarsal V. Parks (1933) noted only minor differences from the currellii holotype, including longer dorsal premaxillary process, a posteroventral premaxillary process, shorter anterodorsal nasal process, shorter posterior nasal process, more robust ventral postorbital process, longer neck compared to skull length (3.06 times skull length vs. 2.26 times), more robust cervical ribs, larger ulnohumeral ratio. It is not comparable to either the brevitertius or ingens holotypes. Of the differences between samueli and currellii, RTMP 95.110.1 is like samueli in having a posteroventral premaxillary process (also in Struthiomimus, so perhaps hidden due to crushing in currellii), an anterodorsal nasal process intermediate in length, a neck intermediate in length (~2.7 times), and the rest of the characters are uncertain from available illustrations. CMN 12441 has a short ulnohumeral ratio like that of currellii. Russell (1972) described CMN 12441 as a new specimen of Ornithomimus edmontonicus, and placed samueli in his new genus Dromiceiomimus as D. samueli along with the specimens he assigned to D. brevitertius. Unstated pectoral and forelimb differences supposedly distinguished samueli from edmontonicus, while unstated cranial similarities led Russell to group it with brevitertius (based on CMN 12228). He distinguished it from brevitertius due to the seemingly shorter humerus, though his humeral estimate for brevitertius was made by applying the humerofemoral ratio of AMNH 5021 to the vertebral-hindlimb proportions of CMN 12228. This may be correct in the sense that both the samueli holotype and probably RTMP 95.110.1 have humeri shorter than their scapulae, while currellii (here referred to brevitertius) has a humerus longer than its scapula. But the seemingly unique forelimb proportions seen in other individuals (long humerofemoral ratio in AMNH 5201; long ulnohumeral ratio in ROM 840) make the currellii holotype's long humerus questionably valid. He also noted the skull is more heavily constructed than CMN 12228, though this may be due to ontogeny instead, as samueli's holotype is larger. He noted "no taxonomically significant morphological differences" between CMN 12441 and his Horseshoe Canyon edmontonicus specimens (CMN 8632 and ROM 851). Makovicky (1995) describes the vertebrae of RTMP 93.62.1 in depth (as cf. Ornithomimus). RTMP 95.110.1 is a nearly complete specimen found in 1995 and mentioned several publications (e.g. Xu et al., 1999 supplementary info), but not yet described except for its cranial pneumaticity (Tahara and Larsson, 2011). Norell et al. (2001) illustrate the beak, while Makovicky et al. (2004) illustrates the skull (as Ornithomimus edmontonicus). Kobayashi (2004) illustrates the skull and metacarpus and provides further morphological information on the specimen. Based on the similarity of femoral and metatarsal measurements to those listed in Kobayashi (2004), the RTMP Ornithomimus specimen measured by Sereno et al. (1996) is RTMP 95.110.1. Zelenitsky et al. (2012) have recently interpreted black marks on the radius and ulna which trend posterodistally to distally, and sometimes are U- or hook-shaped as if they had hollow centers, as remains of feather shafts. These may be remains of stage 1 quills instead, as they are too basal to show remains of vanes. Makovicky et al. (2004), Kobayashi et al. (2006) and Longrich (2008) have synonymized Dromiceiomimus with edmontonicus, which seems correct (see Dromiceiomimus comments). While Makovicky et al. and Kobayashi et al. sunk samueli into edmontonicus (= brevitertius), Longrich questionably referred the samueli holotype to "Ornithomimus sp.", an apparently valid though undiagnosed species of Ornithomimus from the Dinosaur Park Formation. He also referred RTMP 95.110.1 and several isolated remains to this species. This is tentatively accepted here, though the material will need to be studied to determine if it should be synonymized with D. brevitertius. It should be noted too that the Dinosaur Park Dromiceiomimus species must be called D. samueli, and not D. sp., as you cannot simply drop a species name.
References- Lambe, 1902. New genera and species from the Belly River Series (mid-Cretaceous). Geological Survey of Canada Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology. 3(2), 25-81.
Parks, 1928. Struthiomimus samueli, a new species of Ornithomimidae from the Belly River Formation of Alberta. University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series. 26, 1-24.
Russell. 1930. Upper Cretaceous dinosaur faunas of North America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 69(4), 133-159.
Parks, 1933. New species of dinosaurs and turtles from the Upper Cretaceous formations of Alberta. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series. 34, 1-33.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Makovicky, 1995. Phylogenetic aspects of the vertebral morphology of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). M.S. thesis, Univ. Copenhagen, 311pp.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson 1996.
Xu, Wang and Wu, 1999. A dromaeosaurid dinosaur with filamentous integument from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature. 401, 262-266.
Norell, Makovicky and Currie, 2001. The beaks of ostrich dinosaurs. Nature. 412, 873-874.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Makovicky, Kobayashi and Currie, 2004. Ornithomimosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Kobayashi, Makovicky and Currie, 2006. Ornithomimids (Theropoda: Dinosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 86A.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
Tahara and Larsson, 2011. Cranial pneumatic anatomy of Ornithomimus edmontonicus (Ornithomimidae: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31(1), 127143.
Zelenitsky, Therrien, Erickson, DeBuhr, Kobayashi, Eberth and Hadfield, 2012. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins. Science. 338(6106), 510-514.
D. sp. (Ryan and Russell, 2001)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- (RTMP 93.104.1) partial skeleton including metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, metacarpal III, partial phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phaslanx III-3, manual ungual III
Comments- Ryan and Russell (2001) list RTMP 93.104.1 as Ornithomimidae indet. Rauhut (2003) illustrated the manus and tentatively referred it to Ornithomimus edmontonicus. It is definitely Dromiceiomimus based on its proportions, and may be a new species based on stratigraphy.
References- Ryan and Russell, 2001. The dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves). in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 279-297.
Rauhut, 2003. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69, 1-213.
D. sp. indet. (Britt, 1993)
Late Cretaceous?
Alberta?, Canada
Material
- (RTMP 81.22.25) sacrum, ilium (393 mm), pubis (410 mm), ischium (Britt, 1993)
(RTMP 2007.20.4) humerus (Zelenitsky et al., 2012)
Comments- This specimen may be either D. brevitertius or D. samueli. It was included in Makovicky (1995) as an undetermined ornithomimid. It may be Dromiceiomimus based on the iliopubic ratio (found in Kobayashi, 2004), which would agree with Makovicky's statement it is probably congeneric with RTMP 93.62.1. Britt (1993) examined the sacrum as well. Zelenitsky et al. (2012) note a humerus has posterodorsal features similar to quill knobs.
References- Britt, 1993. Pneumatic postcranial bones in dinosaurs and other archosaurs. PhD Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada), Alberta.
Makovicky, 1995. Phylogenetic aspects of the vertebral morphology of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). M.S. thesis, Univ. Copenhagen, 311pp.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
Zelenitsky, Therrien, Erickson, DeBuhr, Kobayashi, Eberth and Hadfield, 2012. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins. Science. 338(6106), 510-514.

unnamed clade (Struthiomimus altus + Gallimimus bullatus)
Diagnosis- skull <50% of femoral length; maxillary fenestra situated posterior to rostral border of fossa; antorbital fossa without distinct rim composed of a thin wall of bone; short postorbital section of frontal; depression on dorsal surface of supraglenoid buttress of scapula weak or absent; long manual ungual III (longer than phalanx III-3); deep oval proximomedial fibular fossa.
Comments- This clade has not been found in previous analyses, with Struthiomimus generally placed sister to Dromiceiomimus instead. Yet of the characters used to do that, maxillary foramina have an ambiguous distribution (also absent in Garudimimus, Shenzhousaurus and Shuvuuia; present in Harpymimus, Sinornithomimus and Gallimimus), as do anterior surangular foramina (also absent in Garudimimus; present in Harpymimus), and while a ventrally convex pubic boot is derived within ornithomimids, it is also present in "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis". Characters supporting a Gallimimus + Struthiomimus clade are more numerous. While Garudimimus also has a deep fibular fossa, both Sinornithomimus and "Grusimimus" lack it. The antorbital fossa rim and weak supraglenoid fossa are also present in Harpymimus, but not in intermediate taxa (though the latter is polymorphic in Sinornithomimus). The short skull and long manual ungual III (longer than phalanx III-3) have been used as Struthiomimus apomorphies before (by Kobayashi et al., 2006 and Russell, 1972 respectively), but are also present in Gallimimus bullatus, "G." "mongoliensis" and Ornithomimus? sedens.

Struthiomimus Osborn, 1917
Diagnosis- (after Longrich, 2008) frontal with an orbital rim that is completely convex in dorsal view; frontals abruptly expanding posteriorly, with the anterolateral edge angled 40 degrees to the midline; strongly flattened dorsal edge of distal caudal vertebrae; ventrolateral edges of pedal unguals rounded (unknown in most taxa).
(after Makovicky et al., 2004) manus 8% longer than humerus (also found in Ornithomimus? sedens).
Comments- Osborn (1917) erected Struthiomimus for Ornithomimus altus because it possessed metatarsal V, which he incorrectly thought was absent from Ornithomimus velox. Later authors often realized Osborn's error and synonymized the genera, though Parks (1926, 1928, 1933) did name four additional species in Struthiomimus because they possessed the metatarsal (S. ingens, S. currelli, S. brevetertius and S. samueli). Russell (1972) revised ornithomimid taxonomy and was the first author to use real morphological differences to validate the separation of Struthiomimus from Ornithomimus edmontonicus (and his new genus Dromiceiomimus), though several characters he cites are now seen as invalid due to the recent synonymization of Dromiceiomimus with Ornithomimus edmontonicus. Notably, Dromiceiomimus samueli also has a humerus shorter than its scapula, antebrachium length overlaps Dromiceiomimus', and preacetabular, tibial, metatarsal and pedal digit length are no longer distinct. Furthermore, all the characters proposed by Russell to be apomorphies of Struthiomimus are symplesiomorphies when viewed in a cladistic context. The robust forelimb is plesiomorphic, being seen in all ornithomimosaurs except Dromiceiomimus, Gallimimus bullatus and Sinornithomimus. The curved manual unguals are also plesiomorphic, present in all ornithomimosaurs except Dromiceiomimus, Anserimimus and "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis". Dromiceiomimus is the only ornithomimosaur known with a presacral column not longer than its hindlimb, as opposed to Struthiomimus, Anserimimus, Gallimimus and Sinornithomimus. The proximal caudal centra are also posteriorly wide (over half their length) in Garudimimus, "Grusimimus", Gallimimus, Ornithomimus sp. nov. and O? sedens. The transition point is also posterior to the fourteenth caudal in Harpymimus, Anserimimus and Gallimimus. Metacarpal I is shorter than metacarpal II in all ornithomimosaurs except Anserimimus, Dromiceiomimus and Ornithomimus. The elongate manual ungual I (longer than ungual II) may be primitive for ornithomimids, also being present in "Grusimimus", Sinornithomimus and Anserimimus. The elongate manual ungual III (longer than phalanx III-3) is here found to be synapomorphic of a larger clade also containing Gallimimus bullatus, "G." "mongoliensis" and Ornithomimus? sedens. Makovicky et al. (2004) proposed an elongate manus (>7% longer than humerus) as an additional apomorphy of Struthiomimus, and this seems to be true as it is otherwise present only in the somewhat distantly related Ornithomimus? sedens, Harpymimus and Pelecanimimus. Kobayashi et al. (2006) and Longrich (2008) both proposed a small skull (<50% of femoral length) is unique to Struthiomimus, but this is also found here to be characteristic of the larger clade also containing Gallimimus bullatus, "G." "mongoliensis" and Ornithomimus? sedens. Longrich also proposed many characters to distinguish Struthiomimus from Dromiceiomimus (Ornithomimus in his use) and his new large Dinosaur Park ornithomimid, but most were not examined in a broader context. The convex ventral maxillary edge is also seen in Gallimimus bullatus, Sinornithomimus and probably "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis", for instance. Gallimimus bullatus shares the short postorbital portion of the frontal and dorsally flat distal caudal centra (in posterior view). The latter may be plesiomorphic however, as it is also found in Patagonykus and Aniksosaurus. Broad pedal unguals also seem plesiomorphic, being present in Anserimimus, Gallimimus bullatus and Garudimimus. Finally, the elongate proximodorsal process on its pedal unguals is primitive, found in Sinornithomimus, "Grusimimus", Garudimimus and Harpymimus as well.
References- Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Kobayashi, Makovicky and Currie, 2006. Ornithomimids (Theropoda: Dinosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 86A.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
S. altus (Lambe, 1902)
= Ornithomimus altus Lambe, 1902
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Dinosaur Park Formation of the Judith River Group, Alberta, Canada
Holotype
- (CMN 930) distal pubes, distal ischia, femur (~455 mm), incomplete tibia (~560 mm), fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (387 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV (335 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (100 mm)
Referred- (AMNH 5339) (4.3 m, 153 kg) partial skull (240 mm), incomplete mandibles (~215 mm), axis (46 mm), third cervical vertebra (60 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (77 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (79 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (88 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (89 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (89 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (89 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (75 mm), dorsal vertebrae 1-12 (761 mm, first 63 mm, second 63 mm, third 55 mm), dorsal ribs 1-11, thirteen gastralia rows, sacrum (390 mm), first caudal vertebra (60 mm), second caudal vertebra (56 mm), third caudal vertebra (55 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (55 mm), fifth caudal vertebra, sixth caudal vertebra, seventh caudal vertebra, eighth caudal vertebra, ninth caudal vertebra (54 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (54 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (53 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (54 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (52 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (57 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (54 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (53 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (54 mm), chevrons, scapulae (350 mm), coracoids, humeri (310 mm), radii (228 mm), ulnae (246 mm), sesamoid (or metacarpal IV?), radiale, intermedium, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I (89 mm), phalanx I-1 (114 mm), manual ungual I (85 mm adc), metacarpal II (103 mm), phalanx II-1 (44 mm), phalanx II-2 (89 mm), manual ungual II (100 mm adc), metacarpal III (103 mm), phalanx III-1 (28 mm), phalanx III-2 (28 mm), phalanx III-3 (68 mm), manual ungual III (87 mm adc), ilium (447 mm), pubis (475 mm), ischium (335 mm), femora (480 mm), tibiae (535 mm), distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal II (325 mm), phalanx II-1 (85 mm), phalanx II-2 (35 mm), pedal ungual II (56 mm adc), metatarsal III (365 mm), phalanx III-1 (78 mm), phalanx III-2 (54 mm), phalanx III-3 (39 mm), pedal ungual III (52 mm adc), metatarsal IV (348 mm), phalanx IV-1 (47 mm), phalanx IV-2 (26 mm), phalanx IV-3 (19 mm), phalanx IV-4 (18 mm), pedal ungual IV (50 mm adc), metatarsal V (118 mm) (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5355) frontal, posterior braincase, atlas, ten presacral vertebrae, four dorsal ribs, eight caudal vertebrae, chevrons, scapulacoracoid, tibia, fibula, astragalus, calcaneum (Osborn, 1916)
(AMNH 5375) two manual phalanges, femora (495 mm; one distal), distal metatarsal II, distal metatarsal III (~355 mm), metatarsals IV (one distal), four pedal phalanges (Russell, 1972)
(AMNH 5385) caudal vertebra, distal ischia, tibiae, fibula, astragali, distal metatarsus, five pedal phalanges (Russell, 1972)
(AMNH 5421) posterior dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, sacrum, proximal caudal vertebrae, humerus, radii, ulnae, pelvis, femora, tibiae, fibulae, astragali, calcanea, metatarsus, pes (Russell, 1972)
(AMNH coll.) pedal ungual (Longrich, 2008)
(CMN 8897) sacrum, ilia, distal pubes, distal ischia, proximal femur (Russell, 1972)
(CMN 8902) incomplete vertebral series, scapulacoracoid, humerus, ulna, ilia (one fragmentary), distal pubes, proximal femur (Russell, 1972)
(CMN coll.) two distal caudal vertebrae (Lambe, 1902)
(ROM 1790) anterior skull, dentaries, posterior dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, proximal caudal vertebrae, ilium (375 mm), pubis (327 mm), ischium, femora (397 mm), tibiae (430 mm), fibulae, metatarsus (297 mm), phalanx II-1 (35 mm), phalanx III-1 (60 mm), phalanx III-2 (45 mm), phalanx III-3 (39 mm), phalanx IV-1 (30 mm), phalanx IV-2 (24 mm), phalanx IV-3 (14 mm), phalanx IV-4 (21 mm) (Russell, 1972)
(RTMP 81.16.264) distal caudal vertebra (Longrich, 2008)
(RTMP 93.109.43) manual ungual (Longrich, 2008)
(UCMZ 1980.1) partial dorsal ribs, fifteen gastralia rows, sacrum, scapulae (~380 mm), coracoids, sternal processes (150, 156 mm), humeri (362 mm), radii (239 mm), ulnae (256 mm), radiale, intermedium, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I (104.2 mm), phalanx I-1 (127 mm), manual ungual I (95 mm), metacarpal II (110.1 mm), phalanx II-1 (40 mm), phalanx II-2 (113 mm), manual ungual II (~127 mm), metacarpal III (109 mm), phalanx III-1 (24 mm), phalanx III-2 (29 mm), phalanx III-3 (89 mm), manual ungual III (~98 mm), ilium (480 mm), pubis (476 mm), ischium (364 mm), femora (502 mm), tibiae (556 mm), fibulae (518 mm), astragalus (133 mm high), phalanx II-1 (91.2 mm), phalanx II-2 (47 mm), pedal ungual II (55 mm), metatarsal III (398 mm), phalanx III-1 (83 mm), phalanx III-2 (64 mm), phalanx III-3 (52 mm), pedal ungual III (~53 mm), phalanx IV-1 (46 mm), phalanx IV-2 (32 mm), phalanx IV-3 (25 mm), phalanx IV-4 (26 mm), pedal ungual IV (52 mm) (Nicholls and Russell, 1981)
Diagnosis- (after Longrich, 2008) compared to S. sp. nov. - less slender metacarpus.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1901 and described in 1902 by Lambe as a new species of Ornithomimus. In addition to the associated holotype material, Lambe described other remains "With these, as probably belonging to the same species..." This includes several juvenile Daspletosaurus premaxillary teeth. A supposed posterior dorsal vertebra (plate XIV figure 1) is actually a proximal caudal, though it could belong to another taxon instead. Of the illustrated distal caudal vertebrae, those of plate XIV figure 2-5 and plate XV figure 3-5 do seem to be Struthiomimus, while that in plate XV figure 1-2 may be Dromiceiomimus instead based on its slender proportions. The supposed manual ungual in plate XV figure 10-11 is not ornithomimid and may be a Troodon pedal ungual II instead. Found with this and apparently similar unguals and manual phalanges were an astragalus, calcaneum, pedal phalanges and two elements identified by Lambe as distal ends of metacarpal I and metatarsal I. A metatarsal I would exclude ornithomimids from consideration, but a calcaneum would exclude troodontids. It's probable some material was incorrectly associated or misidentified. Regardless, there's no reason to refer it to Struthiomimus. The pedal ungual in plate XV figure 8-9 may be either Struthiomimus or Dromiceiomimus. A supposed posterior dorsal vertebrae questionably referred to a "small individual" (plate XV figure 6-8) seems to actually be a deinonychosaur proximal caudal vertebra. He referred further Dinosaur Park material to altus as well, though this may be Dromiceiomimus samueli or Longrich's (2008) new ornithomimid. One specimen is from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation, so may be S. sp. nov. or D. brevitertius instead. Osborn (1916) described two new specimens, separating altus from Ornithomimus as his new genus Struthiomimus. Many authors kept altus as a species of Ornithomimus until Russell's (1972) revision of ornithomimid taxonomy, where he noted several new specimens and distinguished it from Dromiceiomimus (including his Ornithomimus edmontonicus) using several postcranial ratios. Nicholls and Russell (1981, 1985) described a new specimen, the former publication concentrating on the gastralia and sternal processes and the latter on the pectoral girdle and forelimb. Makovicky and Norell (1998) described the braincase of AMNH 5355 in detail. Longrich (2008) noted S. altus is only known in the Dinosaur Park Formation, with the Horseshoe Canyon specimens belonging to a new unnamed species of the genus.
References- Lambe, 1902. New genera and species from the Belly River Series (mid-Cretaceous). Geological Survey of Canada Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology. 3(2), 25-81.
Osborn, 1916. Skeletal adaptation of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 35, 733-771.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Nicholls and Russell, 1981. A new specimen of Struthiomimus altus from Alberta, with comments on the classificatory characters of Upper Cretaceous ornithomimids. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 18, 518-526.
Nicholls and Russell, 1985. Structure and function of the pectoral girdle and forelimb of Struthiomimus altus (Theropoda: Ornithomimidae). Palaeontology. 28, 643-677.
Makovicky and Norell, 1998. A partial ornithomimid braincase from Ukhaa Tolgod (Upper Cretaceous, Mongolia). American Museum Novitates. 3247, 16 pp.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
Mcfeeters, Ryan and Schroeder-Adams, 2013. New data on a partial skeleton referred to Struthiomimus altus (Ornithomimidae) from Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 175.
S. sp. nov. (Longrich, 2008)
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- (AMNH 5257) three caudal vertebrae, scapulae (375 mm), coracoids, humeri (360 mm), radius (263 mm), ulna, metacarpal I (103 mm), metacarpal II (113 mm), metacarpal III (111 mm), partial ilium, pubes, ischia, femora (513 mm), tibiae (one proximal; 560 mm with tarsus), fibula, astragali, metatarsal II (348 mm), phalanx II-1 (85 mm), phalanx II-2 (43 mm), metatarsal III (385 mm), phalanx III-1 (86 mm), phalanx III-3 (47 mm), metatarsal IV (355 mm), phalanx IV-1 (53 mm), phalanx IV-2 (32 mm), phalanx IV-3 (22 mm) (Osborn, 1916)
(RTMP 90.26.1) skull (215 mm), mandibles, skeleton including cervical vertebrae, fourteen gastralia rows, proximal caudal vertebrae, distal caudal vertebrae, chevrons, scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius, ulna, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I (104.2 mm), metacarpal II (106.8 mm), manual ungual II, metacarpal III (108.7 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, ilium (474 mm), pubis, femur (465 mm), tibia, metatarsus, pes (Sereno, 2001)
Diagnosis- (after Longrich, 2008) more slender metacarpus than S. altus.
Comments- Russell (1972) noted one specimen from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation could be diagnosed as Struthiomimus (AMNH 5257). It was previously questionably referred to Ornithomimus velox by Osborn (1916). The new skeleton RTMP 90.26.1 was first published by Sereno (2001), who illustrated the skull and mandibles in his paper on alvarezsaurids. Its morphology has been commented on subsequently by Claessens (2004), Kobayashi (2004 and published versions), Ali et al. (2008) and Longrich (2008). Longrich noted the Horseshoe Canyon specimens of Struthiomimus belong to a distinct species, but neither specimen has been described, nor has the species been fully diagnosed.
References- Osborn, 1916. Skeletal adaptation of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 35, 733-771.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Sereno, 2001. Alvarezsaurids: birds or ornithomimosaurs? pp. 70-98. in Gauthier and Gall (eds.). New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom. Yale Univ. Press.
Claessens, 2004. Dinosaur gastralia: Origin, morphology and function. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(1), 89-106.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Ali, Zelenitsky, Therrien and Weishampel, 2008. Homology of the "ethmoid complex" of tyrannosaurids and its implications for the reconstruction of the olfactory apparatus of non-avian theropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(1), 123-133.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
S? sp. (Lucas et al., 1987)
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Formington Member of Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, US
Material
- (UNM B-499B)
(UNM B-590)
(UNM B-745)
Reference- Lucas, Mateer, Hunt and O'Neill, 1987. Dinosaurs, the age of the Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. in Fassett and Rigby (eds.). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins, New Mexico and Colorado. Geological Society of America Special Paper. 209, 35-50.

unnamed clade (Gallimimus bullatus + Ornithomimus velox)
Diagnosis- manual ungual I shorter or subequal in length to manual ungual II; proximal portion of metacarpal III not mostly ventral to metacarpal II; proximodorsal process on pedal unguals poorly developed; ventrally straight pedal unguals.
Comments- This clade is rather poorly supported due to some homoplasy. Ornithomimus? sedens differs in having a medially placed metacarpal III. Dromiceiomimus and non-ornithomimid ornithomimosaurs also have manual ungual I shorter or subequal in length to manual ungual II. Dromiceiomimus also has poorly developed posterodorsal processes on its pedal unguals.

"Orcomimus" Triebold, 1997
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota, US

Material- (LACM coll.) specimen including proximal caudal centra, pubis, metatarsal III and pedal unguals
Comments- Triebold and Russell (1995) first used this name on a poster for their SVP abstract (Olshevsky, DML 1998), and Triebold (1997) later published it in a faunal list for the Sandy site, along with Struthiomimus and Ornithomimus. Olshevsky notes the name was coined by Long but that both Russell and Long have been involved in other projects recently, so may not get to describe "Orcomimus" for a long time. DeCourten and Russell (1985) mention this specimen as an "ornithomimid from the Hell Creek Formation (under study by R.A. Long and D.A. Russell)". The proximal caudal centra have similar proportions to Ornithomimus sp. nov., O? sedens and some Gallimimus vertebrae (posterior width ~57% of length). The anteriorly convex pubic shaft is similar to Archaeornithomimus, Ornithomimus sp. nov. and O? sedens. The anteroposteriorly flattened distal metatarsal III (ratio of depth to width .82) is unlike Archaeornithomimus and Ornithomimus. Finally the pedal unguals with gently curved ventral edges are primitive for ornithomimosaurs, and unlike Gallimimus bullatus, Archaeornithomimus, Ornithomimus and O? sedens. Further description will be necessary to pin down its relationships.
References- DeCourten and Russell, 1985. A specimen of Ornithomimus velox (Theropoda, Ornithomimidae) from the terminal Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Journal of Paleontology. 59(5), 1091-1099.
Triebold and Russell, 1995. A new small dinosaur locality in the Hell Creek Formation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15(3), 57A.
Triebold, 1997. The Sandy Site: Small Dinosaurs from the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota. in Wolberg, Stump and Rosenberg (eds). Dinofest International: Proceedings of a Symposium sponsored by Arizona
State University, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 245-248.
Olshevsky, DML 1998. http://dml.cmnh.org/1998Jan/msg00038.html

Gallimimus Osmolska, Roniewicz and Barsbold, 1972
G. bullatus Osmolska, Roniewicz and Barsbold, 1972
= Ornithomimus bullatus (Osmolska, Roniewicz and Barsbold, 1972) Paul, 1988
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia

Holotype- (IGM 100/11) (6 m, 440 kg) skull (330 mm), incomplete mandibles (~290 mm), atlas, axis (72 mm), third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra (~115 mm), incomplete sixth cervical vertebra, incomplete seventh cervical vertebra (171 mm), incomplete possible eighth cervical vertebra, incomplete tenth cervical vertebra, cervical rib fragments fused to vertebrae, fragments of first dorsal centrum, fragments of second dorsal centrum, fragments of possible third dorsal centrum, fragments of seventh dorsal centrum (82 mm), fragments of eighth dorsal centrum (94 mm), fragments of ninth dorsal centrum (103 mm), fragments of tenth dorsal centrum (105 mm), fragments of eleventh dorsal centrum, fragments of twelfth dorsal centrum (55 mm), dorsal rib fragments, first sacral centrum (98 mm), second sacral centrum (95 mm), third sacral centrum (92 mm), fourth sacral centrum (85 mm), fifth sacral centrum (115 mm), sixth sacral centrum (118 mm), first caudal vertebra (103 mm), second caudal vertebra (100 mm), third caudal vertebra (95 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (87 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (85 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (85 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (83 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (87 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (82 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (77 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (77 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (80 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (82 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (84 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (84 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (89 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (89 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (87 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (85 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (83 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (80 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (73 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (65 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (59 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (52 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra, twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (40 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (35 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (30 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (26 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (22 mm), thirty-third caudal vertebra (20 mm), thirty-fourth caudal vertebra (17 mm), thirty-fifth caudal vertebra (15 mm), thirty-sixth caudal vertebra (13 mm), thirty-seventh caudal vertebra (10 mm), thirty-eighth caudal vertebra (7 mm), chevron fragments, scapulae (450 mm), coracoids, humeri (530 mm), radii (350 mm), ulnae (375 mm), distal carpal I, metacarpal I (98 mm), phalanx I-1 (135 mm), manual ungual I (95 mm), metacarpal II (115 mm), phalanx II-1 (53 mm), phalanx II-2 (100 mm), manual ungual II (98 mm), metacarpal III (105 mm), phalanx III-1 (32 mm), phalanx III-2 (36 mm), phalanx III-3 (74 mm), manual ungual III (~90 mm), incomplete ilium, pubes (~620 mm), incomplete ischium, femora (~665 mm), tibiae (740 mm with astragalus), fibulae (675 mm), metatarsal II (480 mm), phalanx II-1 (102 mm), phalanx II-2 (52 mm), pedal ungual II (50 mm), metatarsal III (530 mm), phalanx III-1 (90 mm), phalanx III-2 (70 mm), phalanx III-3 (50 mm), metatarsal IV (500 mm), phalanx IV-1 (62 mm), phalanx IV-2 (43 mm), phalanx IV-3 (32 mm), phalanx IV-4 (30 mm), pedal ungual IV (43 mm)
Paratypes- (IGM 100/10) (juvenile) skull (120 mm), mandible (104 mm), most vertebrae and ribs, scapula, ilia (197 mm), pubes (182 mm), ischia (137 mm), femora (192 mm), tibiae (218 mm), fibulae (208 mm), metatarsal II (144 mm), phalanx II-1 (32 mm), phalanx II-2 (15 mm), pedal ungual II (21 mm), metatarsal III (157 mm), phalanx III-1 (31 mm), phalanx III-2 (24 mm), pedal ungual III (18 mm), metatarsal IV (148 mm), phalanx IV-1 (18 mm), phalanx IV-2 (13 mm), phalanx IV-3 (10 mm), phalanx IV-4 (9 mm), pedal ungual IV (14 mm) (Osmolska, Roniewicz and Barsbold 1972)
(PIN coll.)
(ZPAL MgD-I/1) (juvenile) skull (~185 mm), mandible (~160 mm), axis (~30 mm), incomplete third cervical vertebra (48 mm), incomplete fourth cervical vertebra, incomplete fifth cervical vertebra, incomplete sixth cervical vertebra (64 mm), incomplete seventh cervical vertebra (66 mm), incomplete eighth cervical vertebra (70 mm), incomplete ninth cervical vertebra (66 mm), incomplete tenth cervical vertebra (60 mm), fragmentary cervical ribs fused to vertebrae, several dorsal centra, dorsal rib fragments, third sacral vertebra (57 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (50 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (55 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (58 mm), first caudal vertebra (47 mm), second caudal vertebra (45 mm), third caudal vertebra (42 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (39 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (39 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (39 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (38 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (38 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (39 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (38 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (38 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (37 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (38 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (38 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (38 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (38 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (40 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (40 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (39 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (39 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (38 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (37 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (36 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (32 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (30 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (28 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra (26 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (23 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (21 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (19 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (17 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (16 mm), thirty-third caudal vertebra (14 mm), thirty-fourth caudal vertebra (13 mm), thirty-fifth caudal vertebra (11 mm), thirty-sixth caudal vertebra (9 mm), several chevrons, fragmentary scapulacoracoid and forelimb, ilia, pubes (~300 mm), ischia (235 mm), femur (360 mm), tibia (390 mm with astragalus), proximal fibula (~360 mm), metatarsal II (264 mm), metatarsal III (280 mm), metatarsal IV (270 mm)
(ZPAL MgD-I/7) third sacral centrum (95 mm), fourth sacral centrum (95 mm), fifth sacral centrum, sixth sacral centrum (118 mm), ilium (630 mm), pubis (620 mm), ischium (465 mm)
(ZPAL MgD-I/8) three dorsal centra, six fragmentary proximal caudal vertebrae, proximal humerus, femur (635 mm), tibia (~696 mm with astragalus), fibula (~621 mm), metatarsal II (463 mm), phalanx II-2 (51 mm), metatarsal III (510 mm), phalanx III-1 (97 mm), phalanx III-2 (75 mm), phalanx III-3 (50 mm), metatarsal IV (470 mm), phalanx IV-2 (50 mm)
(ZPAL MgD-I/10) two fragmentary sacral vertebrae, fifteen proximal caudal vertebrae, fragments of pedes
(ZPAL MgD-I/11) five fragmentary dorsal vertebrae
(ZPAL MgD-I/14)
(ZPAL MgD-I/15) two vertebral fragments, tibial fragments
(ZPAL MgD-I/17)
(ZPAL MgD-I/18)
(ZPAL MgD-I/20)
(ZPAL MgD-I/24) phalanx II-2 (33 mm), pedal ungual II (35 mm), phalanx III-1 (63 mm), phalanx III-2 (50 mm), phalanx III-3 (35 mm), pedal ungual III (35 mm), metatarsal IV (320 mm), phalanx IV-1 (40 mm), phalanx IV-2 (27 mm), phalanx IV-3 (18 mm), pedal ungual IV (32 mm), metatarsal V (90 mm)
(ZPAL MgD-I/32) fragmentary scapulacoracoid, fragmentary forelimbs, fragmentary femur (~410 mm), fragmentary tibia (~444 mm with astragalus), fragmentary fibula (~389 mm), phalanx II-1 (72 mm), phalanx II-2 (35 mm), pedal ungual II (37 mm), phalanx III-1 (65 mm), phalanx III-2 (50 mm), phalanx III-3 (34 mm), phalanx IV-1 (44 mm), phalanx IV-2 (33 mm), phalanx IV-3 (22 mm), phalanx IV-4 (20 mm), pedal ungual IV (31 mm), other skeletal fragments
(ZPAL MgD-I/33) ten caudal vertebrae, hindlimb fragments, other skeletal fragments
(ZPAL MgD-I/39) ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, seventeen distal caudal vertebrae
(ZPAL MgD-I/51)
(ZPAL MgD-I/55)
(ZPAL MgD-I/58)
(ZPAL MgD-I/73)
(ZPAL MgD-I/74) fragmentary femur
(ZPAL MgD-I/75)
(ZPAL MgD-I/77) fragmentary scapulacoracoid
(ZPAL MgD-I/78) caudal vertebra, ilial fragments, incomplete tibia
(ZPAL MgD-I/94) (2.15 m, 27 kg, juvenile) axis (24 mm), third cervical vertebra (35 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (41 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (45 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (47 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (44 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (48 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (46 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (42 mm), first dorsal centrum (33 mm), second dorsal vertebra (29 mm), third dorsal vertebra (27 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (29 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (29 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (30 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (32 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (34 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (35 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (35 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (36 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (38 mm), first sacral vertebra (41 mm), second sacral vertebra (40 mm), third sacral vertebra (40 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (39 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (41 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (44 mm), first caudal vertebra (36 mm), second caudal vertebra (33 mm), third caudal vertebra (33 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (31 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (31 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (29 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (30 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (28 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (28 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (29 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (28 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (28 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (28 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (28 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (28 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (28 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (29 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (29 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (29 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (28 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (26 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (26 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (25 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (24 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (22 mm), radius (102 mm), ulna (106 mm), proximal metacarpus, ilia (270 mm), pubes (255 mm), ischia (200 mm), femora (267 mm), tibiae (302 mm), fibulae, metatarsal II (205 mm), phalanx II-1 (45 mm), phalanx II-2 (23 mm), pedal ungual II (24 mm), metatarsal III (220 mm), phalanx III-1 (44 mm), phalanx III-2 (35 mm), phalanx III-3 (24 mm), pedal ungual III (25 mm), metatarsal IV (210 mm), phalanx IV-1 (26 mm), phalanx IV-2 (19 mm), phalanx IV-3 (17 mm), phalanx IV-4 (12 mm), pedal ungual IV (23 mm)
Referred- (IGM 100/12) material including skull, mandible, posterior cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, six sacral vertebrae, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra, third caudal vertebra, fourth caudal vertebra, fifth caudal vertebra, sixth caudal vertebra, seventh caudal vertebra, eighth caudal vertebra, ninth caudal vertebra, tenth caudal vertebra, eleventh caudal vertebra, twelfth caudal vertebra, thirteenth caudal vertebra, fourteenth caudal vertebra, fifteenth caudal vertebra, sixteenth caudal vertebra, seventeenth caudal vertebra, eighteenth caudal vertebra, nineteenth caudal vertebra, twentieth caudal vertebra, twenty-first caudal vertebra, twenty-second caudal vertebra, twenty-third caudal vertebra, twenty-fourth caudal vertebra, twenty-fifth caudal vertebra, twenty-sixth caudal vertebra, twenty-seventh caudal vertebra, twenty-eighth caudal vertebra, twenty-ninth caudal vertebra, thirtieth caudal vertebra, chevrons, humerus (370 mm), radius (236 mm), ulna, metacarpal I (69.7 mm), metacarpal II (72.5 mm), metacarpal III (69.2 mm), ilia (495 mm), pubis (485 mm), ischium (349 mm), femur (505 mm), metatarsal III (365 mm), pedal phalanx II-1 (70.8 mm), phalanx II-2 (41.6 mm) (Makovicky and Norell, 1998)
(IGM 100/1133) includes skull, mandible, beak (Norell, Makovicky and Currie, 2001)
(ZPAL MgD-I/2) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/50) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/53) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/56) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/57) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/79) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/80) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/82) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/83) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/84) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/89) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/91) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/79) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/80) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/81) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/82) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/83) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/84) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/85) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/86) (ZPAL online)
(ZPAL MgD-I/87) (ZPAL online)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Baruungoyot Formation, Mongolia

(PIN coll.) skeleton (Kurzanov and Bannikov, 1983)
Comments- The type material was discovered in 1963 and first mentioned by Kielan-Jaworowska and Kowalski (1965), though not named and described until 1972. While the braincase and postcrania were described in detail, some braincase features were reidentified by Currie and Zhao (1993) and the mandible was described fully by Hurum (2001). Norell et al. (2001) identified a keratnous beak on IGM 100/1133 and illustrated the skull. "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis" (IGM 100/14 and 950818) is here placed closer to Archaeornithomimus than to Gallimimus. Paul (1988) noted the beak shape was restored incorrectly by Osmolska et al. (1972).
References- Kielan-Jaworowska and Kowalski, 1965. Polish-Mongolian Palaeontological Expeditions to the Gobi Desert in 1963 and 1964. Bulletin de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences. Cl. II 13(3), 175-179.
Osmólska, Roniewicz and Barsbold, 1972. A new dinosaur, Gallimimus bullatus n. gen., n. sp. (Ornithomimidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Palaeontologica Polonica. 27, 103-143.
Kurzanov and Bannikov, 1983. A new sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal. 1983(2), 91-97.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster: New York. 464 pp.
Currie and Zhao, 1993. A new troodontid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) braincase from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Campanian) of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30(10-11), 2234-2247.
Makovicky and Norell, 1998. A partial ornithomimid braincase from Ukhaa Tolgod (Upper Cretaceous, Mongolia). American Museum Novitates. 3247, 1-16.
Hurum, 2001. Lower jaw of Gallimimus bullatus. in Tanke and Carpenter (eds). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana. pp. 34-41.
Norell, Makovicky and Currie, 2001. The beaks of ostrich dinosaurs. Nature. 412, 873-874.
Kobayashi and Lu, 2003. A new ornithomimid dinosaur with gregarious habits from the Late Cretaceous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 48 (2), 235-259.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2006. Ornithomimids from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 22(1), 195-207.

unnamed clade (Ornithomimus velox + Archaeornithomimus asiaticus)
Diagnosis- posterior width of proximal caudal centra 51-65% of length; anteriorly bowed pubic shaft; distal metatarsal III >87% as deep as wide; pedal phalanx IV-4 longer than IV-3.
Comments- "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis" differs in having a straight pubic shaft. Only Ornithomimus sp. nov. and O? sedens have known caudal central ratios and phalangeal ratios in digit IV. Only Ornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus have known ratios for their distal metatarsal III.

Ornithomimus Marsh, 1890
Diagnosis- (after DeCourten and Russell, 1985) pedal ungual II >70% as long as pedal phalanx II-1.
References- Marsh, 1890. Description of new dinosaurian reptiles. The American Journal of Science, Third Series. 39, 81-86.
DeCourten and Russell, 1985. A specimen of Ornithomimus velox (Theropoda, Ornithomimidae) from the terminal Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Journal of Paleontology. 59(5), 1091-1099.
O. velox Marsh, 1890
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Denver Formation, Colorado, US
Syntypes
- (YPM 542) distal tibia, astragalus (76 mm high, 55 mm wide), calcaneum, incomplete metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (51 mm), phalanx II-2 (23 mm), pedal ungual II (45 mm), incomplete metatarsal III, incomplete metatarsal IV
....(YPM 548) metacarpal I (57 mm), metacarpal II (53 mm), metacarpal III (~47 mm)
Referred- (DMNH 33300) manual ungual (40 mm) (Carpenter and Young, 2002)
(UCM 3539) phalanx (Carpenter and Young, 2002)
(UCM 47633) distal caudal vertebra (Carpenter and Young, 2002)
(USGS D902) manual ungual (Carpenter and Young, 2002)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Ferris Formation, Wyoming, US
Material
- ?(UW 26303) pedal digit II, pedal ungual (Lillegraven and Eberle, 1999)
?(UW 26305) (Lillegraven and Eberle, 1999)
?(UW 27205) (Lillegraven and Eberle, 1999)
Diagnosis- metacarpal I longer than metacarpal II (also in Anserimimus and Dromiceiomimus); relatively wide metatarsal IV; narrow pedal unguals (also in Dromiceiomimus).
Comments- Russell (1972) found the syntypes are of the right size to belong to the same individual, contra Marsh (1890).
Ornithomimus was originally separated from Struthiomimus based on the supposed absence of metatarsal V (Osborn, 1916), though Gilmore (1920) and most later authors agreed the Ornithomimus holotype probably had metatarsal V in life and merely didn't preserve it. All ornithomimids were referred to Ornithomimus by most authors until Russell's (1972) revision separating Archaeornithomimus, Struthiomimus and Dromiceiomimus, and some even continued afterward (e.g. Paul, 1988). The syntypes were discovered in 1889 and described the next year by Marsh. The syntypes are illustrated in more detail by Osborn (1916), Ostrom (1970) and Carpenter and Young (2002). Though very fragmentary and still not well described, the species has generally been placed with edmontonicus (here a junior synonym of Dromiceiomimus) based on the long metacarpal I. Yet this is also present in Anserimimus. Sternberg (1933) distinguished it from D. brevitertius (his O. edmontonicus) by smaller size, lower and broader astragalar ascending process, and comparatively broader metatarsus. The metatarsus proportions were commented on by Russell (1972), who noted the proximal and distal metatarsal pieces do not contact, so the metatarsus length is unknown. In fact, Russell stated the syntypes to be indistinguishable from D. brevitertius (his O. edmontonicus), though this is untrue. O. velox has a medial condyle on metacarpal I which is placed dorsally to the lateral condyle, space between metacarpals II and III, a third metacarpal which isn't placed ventral to metacarpal II proximally, and straight pedal unguals. When placed in a cladistic analysis, these result in Ornithomimus velox clading closer to many other ornithomimids than to Dromiceiomimus. The poorly developed proximodorsal pedal ungual process is here seen as developing in Dromiceiomimus in parallel to the Gallimimus+Ornithomimus clade, though it also may have been lost in Struthiomimus. Narrow pedal unguals are also seen as convergent in Dromiceiomimus and Ornithomimus' syntype, as Struthiomimus, Gallimimus bullatus, Anserimimus and perhaps the Kaiparowitz O. sp. lack them.
The additional materal referred by Carpenter and Young (2002) to O. velox have not been described yet, nor have the specimens referred to O. cf. velox by Lillegraven and Eberle (1999). Osborn (1916) questionably referred several specimens from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta to O. velox, including AMNH 5201 (now Dromiceiomimus brevitertius), 5255 (tyrannosaurid hindlimb), 5257 (Struthiomimus sp. nov.), 5262 and 5264 (possible ornithomimids). He did the same for fourteen specimens from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana, including AMNH 975 (Ornithomimus? sedens), 5884 (listed as Ornithomimus sp. on the AMNH online collections database), 5050 (Tyrannosaurus dentary), 5851 (Thescelosaurus humerus and femur), 1006, 5003, 5016, 5017, 5018, 5051 (all indeterminate ornithomimids- Russell, 1972), and 974, 5014, 5015 and 5019 (indeterminate theropod remains). DeCourten and Russell (1985) described MNA Pl.1762A as Ornithomimus velox, but it is referred to Ornithomimus sp. nov. below.
References- Marsh, 1890. Description of new dinosaurian reptiles. The American Journal of Science, Third Series. 39, 81-86.
Osborn, 1916. Skeletal adaptation of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 35, 733-771.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. United States National Museum Bulletin. 110, l-154.
Sternberg, 1933. A new Ornithomimus with complete abdominal cuirass. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 47(5), 79-83.
Ostrom, 1970. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cloverly Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming and Montana. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., Yale Univ., Bull. 35, 234 pp.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
DeCourten and Russell, 1985. A specimen of Ornithomimus velox (Theropoda, Ornithomimidae) from the terminal Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Journal of Paleontology. 59(5), 1091-1099.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster: New York. 464 pp.
Wroblewski, 1997. Non-mammalian paleontology of the Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Ferris Formation, western Hanna Basin. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University of Wyoming. 239 pp.
Lillegraven and Eberle, 1999. Vertebrate faunal changes through Lancian and Puercan time in southern Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology. 73(4), 691-710.
Carpenter and Young, 2002. Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Denver Basin, Colorado. Rocky Mountain Geology. 37(2), 237-254.
O. sp. nov. (DeCourten and Russell, 1985)
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Kaiparowitz Formation, Utah, US

Material- ?(MNA Pl.1762A) (adult) posterior dorsal centrum, posterior dorsal centrum (56 mm), posterior dorsal centrum, posterior dorsal centrum, first sacral centrum (66 mm), second sacral centrum (64 mm), third sacral centrum (57 mm), fourth sacral centrum, fifth sacral centrum, proximal caudal vertebra (50 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (48 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (50 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (49 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (47 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (48 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (49 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (51 mm), distal caudal vertebra (53 mm), distal caudal vertebra (56 mm), distal caudal vertebra (59 mm), distal caudal vertebra (64 mm), distal caudal vertebra (65 mm), distal caudal vertebra (67 mm), distal caudal vertebra (67 mm), distal caudal vertebra, distal caudal vertebra, fragmentary ilium, pubic shafts, proximal femur, tibia (505 mm), astragalus (108 mm high, 80 mm wide), calcaneum, distal tarsals, metatarsal II (348 mm), phalanx II-1 (78, 76 mm), phalanx II-2 (34, 34 mm), pedal ungual II (59 mm), metatarsal III (365 mm), phalanx III-1 (71 mm), phalanx III-2 (53, 54 mm), phalanx III-3 (40, 61 mm), metatarsal IV (365 mm), phalanx IV-1 (46 mm), phalanx IV-2 (25, 26 mm), phalanx IV-3 (18 mm), phalanx IV-4 (20, 19 mm), pedal ungual IV (47 mm)
Diagnosis- metatarsal IV backs metatarsal III proximally.
Comments- DeCourten and Russell (1985) described the fragmentary ornithomimid specimen MNA Pl.1762A as Ornithomimus velox based on the subequally broad and deep distal metatarsal III, straight pedal unguals and elongate pedal ungual II. The former two characters are synapomorphic for a larger clade including Archaeornithomimus and Ornithomimus? sedens, but the last character is shared by MNA Pl.1762A and O. velox. Unpublished cladistic analysis suggests MNA Pl.1762A really is referrable to Ornithomimus, though further specimens may justify specific separation. Not only is it earlier stratigraphically than the syntype, metatarsal IV seems very wide in the syntype compared to other ornithomimosaurs, and the pedal unguals of MNA Pl.1762A may be broad as in more basal ornithomimosaurs. Holtz (1992) furthermore notes that metatarsal III posteriorly overlaps IV slightly in proximal view in MNA Pl. 1762A, but not in the velox syntype.
References- DeCourten and Russell, 1985. A specimen of Ornithomimus velox (Theropoda, Ornithomimidae) from the terminal Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Journal of Paleontology. 59(5), 1091-1099.
Holtz, 1992. An unusual structure of the metatarsus of Theropoda (Archosauria: Dinosauria: Saurischia) of the Cretaceous. PhD Thesis, Yale University. 347 pp.

unnamed clade (Ornithomimus? sedens + Archaeornithomimus asiaticus)
Diagnosis- length of metatarsus less than eight times midshaft diameter.
Comments- This very poorly supported clade is only based on a single synapomorphy, which is a reversal from the narrow metatarsi seen in other ornithomimids more derived than Sinornithomimus.

Ornithomimus? sedens Marsh, 1892
= Struthiomimus sedens (Marsh, 1892) Farlow, 2001
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype
- (USNM 4736) (~4.9 m) third sacral vertebra (71 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (71 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (79 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (84 mm), first caudal (71 mm), second caudal (66 mm), third caudal (62 mm), fourth caudal (61 mm), fifth caudal (58 mm), sixth caudal (57 mm), seventh caudal (55 mm), eighth caudal (56 mm), ninth caudal (56 mm), tenth caudal (58 mm), eleventh caudal (58 mm), twelfth caudal (58 mm), six chevrons (97-155 mm), partial ilia, proximal pubis, ischia
Referred- ?(BHI 1266) (5 m) skull, mandibles, atlas, axis, third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal centrum, partial second dorsal vertebra, partial third dorsal vertebra, ten dorsal ribs, thirteen rows of gastralia, scapulae, coracoids, humeri, radii, ulnae, metacarpals I, phalanges I-1, manual unguals I, metacarpals II, phalanges II-1, phalanges II-2, manual unguals II, metacarpals III, phalanges III-1, phalanges III-2, phalanges III-3, manual unguals III, pubes, femur, tibiae, fibula, metatarsals II, phalanx II-1 (111 mm), phalanx II-2 (66 mm), pedal ungual II (~73 mm), metatarsals III, phalanges III-1 (100 mm), phalanges III-2 (77 mm), phalanges III-3 (64 mm), pedal unguals III, metatarsals IV, phalanges IV-1 (46 mm), phalanges IV-2 (37 mm), phalanges IV-3 (32 mm), phalanges IV-4 (37 mm), pedal unguals IV, metatarsal V (Farlow, 2001)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Frenchman Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada
Material
- ?(CMN 9819) manual ungual I (Russell, 1972)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, US
Material
- ?(AMNH 975) pedal ungual (Longrich, 2008)
?(UCMP 154569) tibia, pes, postcrania (Longrich, 2008)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material
- ?(RTMP 86.47.4) ungual (Ryan and Russell, 2001)
Diagnosis- manus over 107% of humeral length (also in Struthiomimus).
Comments- Ornithomimus sedens' holotype was discovered in 1891 and described briefly by Marsh in 1892. It was later described in detail and illustrated by Gilmore (1920). Neither Marsh nor Gilmore noted any diagnostic characters, and assigned the species to Ornithomimus because they assigned all known ornithomimids to that genus. Russell (1972) could not refer it definitively to Ornithomimus, Struthiomimus or Dromiceiomimus, though he noted the proximal caudal proportions were intermediate between the latter two. Farlow (2001) is the first reference I know of to use the combination Struthiomimus sedens, though he did so in quotation marks. It was used for a recently discovered specimen BHI 1266, which was also featured in Rainforth (2003), Senter and Robins (2005) and Bates et al. (2009) as Struthiomimus sedens, but has yet to be described. It is very complete, as can be seen on the BHI website. While it does share some characters with Struthiomimus, these are either plesiomorphies (short metacarpal I) or characteristic of a larger group including Gallimimus and other taxa (short skull; manual ungual III longer than phalanx III-3), except for the elongate manus, which is uniquely over 107% of humeral length in the two taxa as opposed to other post-Harpymimus ornithomimosaurs. Unfortunately, only the proximal pubes appear to be shared between it and the sedens holotype (judging by the in situ photograph of BHI 1266). Yet they are of similar size, share characters with the same group of ornithomimids, and from the same formation. They are thus both referred to the same taxon here, which is provisionally retained in Ornithomimus, though it may be more closely related to Archaeornithomimus and "Gallmimimus" "mongoliensis" instead. Russell (1972) reported a first manual ungual from the Frenchman Formation of Saskatchewan that resembles that of Struthiomimus. Based on stratigraphy, it may be Ornithomimus? sedens instead. Longrich (2008) has made the most explicit recent commentary on sedens, referring it to Struthiomimus, and referring several specimens to the species (AMNH 975, BHI 1266, RTMP 86.47.4, UCMP 154569). He did state that further study was needed to determine if the holotype and cotype are diagnostic. According to Gilmore (1920), there is no cotype however.
References- Marsh, 1892. Notice of new reptiles from the Laramie Formation. American Journal of Science. 43, 449-453.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. United States National Museum Bulletin. 110, l-154.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Farlow, 2001. Acrocanthosaurus and the maker of Comanchean large-theropod footprints. in Tanke, Carpenter, Skrepnick and Currie (eds). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. 408-427.
Ryan and Russell, 2001. The dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves). in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 279-297.
Rainforth, 2003. Revision and reevaluation of the Early Jurassic dinosaurian ichnogenus Otozoum. Palaeontology, 46(4), 803-838.
Senter and Robins, 2005. Range of motion in the forelimb of the theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, and implications for predatory behaviour. Journal of Zoology. 266(3), 307-318.
Longrich, 2008. A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains. Palaeontology. 51(4), 983-997.
Bates, Manning, Hodgetts and Sellers, 2009. Estimating mass properties of dinosaurs using laser imaging and 3D computer modelling. PLoS ONE. 4(2), e4532.

unnamed clade (Archaeornithomimus asiaticus + "Gallimimus" "mongoliensis")
Diagnosis- at least some manual unguals straight (also in Dromiceiomimus and Anserimimus).

Archaeornithomimus Russell, 1972
A. asiaticus (Gilmore, 1933) Russell, 1972
= Ornithomimus asiaticus Gilmore, 1933
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Iren Debasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China

Lectotype- (AMNH 6565) distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal II (257 mm), pedal phalanx II-1 (70.8 mm); metatarsal III (286 mm), metatarsal IV (259 mm)
Paralectotype- (AMNH 6569) radius (140 mm), ulna (148 mm), metacarpal I (46.9 mm), phalanx I-1 (57.2 mm), metacarpal II (54.5 mm), phalanx II-1 (26.7 mm), phalanx II-2 (57 mm), metacarpal III (50.3 mm), phalanx III-2 (16.6 mm), phalanx III-3 (43.5 mm)
Paratypes- (AMNH 6558) ischia (280 mm)
(AMNH 6566) humerus (272 mm), radius (205 mm), ulna (217 mm)
(AMNH 6567) proximal scapula (132 mm), coracoid (110.6 mm long, 64.5 high), humerus (256 mm)
(AMNH 6568) proximal metatarsal III, distal metatarsal III, proximal metatarsal IV, distal metatarsal IV, metatarsal shaft fragment (AMNH online)
(AMNH 6570) (multiple individuals) axis (lost?), cervical vertebra, cervical centrum, anterior dorsal vertebra, three posterior dorsal vertebrae, two dorsal centra, four dorsal rib fragments, sixth sacral centrum, sacral centrum, six proximal caudal centra, six mid caudal vertebrae, six incomplete mid caudal vertebrae, eleven mid caudal centra, six incomplete distal caudal vertebrae (42, 44, 51 mm), eleven distal caudal centra, humerus, five radii, metacarpal I, two phalanges I-1, five manual unguals I, three metacarpals II, three phalanges II-1, three phalanges II-2, three manual unguals II, two metacarpals III, phalanx III-1, two phalanges III-3, manual ungual III, manual ungual II or III, seven metacarpals or penultimate phalanges, manual ungual, incomplete ilium (~380 mm), distal pubis, two femora, two distal femora, two tibiae, seven proximal tibiae, four distal tibiae, proximal fibula(?), four astragali, two calcanea, proximal metatarsal II, eight phalanges II-1, four phalanges II-2, two distal metatarsals III, six phalanges III-1, four phalanges III-2, phalanx III-3, phalanx II-1 or III-1/2, two phalanges II-2 or III-3, two metatarsals IV, distal metatarsal IV, two phalanges IV-1, five phalanges IV-2, three phalanges IV-3, two phalanges IV-4, phalanx IV-?, two metatarsals, four metatarsal shaft fragments, four pedal phalanges, nine pedal unguals, six long hindlimb bones, long bone shaft, ungual, fragments
(AMNH 6576) (multiple individuals) two dorsal rib fragments, six partial mid caudal vertebrae, four mid caudal centra, six distal caudal vertebrae, partial distal caudal vertebra, three distal caudal centra, two incomplete coracoids, proximal humerus, radius, ulna, two phalanges I-1, two manual unguals I, two manual unguals II, phalanx III-2, manual ungual fragment, partial ilium, femur, two proximal femora, tibia, distal tibia, seven distal tarsals, two proximal metatarsals I, distal metatarsal II, three phalanges II-1, three phalanges II-2, two proximal metatarsals III, six distal metatarsals III, phalanx III-1, two phalanges III-2, phalanx III-3, three metatarsals IV, three proximal metatarsals IV, two distal metatarsals IV, three phalanges IV-1, two phalanges IV-2, two phalanges IV-3, two phalanges IV-4, four metatarsal shaft fragments, two pedal unguals, distal metatarsal or phalanx, proximal phalanx, fragments
(AMNH 21786; = AMNH 6576) fifth cervical vertebra (69.5 mm)
(AMNH 21787; = AMNH 6576) eighth cervical vertebra (64 mm)
(AMNH 21788; = AMNH 6576) tenth cervical vertebra (56.9 mm), first dorsal vertebra (53.5 mm), second dorsal vertebra (47.7 mm), third dorsal vertebra (45.7 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (45 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (48.5 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (49.8 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (50.3 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (53 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (56.6 mm)
(AMNH 21789; = AMNH 6576) third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra (47.1), sixth dorsal vertebra (48.3 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (50.5 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (53.4 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (51.9 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (52.9 mm)
(AMNH 21790; = AMNH 6576) second sacral vertebra (64.9 mm), third sacral vertebra (62.5 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (53.5 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (61.8 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (54.5 mm), first caudal vertebra (54.9 mm), second caudal vertebra (56.9 mm), third caudal vertebra (51.7 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (48.5 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (47.8 mm), ilium (114 mm)
(AMNH 21791; = AMNH 6576) third caudal vertebra (53.5 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (49.9 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (49.9 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (49.7 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (52.5 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (49 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (50.3 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (49.2 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (42.8 mm)
(AMNH 21792; = AMNH 6576) distal caudal vertebra (45.5 mm), distal caudal vertebra (45 mm), distal caudal vertebra (44.8 mm), five distal caudal vertebrae
(AMNH 21793; = AMNH 6576) distal caudal vertebra (44.9 mm), distal caudal vertebra (45.7 mm), distal caudal vertebra (44.8 mm), distal caudal vertebra (44.5 mm), distal caudal vertebra (41.5 mm), distal caudal vertebra (42.5 mm), distal caudal vertebra (39.5 mm), distal caudal vertebra
(AMNH 21794; = AMNH 6576) distal caudal vertebra (46.3 mm), distal caudal vertebra (45.3 mm), distal caudal vertebra (47.2 mm), distal caudal vertebra (46.7 mm), distal caudal vertebra (47.3 mm), distal caudal vertebra (46.2 mm), distal caudal vertebra (42.4 mm), distal caudal vertebra (41.7 mm) (four caudals lost)
(AMNH 21795) nine distal caudal vertebrae
(AMNH 21796) two fused sacral centra, seven sacral centra
(AMNH 21797; = AMNH 6570) astragalus
(AMNH 21798; = AMNH 6570) pubes
(AMNH 21799; = AMNH 6570) pubes (one distal; 303 mm)
(AMNH 21800; = AMNH 6570) femur (314 mm)
(AMNH 21801; = AMNH 6576) tibia (401 mm), astragalus
(AMNH 21802; = AMNH 6576) eleventh caudal vertebra, twelfth caudal vertebra (44 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (43.3 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (41.5 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (41.6 mm)
(AMNH 21803; = AMNH 6570) pedal ungual
(AMNH 21884; = AMNH 6570) metacarpal II
(AMNH 21885; = AMNH 6570) manual ungual I
(AMNH 21886; = AMNH 6570) manual ungual I
(AMNH 21887; = AMNH 6570) manual ungual II
(AMNH 21888; = AMNH 6570) manual ungual II
(AMNH 21889; = AMNH 6570) metacarpal II
(AMNH 21890; = AMNH 6576) manual ungual II (AMNH online)
(AMNH 21891; = AMNH 6570) manual ungual III (AMNH online)
(AMNH 21892; = AMNH 6570) manual ungual III (AMNH online)
(AMNH coll.; lost?) proximal scapula, two humeri
Referred- ?(AMNH 6267) vertebral centra, pedal elements (AMNH online)
?(AMNH 6268) fragments (AMNH online)
?(AMNH 21626) metatarsal II, distal metatarsal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, metatarsal IV fragment, phalanx IV-1 (AMNH online)
?(AMNH 21627) anterior dorsal centrum, metatarsal shaft, phalanx III-1, phalanx IV-3 (AMNH online)
(AMNH 30240A) astragalus (AMNH online)
(AMNH 30240B) proximal metatarsal IV (pers. obs.)
(AMNH 30240C) proximal metatarsal II (pers. obs.)
(AMNH 30240D) partial proximal caudal centrum, mid caudal centrum (pers. obs.)
(AMNH 30240E) distal caudal vertebra (pers. obs.)
(AMNH 30240G) partial manual ungual (pers. obs.)
(lost) partial skull (Currie and Eberth, 1993)
Comments- The original material was discovered in 1923, and described briefly by Gilmore in 1933 as Ornithomimus asiaticus. When Russell (1972) split Ornithomimus into several genera, he made asiaticus the type species of Archaeornithomimus. Smith and Galton (1990) later described the material in detail.
The remains of Archaeornithomimus are largely disassociated and were originally catalogued under a few specimen numbers (AMNH 6558, 6565-6570, 6576). AMNH 6570 and 6576 were later split into several new specimen numbers each, to ensure each number represented one individual, but a large amount of material remains catalogued under their original numbers. Smith and Galton (1990) also listed AMNH 6558, 6566 and 6567 as being recatalogued under new numbers, but these numbers correspond to additional specimens in the AMNH collections (pers. obs.). Specifically, the ischia AMNH 6558 are mistakenly said to be recatalogued as 21798 (actually pubes). The forelimb AMNH 6566 is mistakenly said to be recatalogued as 21796 (actually sacral vertebrae). The pectoral girdle and humerus AMNH 6567 are mistakenly said to be recatalogued as 21795 (actually nine distal caudal vertebrae). The AMNH online catalogue still has a listing for 6576 as "4 coossified sacral vertebrae etc.", though those sacrals are actually recatalogued as 21790. This agrees with Smith and Galton's statement the vertebrae of 6576 were later recatalogued and separated as 21786-21794, though it should be noted some vertebral material remains in 6576. However, most of the material under that number consists of over seventy appendicular elements which are not mentioned in the online catalog and have never been described. Smith and Galton also mistakenly switch the specimen numbers of AMNH 6566 and 6567. AMNH 21797 is a partial astragalus, contra the AMNH online database which lists it as neural spines. Smith and Galton list proximal caudal neural spines of 6576 as being recatalogued as 21889, though that number is a metacarpal II. There doesn't appear to be an actual specimen consisting solely of neural spines, though those of 21791 are broken from their centra. Smith and Galton miss two more anterior dorsal vertebrae in 21789, bringing the total to eight. The new specimen numbers AMNH 21884 and 21888 are switched, with the metacarpal stated to be 21888 and the ungual 21884. AMNH 21794 consists of four distal caudal vertebrae, while Smith and Galton give measurements for four more. Whether Smith and Galton's measurements are in error, or the four additional caudals have been misplaced (back into 6576 for instance), is unknown. They also switched the identifications of manual phalanges III-2 and III-3 and II-1 and II-2. Currie and Eberth (1993) noted both Gilmore and Smith and Galton misidentified pedal phalanx II-1 of the lectotype as IV-1, which seems correct given its morphology. The AMNH online catalog doesn't have any material listed for AMNH 6570, though an enormous amount of material is catalogued under that number in the museum. While Makovicky (1995) listed an axis, sacrum and pelvis under that number, no axis was observed in the collection, only two sacral centra were present, and the only pelvic elements under that number are an ilium and distal pubis. Gilmore (1933) noted two proximal scapulae were present in the Archaeornithomimus material, but only one was observed in the collections. Similarly, he lists six humeri as present, but only four were located.
The AMNH catalog lists 6267 and 6268 as Ornithomimus sp., but they are probably Archaeornithomimus based on stratigraphy. They list AMNH 21626 and 21627 as possibly referrable to Archaeornithomimus. A partial skull was found by the Sino-Soviet expedition, but is now lost (Currie and Eberth 1993).
There is non-ornithomimid material catalogued under Archaeornithomimus, including a tyrannosaurid tooth (AMNH 30240F), a hadrosaur ungual (in AMNH 6576), a small curved manual ungual with a proximally placed flexor tubercle (in AMNH 6576) and part of a medium sized curved manual ungual with a large proximally placed flxor tubercle (in AMNH 6570). Currie and Eberth noted variability in preserved elements, suggesting more than one species of ornithomimosaur are represented. They further suggested this additional species may be Garudimimus based on the possible presence of pedal digit I in Archaeornithomimus, the incorrect view that Garudimimus may have been arctometatarsalian, and supposedly similar metatarsal ratio. Kobayashi (2004) determined Garudimimus really does lack an arctometatarsus though, and showed the metatarsal ratios are not that similar (Currie and Eberth's measurements were based on a photograph). Archaeornithomimus is actually distinct from Garudimimus in having lower dorsal neural arches and spines, lower caudal neural spines, shorter proximal caudal prezygapophyses, lower ilium, more widely flaring supracetabular crest posteriorly, longer and deeper posterior pubic boot, less anteriorly curved femur, less dorsoventrally flared femoral head, smaller accessory trochanter, shallower distal and posterior femoral intercondylar groove, less distinct ectocondylar tuber, smaller cnemial crest, no posterior groove on the proximal tibia, only slightly concave distal astragalar edge, less concavity anteriorly between astragalar condyles, arctometatarsus, distally divergent metatarsal II, large medial flange on distal metatarsal III condyle, narrower anterior edge on distal metatarsal IV, straight pedal ungual. Described variation includes ulnar curvature, which is also known to vary in Dromiceiomimus, and manual ungual curvature and slenderness, which may be explainable to their belonging to different digits. Further variation and distinction from Garudimimus must rely on unpublished observations of the material.
References- Gilmore, 1933. On the dinosaurian fauna of the Iren Dabasu Formation. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 67, 23-78.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Smith and Galton, 1990. Osteology of Archaeornithomimus asiaticus (Upper Cretaceous, Iren Dabasu Formation, People's Republic of China). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 10(2), 255-265.
Currie and Eberth, 1993. Palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the Iren Dabasu Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Inner Mongolia, People s Republic of China. Cretaceous Research. 14, 127-144.
Makovicky, 1995. Phylogenetic aspects of the vertebral morphology of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). M.S. thesis, Univ. Copenhagen, 311pp.
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.

"Gallimimus" "mongoliensis" Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2006
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Bayanshiree Formation, Mongolia

Material- (IGM 100/14) (~3.5 m) skull, mandible, ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, at least five posterior dorsal vertebrae, several dorsal ribs, sacrum, twelve distal caudal vertebrae, fourteen chevrons, scapula, coracoid, humeri (297 mm), radii (~205 mm), ulnae, metacarpal I (73.8 mm), phalanx I-1 (~101 mm), manual ungual I (~81 mm), metacarpal II (80.9 mm), phalanx II-1 (~35 mm), phalanx II-2 (~88 mm), manual ungual II (~87 mm), metacarpal III (76.3 mm), phalanx III-1 (~20 mm), phalanx III-2 (~26 mm), phalanx III-3 (~60 mm), manual ungual III (~78 mm), ilium, pubis, ischium, femora (~424 mm), tibiae (~445 mm), fibulae, metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (57 mm), phalanx II-2 (27.4 mm), metatarsal III (271 mm), metatarsal IV, metatarsal V (Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2006)
(IGM 950818) includes dentary, posterior cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, humerus, radius, distal carpal II, intermedium, metacarpal I (87.9 mm), metacarpal II (91 mm), metacarpal III (86.6 mm), phalanx III-2, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, ilium (496 mm), pubis (451 mm), femur (456 mm), astragalus, calcaneum, pedal phalanx II-1 (68.2 mm), phalanx II-2 (35.7 mm), metatarsal III (329 mm) (Kobayashi and Lu, 2003)
Comments- Barsbold announced this species in a press conference on October 18th, 1996 at the Nakasato Dinosaur Center based on IGM 100/14. It's uncertain whether the name made it to print then, so it is credited here to Kobayashi and Barsbold (2006). Details about the species were available starting in 1997 on the Nakasato Dinosaur Center's website, making this an online-only name until recently. Kobayashi (2004 and its resulting publications) refers to it as Gallimimus sp., and refers another specimen (IGM 950818) to the taxon as well. The text includes much information about both specimens, though that was not their primary aim. Kobayashi and Barsbold (2006) noted the distinctness of IGM 100/14 compared to Gallimimus bullatus, but did not officially name the taxon. They did illustrate the metacarpus and manual unguals, and photos of the mounted skeleton, skull and manus are available online at the Nakasato Dinosaur Center website. The manus and metatarsus are illustrated by Kobayashi (2004). Entering the specimens into a revised version of Senter's (2007) analysis, with characters added from Kobayashi and other sources, results in placing "mongoliensis" sister to Archaeornithomimus, and closer to Ornithomimus velox and O? sedens than to Gallimimus bullatus as well. This is based on the straight manual unguals and wide metatarsus. It should therefore be given its own genus, since there's no evidence it belongs to Gallimimus. When it will be officially named and described is unknown. It differs from Archaeornithomimus in having a large humeral entepicondyle and ectepicondyle, straight manual ungual I, ventrally concave pubic peduncle of the ilium, straight pubic shaft, ventrally convex pubic boot and more pinched metatarsal III.
References- http://www.dino-nakasato.org/en/special97/Gall-e.shtml
Kobayashi, 2004. Asian ornithomimosaurs. PhD Thesis, Southern Methodist University. 340 pp.
Kobayashi and Barsbold, 2006. Ornithomimids from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 22(1), 195-207.

Alvarezsauroidea Bonaparte, 1991 sensu Livezey and Zusi, 2007
Definition- (Alvarezsaurus calvoi <- Ornithomimus edmontonicus, Passer domesticus) (modified from Hu, Hou, Zhang and Xu, 2009)
Other definitions- (Alvarezsaurus calvoi <- Passer domesticus) (Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010)
= Alvarezsauria Bonaparte, 1991
Definition- (Alvarezsaurus calvoi <- Passer domesticus) (Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012)
= Alvarezsauridae sensu Sereno, 1999
Definition- (Shuvuuia deserti <- Ornithomimus velox) (modified)
= Alvarezsauridae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Shuvuuia deserti <- Tyrannosaurus rex, Ornithomimus edmontonicus, Therizinosaurus cheloniformis, Oviraptor philoceratops, Troodon formosus, Passer domesticus)
Diagnosis- enlarged presacral neural canals; ventrally keeled proximal caudal centra; distally projecting lateral femoral condyle.
Comments- Bonaparte (1991) used the monotypic order Alvarezsauria for his new genus Alvarezsaurus, but this has been ignored by most subsequent authors. Livezey and Zusi (2007) proposed Alvarezsauroidea for Alvarezsaurus, Patagonykus and Mononykus, but their classification is filled with many such redundant ranks. The first authors to define Alvarezsauroidea were Hu et al. (2009) who used a stem-based definition excluding both birds and ornithomimosaurs. Choiniere et al. (2010) later made another definition for the superfamily, this time only excluding birds, so troublesome if alvarezsaurs are arctometatarsalians. Agnolin et al. (2012) tried to reinstate Alvarezsauria using Choiniere et al.'s definition for Alvarezsauroidea. While Alvarezsauria may be preferrable in that it has the same suffix as most other large maniraptoriform clades and was named over a decade earlier, Hu et al.'s definition is both earlier and safer.
References- Bonaparte, 1991. Los vertebrados fosiles de la Formacion Ryo Colorado, de la ciudad de Neuquen y cercanyas, Cretacico superior, Argentina. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Revista (Seccion Paleontologya). 4, 15-123.
Longrich, 2000. Myrmecophagous Maniraptora? Alvarezsaurs as aardraptors. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 54A.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Novas and Pol, 2002. Alvarezsaurid relationships reconsidered. pp. 121-125. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Livezey and Zusi, 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149 (1), 1-95.
Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010. A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the Early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China. Science. 327, 571-574.
Dyke and Naish, 2011. What about European alvarezsauroids? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108(22), E147.
Xu, Sullivan, Pittman, Choiniere, Hone, Upchurch, Tan, Xiao, Tan and Han, 2011. Reply to Dyke and Naish: European alvarezsauroids do not change the picture. 108(22), E148.
Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

Alnashetri Makovicky, Apesteguia and Gianechini, 2012
A. cerropoliciensis Makovicky, Apesteguia and Gianechini, 2012
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Candeleros Formation of the Rio Neuquen Subgroup, Rio Negro, Argentina
Holotype
- (MPCA 477) proximal femur, distal tibiae, fibular fragment, astragalocalcanea, metatarsals II (one incomplete, one proximal), metatarsals III (one incomplete, one proximal), phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, proximal metatarsal IV
Diagnosis- (after Makovicky et al., 2012) low ridge on the distal end of the tibia, which separates the anterior surface for articulation with the astragalus from the outer face of the lateral malleolus, and which extends up the shaft of the tibia dorsal to the tip of the ascending process of the astragalus; small notches extend ventrally from the collateral ligament pits at the base of the distal articular hemicondyles on pedal phalanges III-2 and III-3
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 2005. Makovicky et al. (2012) found it to be an alvarezsaurid more derived than Alvarezsaurus but less than Linhenykus and other arctometatarsal taxa, based on a version of the TWG matrix supplemented by Zanno. Cau (2012 online) placed it in a larger unpublished analysis and found it to be an alvarezsauroid basal even to Haplocheirus, in a clade with Kinnareemimus, and more derived than Nqwebasaurus.
References- Cau, 2012 online. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2012/10/alnashetri-cerropoliciensis-makovichy.html
Makovicky, Apesteguia and Gianechini, 2012. A new coelurosaurian theropod from the La Buitrera fossil locality of Río Negro, Argentina. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences. 5, 90-98.

Nqwebasaurus de Klerk, Forster, Sampson, Chinsamy and Ross, 2000
N. thwazi de Klerk, Forster, Sampson, Chinsamy and Ross, 2000
Berriasian-Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Upper Kirkwood Formation, South Africa

Holotype- (AM 6040) (subadult) maxilla, lacrimal, prefrontal, frontals, fused parietals, partial quadrate, parasphenoid, exoccipital-opisthotic, sclerotic ring, seven cervical vertebrae, anterior dorsal centrum, dorsal neural arches and centra, dorsal rib fragments, gastralia, caudal neural arches and centra, scapulae (64.7 mm), coracoids, humeri (~58.5 mm), radii (~44.2 mm), ulnae (~44.5 mm), distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I (16.7, 17.1 mm), phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, metacarpal II (26.5 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, metacarpal III (20 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, incomplete pubes, partial femora (~118 mm), tibiae (140.7 mm), fibulae, astragalus, calcaneum, distal tarsal III, metatarsal I (~9.5 mm), phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (65.8 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (72.7 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV (67.3 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, twelve gastroliths
Diagnosis- (after de Klerk et al., 2000) ginglymus of metacarpal I very robust and asymmetrical, with hypertrophied articular surfaces and greatly enlarged lateral condyle; manual ungual phalanx of digit I elongate (length is four times proximal depth) and mediolaterally compressed; fibular shaft reduced distally to thin splint; metatarsal IV reduced in width to approximately half that of metatarsal III (also in Aniksosaurus).
(after Choiniere et al., 2012) unserrated maxillary teeth set into a groove; straight maxillary tooth crowns; maxillary tooth crowns conical; ridge on the lateral margin of the dorsal surface of the distal end of metacarpal I extending proximally from lateral condyle.
Comments- The maxilla was originally misidentified as a palatine by de Klerk et al. (2000) before Choiniere et al. (2012) fully described the skull.
This taxon was described as a basal coelurosaur, and found to occupy such a position in the analyses of Holtz et al. (2004) and Rauhut and Xu (2005). The latter analyses found the taxon more derived than compsognathids, but outside Tyrannoraptora and Maniraptora, respectively. Holtz et al. furthermore found it to clade with Ornitholestes, while Gishlick and Gathier (2007) noted manual resemblences to compsognathids. Sereno (2001) noted manual characters shared with arctometatarsalians, and Cau (online 2009) found it to clade with alvarezsaurids in his unpublished analysis. The biceps tubercle of the coracoid seems to be absent (and replaced by a ridge, as in Patagonykus), and the deltopectoral crest is over a third the length of the humerus (also in Aniksosaurus), which are alvarezsaurid-like but lacking in the more derived Haplocheirus. Furthermore, it shares a transversely narrowed distal metatarsal IV with Aniksosaurus, which Cau finds to be its sister taxon. Choiniere et al. (2012) included new cranial data and found Nqwebasaurus to be a basal ornithomimosaur, though it was an alvarezsauroid in trees only 4 steps longer.
References- de Klerk, Forster, Ross, Sampson and Chinsamy, 1997. New maniraptoran and iguanodontian dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Kirkwood Formation, South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 42A.
de Klerk, Forster, Ross, Sampson and Chinsamy, 1998. A review of recent dinosaur and other vertebrate discoveries in the Early Cretaceous Kirkwood Formation in the Algoa Basin, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Gondwana 10: Event Stratigraphy of Gondwana. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 27(1A), 55.
de Klerk, Forster, Sampson, Chinsamy and Ross, 2000. A new coelurosaurian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(2), 324-332.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Rauhut and Xu, 2005. The small theropod dinosaurs Tugulusaurus and Phaedrolosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of Xinjiang, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(1), 107-118.
Gishlick and Gauthier, 2007. On the manual morphology of Compsognathus longipes and its bearing on the diagnosis of Compsognathidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149, 569-581.
Cau, online 2009. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2009/02/darwin-day-2009-1-aniksosaurus-darwini.html
Choiniere, 2010. Anatomy and systematics of coelurosaurian theropods from the Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, with comments on forelimb evolution in Theropoda. PhD Thesis. George Washington University. 994 pp.
Choiniere, Forster and de Klerk, 2012a. New information on Nqwebasaurus thwazi, a coelurosaurian theropod from the Early Cretaceous (Hauteriverian?) Kirkwood Formation in South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 78.
Choiniere, Forster and de Klerk, 2012b. New information on Nqwebasaurus thwazi, a coelurosaurian theropod from the Early Cretaceous (Hauteriverian?) Kirkwood Formation in South Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 71-72, 1-17.

Aniksosaurus Martinez and Novas, 2006
= "Aniksosaurus" Martinez et al. vide Anonymous, 1997
A. darwini Martinez and Novas, 2006
= "Aniksosaurus darwini" unpublished (online)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Bajo Barreal Formation, Argentina
Holotype-
(MTD-PV 1/48) (~2 m) femur, tibia, incomplete fibula, partial metatarsal I, phalanx I-1 (16 mm), pedal ungual I (15 mm), metatarsal II (98 mm), phalanx II-1 (31 mm), phalanx II-2 (21 mm), metatarsal III (124 mm), phalanx III-1 (33 mm), phalanx III-2 (30 mm), metatarsal IV (105 mm), phalanx IV-1 (22 mm), phalanx IV-2 (16 mm), phalanx IV-3 (15 mm)
Paratypes- (MTD-PV 1/1) partial tibia
(MTD-PV 1/2) incomplete tibia
(MTD-PV 1/3) femur (247 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/4) metatarsal
(MTD-PV 1/5) partial ilium
(MTD-PV 1/6) fragmentary dorsal vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/7) vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/8) vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/9) vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/10) partial tibia
(MTD-PV 1/11) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/12) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/13) mid caudal vertebra (40 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/14) partial posterior cervical vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/15) vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/16) incomplete humerus (~130 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/17) incomplete ulna (~104 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/18) fragmentary dorsal vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/19) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/20) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/21) neural arch
(MTD-PV 1/22) incomplete tibia
(MTD-PV 1/23) incomplete femur
(MTD-PV 1/24) partial ilium
(MTD-PV 1/25) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/26) incomplete femur
(MTD-PV 1/27) incomplete femur
(MTD-PV 1/28) partial tibia
(MTD-PV 1/29) partial humerus
(MTD-PV 1/30) neural arch
(MTD-PV 1/31) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/32) proximal caudal vertebra (34 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/33) partial ilium
(MTD-PV 1/34) tibia (250 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/35) partial ilium
(MTD-PV 1/36) partial humerus
(MTD-PV 1/37) partial humerus
(MTD-PV 1/38) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/39) fragment
(MTD-PV 1/40) incomplete manual ungual I (44 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/41) partial ischium (~160 mm)
(MTD-PV 1/42) partial humerus
(MTD-PV 1/43) phalanx
(MTD-PV 1/44) partial tibia
(MTD-PV 1/45) metatarsal
(MTD-PV 1/46) neural arch
(MTD-PV 1/47) vertebra
(MTD-PV 1/52) vertebra
(MTD-PV coll.) fragmentary ribs
Diagnosis- (modified after Martinez and Novas, 2006) cervical vertebrae with the neural arch pedicels unusually deep (2.5 times the height of the centrum); wide neural canal on cervical vertebrae (also in Avimimus); transversely broad manual ungual I (also in Alvarezsauridae); caudolateral surface of proximal femur with strong depression and rugosities presumably for the attachment for M. ischiotrochantericus; metatarsal IV and its correspondent digit transversely narrow (also in Nqwebasaurus).
Comments- The holotype and paratypes represent at least five individuals, based on the amount of right tibiae.
Discovered in 1995 and originally mentioned as a nomen nudum in an Argentine newpaper article, with the discovery attributed to Martinez et al.. In 1997, the taxon was briefly described (but still not named) in an abstract by Martinez and Novas. Later (in 2001 or shortly before), the species name was leaked on a website which is now offline. Its formal description was finally published in 2006.
Martinez and Novas (2006) thought Aniksosaurus was most probably a non-maniraptoriform coelurosaur more derived than compsognathids, coelurids and Ornitholestes. Unpublished analyses by both Cau (online, 2009) and myself find Aniksosaurus to be a basal alvarezsauroid, based on the ventrally keeled proximal caudal centra, transversely broad manual ungual I and laterally expanded brevis shelf. However, the latter two characters are lacking in the more derived Haplocheirus so may be convergences. The distally projecting lateral femoral condyle is also alvarezsaurid-like, as are the large presacral neural canals.
References- Anonymous, 1997. Pagina/12.
Martinez and Novas, 1997. A new tetanuraen (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bajo Barreal Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Patagonia. Ameghiniana 34(4) 538.
http://www.tierraaustral.com/informacion/nota_paleo.htm (now defunct)
Martínez and Novas, 2006. Aniksosaurus darwini gen. et sp. nov., a new coelurosaurian theropod from the early Late Cretaceous of central Patagonia, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 8(2), 243-259.
Senter, 2007. A new look at the phylogeny of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 5(4), 429-463.
http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2009/02/darwin-day-2009-1-aniksosaurus-darwini.html

unnamed clade (Haplocheirus sollers + Mononykus olecranus)
Diagnosis- elongated basipterygoid processes (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids); dorsal parapophyses stalked (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids); humeral ectepicondyle hypertrophied and distally positioned; trochlear articular surface of distal ulna extended onto dorsal surface to permit hyperextension; manual digit I subequal to humerus in diameter; manual phalanx I-1 flattened and bearing a prominent ventral sulcus; pedal digit III more slender than either digit II or IV.

Haplocheirus Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010
H. sollers Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010
Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Shishugou Formation, Xinjiang, China
Holotype
- (IVPP V15988) (~1.9-2.3 m; subadult) skull (212.8 mm), sclerotic rings, mandibles, hyoid fragment, partial axis, incomplete third cervical vertebra (26.5 mm), incomplete fourth cervical vertebra (28.3 mm), incomplete fifth cervical vertebra, incomplete sixth cervical vertebra (32.5 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (32.1 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (28 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (28.8 mm), incomplete tenth cervical vertebra (25.4 mm), twelve cervical ribs, incomplete first dorsal vertebra (25.2 mm), incomplete second dorsal vertebra (25.7 mm), incomplete third dorsal vertebra (19.9 mm), incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra (24.1 mm), incomplete fifth dorsal vertebra (21.4 mm), incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra (24.4 mm), incomplete seventh dorsal vertebra (28.4 mm), incomplete eighth dorsal vertebra (25.1 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (25.6 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (28 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (26.5 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (29 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (28 mm), twenty-six dorsal ribs, eighteen incomplete rows of gastralia, partial first sacral vertebra (29.1 mm), second sacral centrum (25 mm), third sacral centrum (20.1 mm), partial fourth sacral vertebra (21 mm), partial fifth sacral vertebra (21.5 mm), incomplete first caudal vertebra (24.7 mm), incomplete second caudal vertebra (28.6 mm), third caudal vertebra (27.6 mm), incomplete fourth caudal vertebra, incomplete fifth caudal vertebra (30.1 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (32.8 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (32 mm), eighth caudal vertebra, ninth caudal vertebra (32.3 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (35.1 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (33.8 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (34.2 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (35.3 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (37.8 mm), eight distal caudal centra, chevrons 1-14, scapulae (~135 mm), coracoids (32.7 mm tall), humeri (104.3 mm; one incomplete), radii (86, 83 mm), ulnae (90.1 mm), radiale, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpals I (22.6 mm), phalanx I-1 (49.9 mm), manual unguals I (55, 48.1 mm), metacarpals II (57 mm), phalanx II-1 (33.7 mm), phalanges II-2 (50.6, 42 mm), manual unguals II (47.8, 50.4 mm), metacarpals III (26.2 mm), phalanx III-1 (14.7 mm), phalanx III-2 (15.6 mm), phalanx III-3 (30.2 mm), manual unguals III (30.7, 31.2 mm), partial ilium, incomplete pubes (159.8 mm), ischia (121 mm), femora (214.3 mm), tibiae (277.1, 269.3 mm), fibulae, astragali, calcanea, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (33.2 mm), phalanx II-2 (26 mm), pedal ungual II (32.3 mm), metatarsal III (144.6 mm), partial phalanx III-1 (38.6 mm), incomplete phalanx III-2 (26 mm), phalanx III-3 (26 mm), pedal ungual III (26.7 mm), metatarsal IV (134.5 mm), phalanx IV-1 (27.6 mm), phalanx IV-2 (22 mm), phalanx IV-3 (15.8 mm), partial phalanx IV-4 (~13.5 mm), pedal ungual IV (~20.3 mm), metatarsal V (44.6 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Choiniere et al., 2010) heterodont dentary tooth row with enlarged dentary tooth 4; alveolar margin of anterior end of dentary is dorsally convex; metacarpal III one-half the length of metacarpal II.
(suggested) cervical pleurocoels absent (also in Ceratonykus+Mononykus); proximal end of grooves on manual ungual I at least partially enclosed by notches (also in Patagonykus+Mononykus).
Other diagnoses- Choiniere et al. (2010) suggested a supposed second external mandibular fenestra was diagnostic, but Choiniere (2010) later showed this was caused by breakage and disarticulation. Choiniere et al. also suggested distally serrated lateral teeth were diagnostic among alvarezsaurs, but these are probably plesiomorphic.
References- Choiniere, Clark, Xu and Han, 2009. A new basal alvarezsaur from the Shishugou Formation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 77A.
Choiniere, 2010. Anatomy and systematics of coelurosaurian theropods from the Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, with comments on forelimb evolution in Theropoda. PhD Thesis. George Washington University. 994 pp.
Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010. A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the Early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China. Science. 327, 571-574.
Choiniere, Clark and Xu, in prep.. The anatomy of Haplocheirus sollers.

Alvarezsauridae Bonaparte, 1991
Definition- (Alvarezsaurus calvoi + Mononykus olecranus) (modified from Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010)
Other definitions- (Shuvuuia deserti <- Ornithomimus velox) (modified from Sereno, 1999)
(Shuvuuia deserti <- Tyrannosaurus rex, Ornithomimus edmontonicus, Therizinosaurus cheloniformis, Oviraptor philoceratops, Troodon formosus, Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
= Parvicursoridae Karhu and Rautian, 1996
Diagnosis- posterior sacral centra keeled ventrally; coracoid biceps tubercle absent (also in Nqwebasaurus); transversely broad manual ungual I (also in Aniksosaurus); flexor tubercle of manual ungual I reduced to a ridge or absent; cuppedicus fossa absent on ilium; pubic peduncle anteroposteriorly reduced; medial shelf of brevis fossa reduced to low ridge (unknown in Haplocheirus and Nqwebasaurus).
Comments- Sereno (in press) revised his earlier (1999) definition for Alvarezsauridae by adding non-ornithomimosaur external specifiers, a very good choice considering alvarezsaurids may be basal maniraptorans, enigmosaurs, paravians, avialans or ornithurines. It appears to cover all the published topologies, though the inclusion of Tyrannosaurus seems superfluous, as it's never been placed more closely to alvarezsaurids than at least one of the other external specifiers. Once again though, Sereno didn't use an eponymous taxon - Alvarezsaurus calvoi in this case. His rationale is that Shuvuuia is more completely known and "clearly related", but if the relationship is so clear, why not just use Alvarezsaurus? Sereno (in press) states "Well-known (and/or more complete), nested specifiers are critical because they are least likely to shift significantly in phylogenetic position", but if Alvarezsaurus shifts outside Sereno's defined Alvarezsauridae (such as in Lu et al., 2002), we'd have to redefine the family anyway. Choiniere et al. (2010) were the first authors to define it using Alvarezsaurus as an internal specifier, but used a node-based definition that excludes some basal taxa.
Alifanov and Barsbold question the placement of alvarezsaurids within Theropoda, but their reasoning is not cladistic, based largely on autapomorphies (dorsal jugal process absent; dorsal quadratojugal process absent; postorbital contacts quadrate; ventral flexure of endocranium absent; posteroventral dentary process absent; fused sternal plates; highly flattened metacarpal I; pubic symphysis absent), characters absent in basal members (fused metacarpals; proximally placed pubic tubercle; metatarsal III does not reach tarsus), characters present in related theropods (enlarged prefrontal; dentary teeth in common groove; procoelous caudal centra; obturator fenestra absent in pubis), and characters unknown in alvarezsaurids (gastralia absent; pentadactyl manus). Other theropods are known to have lost dorsal jugal and quadratojugal processes, to have fused their sterna, and lost their pubic symphyses as well, of course. The remaining autapomorphies are unique among archosaurs as far as I know. The authors state "it is interesting that many of the characters listed are recorded in ornithischians", but while Lesothosaurus has enlarged prefrontals (primitive for archosaurs), a flattened metacarpal I and a proximally placed pubic tuber, the other characters listed and present in alvarezsaurids are absent. The synapomorphies shared by Theropoda and its subgroups are far more numerous, and any suggestion for placing alvarezsaurids outside that clade can be ignored.
Interrelationships- Alifanov and Barsbold's (2009) placed Patagonykus closer to Alvarezsaurus than to parvicursorines, in the family Alvarezsauridae (with parvicursorines being Parvicursoridae). Their reasons are flawed, as Patagonykus has a supracetabular crest (which is primitive in any case), a large pubic peduncle is primitive, the pubic foot and smaller manual ungual I than phalanx I-1 are primitive and unknown in Alvarezsaurus, while the large proximolateral process on manual phalanx I-1 is an apomorphy of Patagonykus unknown in Alvarezsaurus.

undescribed alvarezsaurid (Agnolin, Novas and Powell, 2006)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina

Reference- Agnolin, Novas and Powell, 2006. New alvarezsaurid theropod from the Latest Cretaceous of Rio Negro province, Patagonia, Argentina. XXII Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontologia de Vertebrados (Boletin de Resumenes). p. 1.

unnamed Alvarezsauridae (Salgado, Coria, Arcucci and Chiappe, 2009)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina

Material- (MGPIFD-GR 167) incomplete posterior cervical neural arch
(MGPIFD-GR 168) distal caudal central fragment
(MGPIFD-GR 170) proximal caudal centrum
(MGPIFD-GR 171) partial fused second and third sacral centra
(MGPIFD-GR 172) proximal caudal centrum
(MGPIFD-GR 173) mid caudal centrum
(MGPIFD-GR 174) proximal pedal phalanx
(MGPIFD-GR 175) partial neural arch
(MGPIFD-GR 176) prezygapophysis
(MGPIFD-GR 177) posterior cervical or anterior dorsal postzygapophysis
(MGPIFD-GR 178) chevron
(MGPIFD-GR 179) caudal central fragment
(MGPIFD-GR 180) neural arch
(MGPIFD-GR 181) central fragments
(MGPIFD-GR 182) proximal pedal phalanx
(MGPIFD-GR 183) chevron
(MGPIFD-GR 185) pedal phalanx III-1
(MGPIFD-GR 186) proximal pedal phalanx
(MGPIFD-GR 187) pedal phalanx II-1
(MGPIFD-GR 188) pedal phalanx IV-2
(MGPIFD-GR 189) pedal phalanx IV-4
(MGPIFD-GR 190) pedal phalanx IV-3
(MGPIFD-GR 191) pedal ungual
(MGPIFD-GR 192) incomplete pedal ungual
(MGPIFD-GR 193) cervical postzygapophysis
Comments- Agnolin et al. (2012) note that two specimens described by Salgado et al. (MGPIFD-GR 166 and 184) share characters with the contemporaneous Bonapartenykus and refer them to this taxon. They further state the other remains may also belong to Bonapartenykus and may be from a single individual.
References- Salgado, Coria, Arcucci and Chiappe, 2009. Restos de Alvarezsauridae (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) en la Formación Allen (Campaniano-Maastrichtiano), en Salitral Ojo de Agua, Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Andean Geology. 36(1), 67-80.
Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

unnamed clade (Achillesaurus manazzonei + Alvarezsaurus calvoi)
Diagnosis- (after Longrich and Currie, 2009) pubic articular surface of ilium reduced and knob-like.
Comments- As these two taxa share an apomorphy and are known from the same formation, it's possible hey are synonymous.

Achillesaurus Mertinelli and Vera, 2007
A. manazzonei Martinelli and Vera, 2007
Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Bajo de la Carpa Formation of the Rio Colorado Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MACN-PV-RN 1116) (adult) sacral vertebral fragment, last sacral vertebra, partial first caudal neural arch, second caudal vertebra (30 mm), partial fourth(?) caudal vertebra, partial distal caudal centrum, second chevron, partial ilium, proximal femur, distal tibia, partial astragalus, proximal metatarsal II, proximal metatarsal III, proximal metatarsal IV
Diagnosis- (after Martinelli and Vera, 2007) presence of a biconcave, possible fourth, caudal vertebra with the cranial surface 30 % larger in diameter than the caudal one.
Reference- Martinelli and Vera, 2007. Achillesaurus manazzonei, a new alvarezsaurid theropod (Dinosauria) from the Late Cretaceous Bajo de la Carpa Formation, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Zootaxa. 1582, 1-17.

Alvarezsaurus Bonaparte, 1991
A. calvoi Bonaparte, 1991
Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Bajo de la Carpa Formation of the Rio Colorado Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina
Holotype
- (MUCPv 54) (3.51 kg; subadult) fifth cervical centrum (14 mm), sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra (14.5 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (9 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (10 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (10 mm), first dorsal vertebra (8.5 mm), second dorsal vertebra (9 mm), third dorsal vertebra (11 mm), two incomplete dorsal neural arches, second sacral centrum (12 mm), third sacral centrum (13 mm), fourth sacral centrum (16 mm), thirteen proximal and mid caudal vertebrae (19, 21, 22 mm), thirteen chevrons, incomplete scapula (~112 mm), incomplete coracoid, partial manual ungual I (~30 mm), ilia (92 mm), proximal femora, distal tibiae, fibular fragment, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II (66 mm), phalanx II-1 (20 mm), phalanx II-2 (12 mm), pedal ungual II (13 mm), metatarsal III (82 mm), phalanx III-1 (18 mm), phalanx III-2 (13 mm), phalanx III-3 (10 mm), pedal ungual III (15 mm), metatarsal IV (73 mm), phalanx IV-1 (12 mm), phalanx IV-2 (10 mm), phalanx IV-3 (6.5 mm), phalanx IV-4 (6 mm), pedal ungual IV (12 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Novas, 1996) cervical postzygapophyses dorsoventrally flattened, paddle shaped in dorsal view with a pair of strong craniocaudal ridges; length of distal caudals more than 200% length of proximal caudals; reduced scapula (47% of ilial length) without distal expansion; ventrally keeled manual ungual I.
References- Bonaparte, 1991. Los vertebrados fosiles de la Formacion Ryo Colorado, de la ciudad de Neuquen y cercanyas, Cretacico superior, Argentina. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Revista (Seccion Paleontologya). 4, 15-123.
Novas, 1996. Alvarezsauridae, Cretaceous basal birds from Patagonia and Mongolia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 675-702.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

unnamed clade (Patagonykus puertai + Mononykus olecranus)
Diagnosis- (after Longrich and Currie, 2009) cervical vertebrae opisthocoelous; humeral medial tuber hypertrophied and proximally projecting (unknown in Alvarezsaurus and Achillesaurus); articulation between ulna and radial condyle lost (unknown in Alvarezsaurus and Achillesaurus); olecranon process of ulna hypertrophied (unknown in Alvarezsaurus and Achillesaurus); radioulnar articulation enhanced to have paired articular facets (unknown in Alvarezsaurus and Achillesaurus); semilunate carpal fused to metacarpal I (unknown in Alvarezsaurus and Achillesaurus); metacarpal I broader than long (unknown in more Alvarezsaurus and Achillesaurus); proximal end of grooves on manual ungual I at least partially enclosed by notches (also in Haplocheirus); supracetabular crest terminates above end of pubic peduncle; pedal unguals with deep, L-shaped grooves (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids).

Patagonykinae Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012
= "Patagonykinae" Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, online 2011
Diagnosis- (after Agnolin et al., 2012) longitudinal ridge on lateral surface of coracoid; strongly sculptured distal half of coracoid.
Comments- Agnolin et al.'s paper first appeared as an accepted manuscript in December 2011, but was not officially published until June 2012. While Agnolin et al. (2012) state they created Patagonykinae to include both Patagonykus and Bonapartenykus, they did not give it a phylogenetic definition to indicate whether it is node-based or stem-based or what reference taxa are excluded if the latter is true.
Reference- Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

Patagonykus Novas, 1996
= "Patagonykus" Novas, 1993
P. puertai Novas, 1996
= "Patagonykus puertai" Novas, 1993
Late Turonian-Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Portezuelo Member of Rio Neuquen Formation, Neuquen, Argentina
Holotype
- (PVPH 37) (4.27 kg) incomplete seventh? dorsal vertebra (27 mm), partial thirteenth? dorsal vertebra, fourteenth? dorsal prezygopophysis, partial sacrum (third- 29 mm, fourth- 29mm, fifth- 37mm), incomplete first? caudal vertebra (40 mm), second? caudal prezygapophysis, partial fourth? caudal vertebra, fifth? caudal prezygapophysis, partial fifteenth? caudal vertebra, partial twentieth? caudal vertebra, partial coracoids, proximal humerus (~105 mm), distal humerus, proximal radius (~50 mm), proximal ulna (~98 mm), distal ulna, carpometacarpus (27 mm), phalanx I-1 (77 mm), partial manual ungual I, partial metacarpal II, ilial fragments, incomplete pubis (~252 mm), proximal ischia, incomplete femora (~285 mm), partial tibiae (~340 mm), proximal fibulae, incomplete astragalocalcaneum (40 mm wide) (astragalus 30 mm wide, calcaneum 11 mm wide), distal tarsal III, phalanx I-1 (38 mm), proximal metatarsal II, proximal metatarsal III, phalanx IV-2 (25 mm), phalanx IV-3 (20 mm), ungual phalanx IV
Referred- ....(PVPH 38) incomplete fifth? cervical vertebra (22 mm), postzygopophysis (Novas, 1997)
(MCF-PVPH-102) manual phalanx I-1, proximal manual ungual I (Chiappe and Coria, 2003)
Diagnosis- (after Novas, 1997) postzygopophyses in dorsal vertebrae with ventrally curved, tongue-shaped lateral margin; postcervical vertebrae with bulge on caudal base of neural arch; humeral articular facet of coracoid transversly narrow; internal tuberosity of humerus subcylindrical, wider at extremity than at base; humeral entepicondyle conical and strongly projecting medially; manual phalanx I-1 with proximomedial hook-like processes; entocondylar tuber of femur rectangular in distal view.
(suggested) femoral medial condyle transversely broad and flattened (also in Parvicursorinae).
Comments- Although Novas (1997) originally argued PVPH 38 was too small to belong to the holotype, Longrich and Currie (2008) noted the neural canal is similar in size and suggested it belongs to the same individual.
References- Novas, 1993. Patagonykus puertai n. gen. et sp., and the phylogenetic relationships of the Alvaresauridae (Theropoda, Maniraptora). Symposium Gondwana Dinosaurs: Phylogeny and Biogeography, Abstracts. VI Congreso Argention de Paleontoloiga y Bioestratigrafica.
Novas, 1996. Alvarezsauridae, Cretaceous basal birds from Patagonia and Mongolia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 675-702.
Novas, 1997. Anatomy of Patagonykus puertai (Theropoda, Avialae, Alvarezsauridae), from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(1), 137-166.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Chiappe and Coria, 2003. A new specimen of Patagonykus puertai (Theropoda: Alvarezsauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 40(1), 119-122.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252.

Bonapartenykus Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012
= "Bonapartenykus" Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, online 2011
B. ultimus Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012
= "Bonapartenykus ultimus" Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, online 2011
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina

Holotype- (MPCA 1290) (~2.5 m) incomplete mid dorsal vertebra, partial scapulocoracoids, partial ilium, incomplete pubis, incomplete femur, incomplete tibia, two partial eggs (70 mm), eggshells
Referred- (MGPIFD-GR 166) four incomplete posterior cervical neural arches, rib fragments, incomplete fifth or sixth caudal vertebra, pubic fragment (Salgado et al., 2009)
(MGPIFD-GR 184) scapular fragment (Salgado et al., 2009)
Diagnosis- (after Agnolin et al., 2012) mid-dorsal spinopostzygapophyseal laminae ending abruptly above postzygapophyses; distal coracoid strongly medially deflected and decorated with delicate but profuse grooves (also in Xixianykus); fused scapulocoracoid (also in Linhenykus and Ceratonykus); scapula with very wide notch on posterior margin; ilium and pubis fused.
Comments- The description first appeared as an accepted manuscript in December 2011, but was not officially published until June 2012. The ootaxon Arraigadoolithus patagoniensis, named in the same paper, belongs to it.
References- Salgado, Coria, Arcucci and Chiappe, 2009. Restos de Alvarezsauridae (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) en la Formación Allen (Campaniano-Maastrichtiano), en Salitral Ojo de Agua, Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Andean Geology. 36(1), 67-80.
Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

Parvicursorinae sensu Xu et al., 2012
Definition- (Parvicursor remotus <- Patagonykus puertai)
Diagnosis- opisthocoelous dorsal vertebrae; hyposphene-hypantrum articulations absent on dorsal vertebrae; dorsal parapophyses elevated to the level of the diapophyses; dorsal zygapophyses angled towards the saggital plane; seven sacral vertebrae; hypertrophied ventral keel on posterior sacral centra; pubic apron absent; pubis and ischial with extensive contact along shafts; anterior and greater trochanters fused on femur to form trochanteric crest; fibular crest of tibia reduced and rounded (unknown in more basal alvarezsaurids and Haplocheirus); fibula does not contact calcaneum; astragalar ascending process restricted and failing to cover medial surface of tibia; arctometatarsus.
Reference- Xu, Upchurch, Ma, Pittman, Choiniere, Sullivan, Hone, Tan, Tan, Xiao and Han, 2012. Osteology of the alvarezsauroid Linhenykus monodactylus from the Upper Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation of Inner Mongolia, China, and comments on alvarezsauroid biogeography. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0083

Kol Turner, Nesbitt and Norell, 2009
K. ghuva Turner, Nesbitt and Norell, 2009
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Djadokhta Formation, Mongolia
Holotype-
(IGM 100/2011) distal tarsal, metatarsal I (17 mm), phalanx I-1 (21.7 mm), pedal ungual I, (metatarsus 225 mm) metatarsal II (203.5 mm), phalanx II-1 (44 mm), phalanx II-2 (29.9 mm), pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (109 mm), phalanx III-1 (43.2 mm), phalanx III-2 (31.2 mm), phalanx III-3 (24 mm), pedal ungual III (24.1 mm on curve), metatarsal IV (208.1 mm), phalanx IV-1 (23 mm), phalanx IV-2 (20.3 mm), phalanx IV-3 (16 mm), phalanx IV-4 (11.2 mm), pedal ungual IV (20 mm on curve), partial metatarsal V (~63 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Turner et al., 2009) robust flexor tubercles on pedal unguals (also in Patagonykus).
Other diagnoses- Turner et al. also listed metatarsal III not contacting the tarsus as a diagnostic character, but this is seen in all alvarezsaurids more derived than Patagonykus. Contra their statement, metatarsal III does not extend over halfway up the metatarsus in Kol, extending 44% instead. This is not higher up than other derived alvarezsaurids, as the ratio in Shuvuuia varies between 33% (IGM 100/1276) and 47% (IGM 100/975), though it is more than in Parvicursor and Ceratonykus. The short metatarsal II (98% of metatarsal IV length) is found in Parvicursor remotus and Ceratonykus as well, but not in Mononykus, Shuvuuia or IGM 100/99. Extensor grooves on digit IV phalanges are also present in other alvarezsaurids where known. The robust pedal ungual flexor tubercles are matched by Patagonykus, which is also large, so may be size related. Contra their diagnosis, the accessory dorsomedial flange on metatarsal II they list is seemingly the dorsolateral flange on metatarsal IV, which is mentioned in the text as being absent in contrast to Mononykus and Shuvuuia. This is also present in Parvicursor and IGM 100/99, but absent in Alvarezsaurus, so is a symplesiomorphy.
Comments- The phylogenetic placement of Kol within arctometatarsal alvarezsaurids is uncertain. It is similar to North American alvarezsaurids in having a sharp plantar ridge on metatarsal III and having a plesiomorphically unexpanded dorsal surface, but this surface is concave as in parvicursorines. Unlike the Ceratonykus+Mononykus clade, pedal phalanges II-1 and IV-1 are not subequal in length. The lack of a dorsolateral flange on distal metatarsal IV may indicate it is more primitive than parvicursorines, as might the large pedal ungual flexor tubercles.
Agnolin et al. (2012) have recently suggested Kol is actually a caenagnathid (related to Avimimus due to its hyperarctometatarsus), based on the prominently developed pedal flexor tubercles (plesiomorphic, also in Patagonykus), metatarsal II shorter than metatarsals III and IV (plesiomorphic, also in Alvarezsaurus, Linhenykus, Parvicursor and Ceratonykus; variable in Albinykus), lack of a dorsomedial flange on the medial side (plesiomorphic, also in Alvarezsaurus), and metatarsal III that extends more proximally than one-half of the total metatarsal length (plesiomorphic, also in Alvarezsaurus, Achillesaurus and Patagonykus). As can be seen, these characters might make Kol a comparatively basal alvarezsaurid, but they do not support an oviraptorosaurian identity any better. Agnolin et al. are correct however in noting that Turner et al. (2009) did not sufficiently support its placement in Alvarezsauridae or properly reject its similarity to Avimimus. It is here provisionally retained as an alvarezsaurid, with the knowledge that future studies using more taxa and characters may show it to be another kind of maniraptoriform.
References- Turner, Nesbitt and Norell, 2009. A large alvarezsaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3648, 14 pp.
Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

Linhenykus Xu, Sullivan, Pittman, Choiniere, Hone, Upchurch, Tan, Xiao, Tan and Han, 2011
L. monodactylus Xu, Sullivan, Pittman, Choiniere, Hone, Upchurch, Tan, Xiao, Tan and Han, 2011
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Wulansuhai Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
Holotype
- (IVPP V17608) (~450 g; subadult) mid cervical vertebrae (9 mm), three partial anterior-mid cervical vertebrae, mid dorsal vertebra (8.2 mm), partial twelfth dorsal vertebra, incomplete thirteenth dorsal vertebra (7.6 mm), third sacral centrum, fourth sacral centrum, fifth sacral centrum, sixth sacral centrum (7.3 mm), first caudal centrum (7.3 mm), second caudal vertebra (8.3 mm), incomplete third caudal vertebra (8.7 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (8.7 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (7.7 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (7.6 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (7.6 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (7.1 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (6.4 mm), mid caudal vertebra, mid caudal vertebra, mid caudal vertebra, distal caudal vertebra, incomplete proximal chevron, partial scapulocoracoid, sternum (7.7 mm), distal humerus, distal ulna, radiale (2 mm), semilunate+metacarpals I (one partial; 7.1 mm), phalanges I-1 (one incomplete; 11.9 mm), manual unguals I (15.9 mm), metacarpal II (5.1 mm), partial ilium, proximal pubis, proximal ischium, femora (~70 mm), tibiae (97.5 mm), partial astragalocalcanea, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (68 mm), phalanges II-1 (one distal; 11.3 mm), phalanges II-2 (one proximal), proximal pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (31 mm), proximal phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2 (6.9 mm), distal phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III (8 mm), metatarsals IV (one distal; ~68.5 mm), phalanx IV-1 (7.6 mm), proximal phalanx IV-2, distal phalanx IV-3, phalanges IV-4 (~3.8, 4 mm), proximal pedal ungual IV, metatarsal fragments
Diagnosis- (after Xu et al., 2011) longitudinal ventral furrow along the entire length of each cervical centrum; cervical diapophyseal ridges extend to the posterodorsal rim of the centrum; extremely weak, ridge-like middle cervical epipophyses; large middorsal pleurocoels; proximalmost caudal centra amphiplatyan; proximalmost caudal neural spines located completely posterior to the neural pedicles; transversely compressed metacarpal II without distal articular surface.
Comments- Linhenykus was discovered in 2008, preliminarily described in 2011, then described in depth in 2012. Adding this to Longrich and Currie's matrix, Xu et al. (2011, 2012) found Linhenykus to be phylogenetically between Patagonykus and Albertonykus+Xixianykus+Parvicursorinae.
References- Xu, Sullivan, Pittman, Choiniere, Hone, Upchurch, Tan, Xiao, Tan and Han, 2011. A monodactyl nonavian dinosaur and the complex evolution of the alvarezsauroid hand. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108(6), 2338-2342.
Xu, Upchurch, Ma, Pittman, Choiniere, Sullivan, Hone, Tan, Tan, Xiao and Han, 2012. Osteology of the alvarezsauroid Linhenykus monodactylus from the Upper Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation of Inner Mongolia, China, and comments on alvarezsauroid biogeography. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0083

Ceratonykini Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012
= "Ceratonykini" Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, online 2011
Definition- (Ceratonykus oculatus + Xixianykus zhangi) (modified after Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012)
Comments- Agnolin et al. (2012) added several alvarezsaurids to Choiniere et al.'s (2010) analysis and recovered an unusual topology where Albinykus, Ceratonykus and Xixianykus form a clade sister to Parvicursorinae. They named this clade Ceratonykini and gave it a node-based definition. As Choiniere et al.'s analysis lacks codings for many taxa and has numerous incorrect codings as well, the topology of Longrich and Currie's (2009) analysis as updated by future authors is preferred here, though Albinykus and Bonapartenykus have yet to be added. This makes Ceratonykini technically a clade including Parvicursorinae and Xixianykus, but not Linhenykus or more basal alvarezsaurids. As this is quite dissimilar to Agnolin et al.'s content and the tribe suffix looks awkward containing a subfamily, the clade is here ignored.
Reference- Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

Xixianykus Xu, Wang, Sullivan, Hone, Han, Yan and Du, 2010
X. zhangi Xu, Wang, Sullivan, Hone, Han, Yan and Du, 2010
Late Coniacian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Majiacun Formation, Henan, China
Holotype
- (XMDFEC V0011) (subadult) partial ninth dorsal vertebra (7.1 mm), partial tenth dorsal vertebra (8.5 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (9.9 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (11 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (9 mm), few dorsal ribs, gastralia, synsacrum (50 mm), first caudal vertebra (9 mm), partial second caudal centrum, incomplete ilia, proximal pubis, proximal ischium, femur (70.1 mm), tibiotarsus (91.3 mm), fibula (~28 mm), tarsometatarsus (~74 mm), partial metatarsal III
Diagnosis- (after Xu et al., 2010) sacral rib-transverse process complexes and zygapophyses fused to form separate anterior and posterior laminae; distinct fossa dorsal to antitrochanter on lateral surface of ilium; short ridge along
posterior surface of pubic shaft near proximal end; distinct depression on lateral surface of ischium near proximal end; sharp groove along posterior surface of ischium; distal end of femur with transversely narrow ectocondylar tuber that extends considerable distance proximally as sharp ridge; transversely narrow tibial cnemial crest with sharp, ridge-like distal half; lateral margin of tibiotarsus forms step near distal end; fibula with substantial extension of proximal articular surface onto posterior face of posteriorly curving shaft; distal tarsals and metatarsals fused to form tarsometatarsus; sharp flange along anteromedial margin of metatarsal IV near proximal end.
Reference- Xu, Wang, Sullivan, Hone, Han, Yan and Du, 2010. A basal parvicursorine (Theropoda: Alvarezsauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of China. Zootaxa. 2413, 1-19.

Parvicursorinae Karhu and Rautian, 1996 sensu Hutchinson and Chiappe, 1998
Definition- (Mononykus olecranus + Parvicursor remotus) (modified from Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010)
Other definitions- (Parvicursor remotus <- Patagonykus puertai) (Xu et al., 2012)
= Mononykinae Chiappe, Norell and Clarke, 1998
Definition- (Mononykus olecranus + Shuvuuia deserti + Parvicursor remotus) (modified from Chiappe et al., 1998)
Other definitions- (Mononykus olecranus + Shuvuuia deserti) (Sereno, in press)
Diagnosis- (after Longrich and Currie, 2009) prominent ventral sulcus on cervical centra (unknown in Xixianykus and Patagonykus); dorsal infradiapophyseal fossa hypertrophied, with infraprezygapophyseal fossa and infrapostzygapophyseal fossa not visible in lateral view; proximal caudal transverse processes anteriorly displaced (unknown in Xixianykus); extensor process on metacarpal I (unknown in Xixianykus); ventral surface of manual ungual I bearing axial groove (unknown in Xixianykus); flexor tubercle absent on manual ungual I (unknown in Xixianykus); proximal end of side grooves on manual ungual I opening ventrally through foramina (unknown in Xixianykus); knob-like pubic tubercle; pubic boot absent (unknown in Xixianykus); femoral medial condyle transversely broad and flattened (also in Patagonykus); tibia with accessory cnemial crest; pedal digit IV longer than II (unknown in Patagonykus and Xixianykus).
Comments- Sereno (in press) claims his is the first definition suggested for Mononykinae, but Chiappe et al. (1998) defined it earlier as "the common ancestor of Mononykus, Shuvuuia, and Parvicursor, plus all their descendants." Most authors use Mononykinae for this clade, but according to ICZN rules it should be called Parvicursorinae. All family level (-idae, -inae, etc.) variations on a name are implicitly created by and credited to the authors who erect one family level name for a taxon. Thus Karhu and Rautian implicitly erected Parvicursorinae in 1996 when they named Parvicursoridae, which gives it priority over Mononykinae that was named in 1998. Hutchinson and Chiappe (1998) were the first to publish the term Parvicursorinae, though they explicitly state they use Mononykinae instead because Parvicursoridae was conceived by Karhu and Rautian as excluding Mononykus, lacks a phylogenetic definition, and was redundant in their paper with Parvicursor. However, the ICZN doesn't consider these reasons valid. Another option would be to use Sereno's definition for Mononykinae, which would then exclude Parvicursor if Longrich and Currie's (2009) topology is correct.
References- Karhu and Rautian 1996. A new family of Maniraptora (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal. 30, 583-592.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1998. The skull of a relative of the stem-group bird Mononykus. Nature. 392, 275-278.
Hutchinson and Chiappe, 1998. The first known alvarezsaurid (Theropoda: Aves) from North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 447-450.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252
Choiniere, Xu, Clark, Forster, Guo and Han, 2010. A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the Early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China. Science. 327, 571-574.
Xu, Upchurch, Ma, Pittman, Choiniere, Sullivan, Hone, Tan, Tan, Xiao and Han, 2012. Osteology of the alvarezsauroid Linhenykus monodactylus from the Upper Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation of Inner Mongolia, China, and comments on alvarezsauroid biogeography. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0083

unnamed parvicursorine (Bohlin, 1953)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Minhe Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
Material
- distal manual phalanx I-1, manual ungual I
Comments- Bohlin (1953) referred two teeth, and more questionably a penultimate phalanx and ungual, to Velociraptor mongoliensis (mispelled V. mongoliense). The teeth are indeed probably dromaeosaurid, and roughly similar to Velociraptor. The phalanx is said to be broader than Velociraptor's III-3 and the illustrated ungual is clearly a parvicursorine manual ungual I however. This makes Bohlin's material the first published alvarezsaurid specimen from Asia.
Reference- Bohlin, 1953. Fossil reptiles from Mongolia and Kansu. Sino-Swedish Expedition Publication. 37, 1-105.

undescribed parvicursorine (Norell et al., 1993)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Djadokhta Formation, Mongolia

Material- (AMNH 6524) partial ilium, proximal pubis, proximal ischium, femora, tibiae, partial metatarsus
Comments- AMNH 6524 was found in 1922 and only identified as a bird-like dinosaur. It was not until 1993 that it was identified as an alvarezsaurid (Norell et al., 1993). Originally identified as Mononykus, it is more likely Shuvuuia or Parvicursor as it is from the Djadokhta Formation. It has yet to be described or mentioned in the technical literature.
References- Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993. New limb on the avian family tree. Natural History. 9/93, 38-43.

Parvicursor Karhu and Rutian, 1996
Diagnosis- (after Longrich and Currie, 2009) strong keeled on ventral surface of first sacral centrum; pedal phalanx IV-4 longer than IV-3.
P. remotus Karhu and Rutian, 1996
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Baron Goyot Formation, Mongolia
Holotype
- (PIN 4487/25) (~390 mm; 162 g) incomplete eleventh dorsal vertebra, incomplete twelfth dorsal vertebra, incomplete thirteenth dorsal vertebra, partial first sacral centrum, partial second sacral centrum, partial third sacral centrum, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra, third caudal vertebra, fourth caudal vertebra, fifth caudal vertebra, sixth caudal vertebra, seventh caudal vertebra, several partial chevrons, partial ilium, incomplete pubes, partial ischia, femur (52.6 mm), tibiotarsus (75.6 mm), fibula (15.4 mm), metatarsal I (3.5 mm), metatarsal II (54.2 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (58.1 mm), metatarsal IV (55.2 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV
Referred- ?(PIN coll.) incomplete skull and skeleton (Mirantsev, DML 2004)
Diagnosis- (after Chiappe et al., 2002) thirteenth dorsal centrum opisthocoelous; pedal digit IV less than 50% the length of metatarsal IV and shorter than digit II.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1992 and described in 1996 by Karhu and Rautian. Mirantsev reported an undescribed specimen at the PIN as well (DML 2004).
References- Karhu and Rautian 1996. A new family of Maniraptora (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal. 30, 583-592.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
http://dml.cmnh.org/2004Jun/msg00232.html
P. sp. (Longrich and Currie, 2009)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Djadokhta Formation, Mongolia

Material- (IGM 100/99) (659 g; adult) fragmentary braincase, cervical vertebrae, sacrum, nineteen caudal vertebrae, chevrons, metacarpals I, phalanges I-1, manual ungual I, partial ilia, pubis, ischium, femur, tibiae, fibula, astragalus, distal tarsal IV, metatarsals II, metatarsal III, metatarsals IV, metatarsal V (Perle et al., 1993)
(IGM 100/120) (~475 mm) partial skull, incomplete mandibles, about seven cervical vertebrae, nine dorsal vertebrae, several partial dorsal ribs, twenty-one caudal vertebrae, scapula, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, partial ilium, femora (64 mm), tibiae (96 mm), fibula, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (70 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV (Suzuki et al., 2002)
Diagnosis- (after Suzuki et al., 2002; compared to Mononykus) longer pedal phalanx I-1; pedal phalanx II-2 subequal in length to pedal ungual II; pedal phalanges IV-2, IV-3 and IV-4 more elongate and slender.
Comments- Found in 1992, IGM 100/99 was originally a paratype of Mononykus (Perle et al., 1993), though Perle et al. (1994) first expressed doubt about this assignment. Chiappe et al. (1998) made it a paratype of Shuvuuia, describing it in more detail and illustrating the sacrum, pelvis and fibula in Chiappe et al. (2002).
Discovered in 1998, MPD 100/120 was described as a Shuvuuia specimen by Suzuki et al. (2001, 2002) who used it to show parvicursorines had over thirty-five caudal vertebrae.
Longrich and Currie (2008) noted both IGM 100/99 and MPD 100/120 differ from Shuvuuia in having a ventrally keeled first sacral centrum and/or metatarsal IV longer than metatarsal II. Their small size, originally believed to be caused by ontogeny, is probably an adult feature as various sutures are fused. The specimens ended up sister to Parvicursor remotus in their cladogram, and Longrich and Currie referred them to Parvicursor sp..
References- Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993. Flightless bird from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. Nature. 362, 623-626.
Perle, Chiappe, Barsbold, Clark and Norell, 1994. Skeletal morphology of Mononykus olecranus (Theropoda: Avialae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3105, 1-29.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1996. Phylogenetic position of Mononykus (Aves: Alvarezsauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 557-582.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1998. The skull of a relative of the stem-group bird Mononykus. Nature. 392, 275-278.
Suzuki, Chiappe, Dyke, Watabe, Barsbold and Tsogtbaatar, 2001. A new specimen of Shuvuuia deserti from the Late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 107A.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Suzuki, Chiappe, Dyke, Watabe, Barsbold and Tsogtbaatar, 2002. A new specimen of Shuvuuia deserti Chiappe et al., 1998, from the Mongolian Late Cretaceous with a discussion of the relationships of alvarezsaurids to other theropod dinosaurs. Contributions in Science (Los Angeles). 494, 1-18.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252

unnamed clade (Albertonykus borealis + "Ornithomimus" minutus)
Diagnosis- (after Longrich and Currie, 2009) shaft of metatarsal III with sharp ventral keel (also in Kol); metatarsal III with flat, unexpanded dorsal surface (also in Alvarezsaurus).

Albertonykus Longrich and Currie, 2009
= "Albertonykus" Longrich and Currie, 2008 online
A. borealis Longrich and Currie, 2009
= "Albertonykus borealis" Longrich and Currie, 2008 online
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
Holotype
- (RTMP 2001.45.91) ulna (27 mm)
Paratypes- (RTMP 1999.50.110) pedal phalanx III-3
(RTMP 2000.45.8) pedal phalanx III-1
(RTMP 2000.45.12) metatarsal III
(RTMP 2000.45.31) proximal tibia
(RTMP 2000.45.61) pedal phalanx II-1
(RTMP 2000.45.85) proximal metatarsal II or IV
(RTMP 2000.45.86) manual ungual I
(RTMP 2000.45.97) pedal phalanx
(RTMP 2000.45.98) tibia (191 mm)
(RTMP 2002.45.52) metatarsal III
(RTMP 2003.45.1) pedal phalanx
(RTMP 2003.58.8) pedal phalanx III-2
(UALVP 48636) pedal phalanx IV-1
Diagnosis- (modified from Longrich and Currie, 2009) ulna extremely broad (35% as wide as long); ulna bearing a tuber on its medial margin; manual ungual I with Y-shaped lateral grooves; ventral groove of manual ungual I reaches proximally as far as the ventral foramina; highly reduced fibular crest of the tibia.
Comments- Longrich and Currie's paper was made available online in July 2008 but not officially published until February 2009.
Some characters in Longrich and Currie's original diagnosis are primitive (ulna with two articular facets for the humerus), seen in all parvicursorines (ulna with a large radial articular facet), or also present in "Ornithomimus" minutus (shaft of metatarsal III with sharp ventral keel; metatarsal III with flat, unexpanded dorsal surface).
Reference- Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252.

"Ornithomimus" minutus Marsh, 1892
= Dromaeosaurus minutus (Marsh, 1892)
= Troodon minutus (Marsh, 1892) Olshevsky, 2000
Late Cretaceous
Denver Basin, Colorado, US

Holotype- (YPM 1049; lost) partial metatarsal II, partial metatarsal III, partial metatarsal IV
Comments- Russell (1972) considered “Ornithomimus” minutus an indeterminate dromaeosaurid or pterosaur. Holtz (1995) suggested the extreme arctometatarsalian condition described by Marsh could indicate relations to Mononykus. A specimen (USNM 2909) referred to this taxon by Gilmore (1920) is an enantiornithine (Chiappe and Walker, 2002). It is this specimen, and not the holotype, which is from the Lance Formation of Wyoming (contra Longrich and Currie, 2009).
References- Marsh, 1892. Notice of new reptiles from the Laramie Formation. American Journal of Science. 43, 449-453.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the Carnivorous dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. United States National Museum, Bulletin No. 110, 1-154.
Russell, 1972. Ostrich dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous of Western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 9, 375-402.
Holtz, 1995. The arctometatarsalian pes, an unusual structure of Cretaceous Theropoda (Dinosauria: Saurischia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14, 408-519.
Olshevsky, 2000. An annotated checklist of dinosaur species by continent. Mesozoic Meanderings. 3, 1-157.
Chiappe and Walker, 2002. Skeletal morphology and systematics of the Cretaceous Euenantiornithes (Ornithothoraces: Enantiornithes). pp 240-267. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252.

unnamed Alvarezsauridae (Hutchinson and Chiappe, 1998)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, US
Material
- (LACM 153311) caudal vertebra (Salgado, Coria, Arcucci and Chiappe, 2009)
(MOR 2920) metatarsal III (Anduza, Fowler, Noto and Horner, 2013)
(MOR 3098) manual ungual I (~26 mm) (Anduza, Fowler, Noto and Horner, 2013)
(MOR 6622) manual ungual I (~44 mm) (Anduza, Fowler, Noto and Horner, 2013)
(UCMP 154584) pubis (~100 mm), partial ischium (Hutchinson and Chiappe, 1998)
metatarsal III (Buckley and Ott, 2001)
Diagnosis- ischium substantially reduced in size compared to pubis.
Description- The third metatarsal is similar to Mononykus, but not as laterally compressed in the middle and has a sharper plantar ridge. The latter is shared by Albertonykus and "Ornithomimus" minutus, perhaps suggesting all of these specimens belong to a clade of North American alvarezsaurids.
References- Hutchinson and Chiappe, 1998. The first known alvarezsaurid (Theropoda: Aves) from North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 447-450.
Buckley and Ott, 2001. A new specimen of alvarezsaurid from the Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 36A-37A.
Salgado, Coria, Arcucci and Chiappe, 2009. Restos de Alvarezsauridae (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) en la Formación Allen (Campaniano-Maastrichtiano), en Salitral Ojo de Agua, Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Andean Geology. 36(1), 67-80.
Anduza, Fowler, Noto and Horner, 2013. New alvarezsaurid material from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 78.

Mononykini Chiappe, Norell and Clarke, 1998 vide Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012
Definition- (Mononykus olecranus <- Parvicursor remotus, Patagonykus puertai, Alvarezsaurus calvoi) (modified from Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012)
Diagnosis- hypertrophied prefrontal (unknown in more basal alvarezsaurids); articulation between the quadrate and postorbital (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids).
(after Longrich and Currie, 2009) maxilla toothless posteriorly (unknown in more basal alvarezsaurids); teeth lack serrations (unknown in more basal alvarezsaurids); carotid processes on cervical vertebrae; scapula curved to be concave dorsally (unknown in Patagonykus, Xixianykus and Parvicursor); coracoid not flexed at level of bicipital tuber (unknown in Xixianykus and Parvicursor); sternal plates fused (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids); sternum keeled (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids); radius and ulna joined by large, triangular symphysis (unknown in Parvicursor and Xixianykus); anteroposteriorly expanded distal condyle on radius (unknown in more basal alvarezsauroids except Nqwebasaurus).
References- Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1998. The skull of a relative of the stem-group bird Mononykus. Nature. 392, 275-278.
Agnolin, Powell, Novas and Kundrat, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from uppermost Cretaceous of north-western Patagonia with associated eggs. Cretaceous Research. 35, 33-56.

undescribed alvarezsaurid (Lu, Xu, Zhang, Pu and Chang, 2012)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Qiupa Formation, Henan, China

Material- material including cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, manual ungual I, ilium, metatarsal II, metatarsal III and metatarsal IV
Diagnosis- (after Lu et al., 2012) cervical centra with flat sides; dorsal vertebrae amphiplatyan; proximal end of grooves on manual ungual I partially enclosed by notches.
Comments- Lu et al. (2012) entered this into the Longrich and Currie alvarezsaur matrix and found it to be sister to Shuvuuia+Mononykus based on metatarsals II and IV subequal in length. They referred it to Parvicursorinae sensu lato based on- supracetabular crest on ilium extending only over anterior half of acetabulum; hyperarctometatarsus.
Reference- Lu, Xu, Zhang, Pu and Chang, 2012. New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Uppermost Cretaceous of Luanchuan, Henan Province of China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 130.

Mononykinae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Mononykus olecranus + Shuvuuia deserti)

Heptasteornis Harrison and Walker, 1975
H. andrewsi Harrison and Walker, 1975
= Troodon andrewsi (Harrison and Walker, 1975) Paul, 1988
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Sinpetru Beds, Romania
Holotype
- (BMNH A4359) distal tibiotarsus (32.5 mm wide)
Paratype- ?(BMNH A1528) distal tibiotarsus (33.8 mm wide)
Referred- (FGGUB R.1957) distal femur (Kessler, Grigorescu and Csiki, 2005)
Comments- The holotype was originally referred to the Elopteryx holotype individual (Andrews, 1913), then considered a pelecaniform. Lambrecht (1929) referred BMNH A1528 to Elopteryx as well. Harrison and Walker (1975) later separated the material and named Heptasteornis as a new taxon of strigiform based on two distal tibiotarsi. Later authors agreed Heptasteornis was a non-avian theropod, beginning with Brodkorb (1978). Martin (1983) suggested it was ornithomimid. Paul (1988) and Osmolska and Barsbold (1990) suggested it was troodontid, Paul going so far as to synonymize it with Troodon. Le Loeuff et al. (1992) suggested it was synonymous with Elopteryx, which they placed in the Dromaeosauridae. Csiki and Grigorescu (1998) suggested it was synonymous with Bradycneme, which they believed to be a non-maniraptoran tetanurine. Martin (1997) was the first to suggest a relationship with Mononykus, which was confirmed in a paper by Naish and Dyke (2004). This is based primarily on the notched medial margin of the astragalar ascending process. They placed it in Mononykinae(=Parvicursorinae) based on the lack of fibular-tarsal contact (which also contradicts an ornithomimid or dromaeosaurid identity). Longrich and Currie (2009) later stated Heptasteornis "could conceivably come from an oviraptorosaur", but without any reason. The only oviraptorosaur that lacks fibular-calcaneal contact is Avimimus, which doesn't have the notched ascending process of Heptasteornis and alvarezsaurids. Thus assigning Heptasteornis to Oviraptorosauria is unparsimonious given current information. Kessler et al. (2005) described a distal femur which they referred to Elopteryx based on surface texture. The femur shares many characters with alvarezsaurids (lateral condyle projected distal to the medial one; prominent ectepicondyle), Mononykus+Shuvuuia (infrapopliteal bridge) and Mononykus (triangular shape of the popliteal fossa, bordered by proximally converging supracondylar ridges). The last character is unknown in Shuvuuia, but the infrapoplitteal bridge is absent in Parvicursor. Thus I refer this distal femur to Heptasteornis, as Elopteryx is unlike alvarezsaurids in some features.
References- Andrews, 1913. On some bird remains from the Upper Cretaceous of Transylvania. Geological Magazine. 5, 193-196.
Lambrecht, 1929. Mesozoische und tertiare Vogelreste aus Siebenburgen. In Csiki (ed.). Xe Congres International de Zoologie. 1262-1275.
Lambrecht, 1933. Handbuch der Palaeornithologie. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger. 1024 pp.
Harrison and Walker, 1975. The Bradycnemidae, a new family of owls from the Upper Cretaceous of Romania. Palaeontology. 18(3), 563-570.
Brodkorb, 1978. Catalogue of fossil birds. Part 5, Passeriformes. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biol. Sci. 23, 139-228.
Martin, 1983. The origin and early radiation of birds. In Brush and Clark, (eds.). Perspectives in Ornithology. 291-338.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster: New York. 464 pp.
Osmolska and Barsbold, 1990. Troodontidae. 259-268. in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmólska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkley, Los Angeles, Oxford. xvi-733.
Le Loeuff, Buffetaut, Mechin and Mechin-Salessy, 1992. The first record of dromaeosaurid dinosaur (Saurichia, Theropoda) in the Maastrichtian of Southern Europe: palaeobiogeographical implications. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France. 163(3), 337-343.
Martin, 1997. The difference between dinosaurs and birds as applied to Mononykus. In Wolberg et al. (eds.). The Dinofest International. 337-342.
Csiki and Grigorescu, 1998. Small Theropods from the Late Cretaceous of the Hateg Basin (Western Romania) - an unexpected diversity at the top of the food chain. Oryctos. 1, 87-104.
Naish and Dyke, 2004. Heptasteornis was no ornithomimid, troodontid, dromaeosaurid or owl: the first alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Europe. Neus Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. 7, 385-401.
Kessler, Grigorescu and Csiki, 2005. Elopteryx revisited - a new bird-like specimen from the Maastrichtian of the Hateg Basin. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae. 5, 249-258.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252.

Albinykus Nesbitt, Clarke, Turner and Norell, 2011
A. baatar Nesbitt, Clarke, Turner and Norell, 2011
Santonian-Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Javkhlant Formation, Mongolia
Holotype
- (IGM 100/3004) (~700-1000 g; 2 year old adult) partial ilium, incomplete ischium, partial femur (~65 mm), incomplete tibiotarsi, proximal fibulae, metatarsals I (6.5, 6.4 mm), phalanges I-1 (5.3, 5.6 mm), pedal unguals I (5.4 mm), tarsometatarsi (77 mm; II 66, IV 64.9 mm, II 65.7, IV 66.8 mm), phalanges II-1 (9.9, 10.4 mm), phalanges II-2 (6.3, 6 mm), pedal unguals II (11.3 mm), metatarsals III (~22.5 mm), phalanges III-1 (8.6, 8.4 mm), phalanges III-2 (6.7, 7 mm), phalanges III-3 (7.3, 7.4 mm), pedal unguals III (9.4, 11.5 mm), phalanges IV-1 (6.2, 6.4 mm), phalanges IV-2 (5.2 mm), phalanges IV-3 (4.1, 4.2 mm), phalanges IV-4 (6.7, 6.3 mm), pedal unguals IV (~7.2, 12 mm), metatarsals V (8.4 mm)
Comments- Discovered in 2004, this was described by Nesbitt et al. (2011) as a parvicursorine most closely related to Shuvuuia. It should be noted this was based on the TWG matrix though, which does not separate the latter taxon from the Djadokhta Parvicursor specimens, nor does it include taxa such as Parvicursor, Albertonykus, Ceratonykus, Xixianykus or Linhenykus.
Reference- Nesbitt, Clarke, Turner and Norell, 2011. A small alvarezsaurid from the Eastern Gobi Desert offers insight into evolutionary patterns in the Alvarezsauroidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31(1), 144-153.

Shuvuuia Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1998
S. deserti Chiape, Norell and Clark, 1998
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Djadokhta Formation, Mongolia
Holotype
- (IGM 100/975) nine cervical vertebrae, several dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, twenty caudal vertebrae, twelve partial chevrons, proximal scapula, coracoid, humerus (33 mm), metacarpals I, phalanges I-1, manual unguals I, manual phalanx II-? or III-?, partial ilia (~79 mm), proximal pubis, proximal ischium, proximal femur, distal tibiae, femoral and tibial fragments, astragalus, metatarsal II (106 mm), metatarsal III (110 mm from proximal metatarsus end), metatarsal IV (106 mm), several pedal phalanges
Paratypes- (IGM 100/977) skull, mandibles, hyoids, atlas, cervical vertebra, six presacral vertebrae, dorsal ribs, scapulae, coracoid, sternum, humerus, metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, feather fragments
(IGM 100/1001) incomplete skull, incomplete mandible, hyoids
Referred- (IGM 100/1276) anterior dorsal vertebra, vertebrae, humerus (33 mm), ulna, partial ilium, proximal pubis, femur (~128 mm), tibiae (164 mm), metatarsal II (106 mm), phalanx II-1, metatarsal III, metatarsal IV (106 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, pedal phalanges, pedal ungual, fragments (Turner, Nesbitt and Norell, 2009)
(IGM 100/1305) metatarsus (99.5 mm) (Turner, Nesbitt and Norell, 2009)
?(IGM coll.) more than three specimens (Norell, 1997)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Baron Goyot Formation, Mongolia

?(PIN coll.) two specimens including a posterior skull and complete manus (Mirantsev, DML 2004)
Diagnosis- (after Chiappe et al., 1998) pubis subcircular in section; femoral and tibiotarsal shefts bowed lateromedially; sharp ridge on medial margin of distal tibiotarsus.
Comments- Chiappe et al. (1996) referred IGM 100/975, 100/977 and 100/1001 to Mononykus, briefly describing some aspects of them. Norell (1997) stated over ten alvarezsaurid specimens have been found in Ukhaa Tolgod. At least one is probably IGM 100/1005, which was identified as Shuvuuia on the AMNH website, but is actually an undescribed basal troodontid (Hwang et al., 2004). Another may be Kol, and at least one other is possibly Parvicursor (see below). Chiappe et al. (1998) named Shuvuuia and described the skull preliminarily, with more detailed description of the holotype and paratypes appearing in Chiappe et al. (2002). Schweitzer et al. (1999) described feather fragments from IGM 100/977, while Dufeau (2002, 2003) described the skulls of IGM 100/977 and 100/1001.
IGM 100/99 (Chiappe et al., 1998, 2002) and MPD 100/120 (Suzuki et al., 2001, 2002) were referred to Shuvuuia. However, Longrich and Currie (2008) noted these differ from Shuvuuia in having a ventrally keeled first sacral centrum and/or metatarsal IV longer than metatarsal II. Their small size, originally believed to be caused by ontogeny, is probably an adult feature as various sutures are fused. The specimens ended up sister to Parvicursor remotus in their cladogram, and Longrich and Currie referred them to Parvicursor sp..
Mirantsev (DML 2004) reported two additional specimens from the Barun Goyot Formation, though these have not been described yet. They may be Parvicursor or Ceratonykus instead.
Three characters used by Chiappe et al. to diagnose Shuvuuia (articulation between the quadrate and postorbital; elongated basipterygoid processes; hypertrophied prefrontal) are now known in Ceratonykus too.
References- Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993. Flightless bird from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. Nature. 362, 623-626.
Perle, Chiappe, Barsbold, Clark and Norell, 1994. Skeletal morphology of Mononykus olecranus (Theropoda: Avialae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3105, 1-29.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1996. Phylogenetic position of Mononykus (Aves: Alvarezsauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 557-582.
Norell, 1997. Ukhaa Tolgod. pp 769-770. in Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of dinosaurs; Academic Press.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1998. The skull of a relative of the stem-group bird Mononykus. Nature. 392, 275-278.
Schweitzer, Watt, Avci, Knapp, Chiappe, Norell and Marshall, 1999. Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Mol Dev Evol). 285, 146-157.
Sereno, 2001. Alvarezsaurids: birds or ornithomimosaurs? pp. 70-98. in Gauthier and Gall (eds.). New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom. Yale Univ. Press.
Suzuki, Chiappe, Dyke, Watabe, Barsbold and Tsogtbaatar, 2001. A new specimen of Shuvuuia deserti from the Late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 107A.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Dufeau, 2002. The cranial morphology of Shuvuuia deserti (Theropoda: Alvarezsauridae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 50A.
Suzuki, Chiappe, Dyke, Watabe, Barsbold and Tsogtbaatar, 2002. A new specimen of Shuvuuia deserti Chiappe et al., 1998, from the Mongolian Late Cretaceous with a discussion of the relationships of alvarezsaurids to other theropod dinosaurs. Contributions in Science (Los Angeles). 494, 1-18.
Dufeau, 2003. The cranial anatomy of the theropod dinosaur Shuvuuia deserti (Coelurosauria: Alvarezsauridae), and its bearing upon coelurosaurian phylogeny. Unpublished Masters Thesis. The University of Texas at Austin. 275 pp.
Hwang, Norell, Ji and Gao, 2004. A new troodontid from the lower Yixian Formation of China and its affinities to Mongolian troodontids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(3), 73A–74A.
http://dml.cmnh.org/2004Jun/msg00232.html
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252.
Turner, Nesbitt and Norell, 2009. A large alvarezsaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3648, 14 pp.
http://paleo.amnh.org/gobi/gobi.swf

unnamed clade (Ceratonykus oculatus + Mononykus olecranus)
Diagnosis- (after Alifanov and Barsbold, 2009) cervical pleurocels absent (also in Haplocheirus); compressed posterior cervical centra; deltopectoral crest separated from humeral head; pedal phalanges II-1 and IV-1 subequal in length.

Ceratonykus Alifanov and Barsbold, 2009
C. oculatus Alifanov and Barsbold, 2009
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Baron Goyot Formation, Mongolia

Holotype- (MPC 100/24) incomplete skull (~60 mm), mandibles (one partial), atlantal intercentrum, atlantal neural arch, anterior cervical centrum (10 mm), anterior cervical vertebra (10.5 mm), partial anterior cervical vertebra, first caudal vertebra, three proximal caudal vertebrae (9.5, 9 mm), two mid caudal vertebrae, partial coracoids, posterior sternum, proximal humerus, (?)carpometacarpal fragment, partial carpometacarpus, manual phalanx I-1 (10 mm), ilial fragment, incomplete femora, incomplete tibiotarsi, metatarsi II (one incomplete), phalanx II-1 (14 mm), proximal phalanx II-2, metatarsi III (one distal), phalanx III-1 (15 mm), proximal phalanx III-2, metatarsi IV, distal phalanx IV-1 (~12 mm), phalanx IV-2 (10 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Alifanov and Barsbold, 2009) shorter supratemporal fenestrae than Shuvuuia (~27% of frontal length compared to 33%); more elongate frontals than Shuvuuia (~30% of length vs. 50%); prefrontals contact on median; basipterygoid processes two-thirds as high as quadrates; fossa anterior to external mandibular fenestra on dentary; external mandibular fenestra anteriorly rounded; transversely narrow proximal caudal centra; femora strongly curved in lateral view; elongate tibiotarsus (almost twice as long as femora); cnemial crest reduced distally; elongate metatarsus (~1.33 times femoral length).
Comments- Alifanov and Barsbold also listed many other characters in their diagnosis which are problematic. Shuvuuia also has a long snout, while the anteriorly tapering frontals are probably plesiomorphic for arctometatarsalians. Mononykus and IGM 100/977 have a notch between the deltopectoral crest and humeral head. The elongate, distally narrow and symmetrical manual phalanx I-1 is probably plesiomorphic, being shared with Patagonykus. The supposed dorsal anteromedial crest on the postacetabular fragment is probably the brevis fossa, as in other alvarezsaurids. The fourth trochanter is plesiomorphic, being present in other alvarezsaurids except for Parvicursor remotus. The ascending process is said to be equally broad and tall as Mononykus'. The third metatarsal is comparable in length to Parvicursor's (~28% of side metatarsals). All parvicursorines have dorsally and ventrally grooved articulations between metatarsals II and IV proximally. The proximal notch between metatarsals II and IV is seen in Mononykus as well. The second metatarsal is also shorter than the fourth in Parvicursor. The ratio between pedal phalanges II-1 and IV-1 is merely estimated based on IV-2 length, and is the same as in Mononykus in any case. While most of the diagnostic features are unknown in Mononykus (except the three femoral and tibiotarsal characters), the broader vertebral centra, more obtuse sternal keel angle, seemingly narrower metacarpal I, different phalanx I-1 morphology, less compressed tibiotarsal shaft and more elongate pedal phalanges also help distinguish the taxon.
Alifanov and Barsbold identify an irregular element (or complex of elements?) as a right carpometacarpus, with two conical processes identified as fused unguals. Yet the fragment doesn't resemble a metacarpus, and if it were, the spikes would project ventrally unlike digits (as they are perpendicular to the flattest axis of the complex). They would be more easily homologized with the ventrally dipping lateral metacarpals of Mononykus, or the proximoventral processes on Patagonykus' phalanx I-1.
References- Alifanov and Barsbold, 2009. [Ceratonykus oculatus gen. et sp. nov., a new dinosaur (?Theropoda, Alvarezsauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia]. Paleontological Journal. 2009(1), 86-99. [in Russian]
Alifanov and Barsbold, 2009. Ceratonykus oculatus gen. et sp. nov., a new dinosaur (?Theropoda, Alvarezsauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal (English edition). 43(1), 94-106.
Alifanov and Saveliev, 2011. Brain structure and neurobiology of alvarezsaurians (Dinosauria), exemplified by Ceratonykus oculatus (Parvicursoridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal. 45(2), 183-190.

Mononykus Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993
= Mononychus Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993 (preoccupied Schuppel, 1824)
M. olecranus (Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993)
= Mononychus olecranus Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993
Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia

Holotype- (IGM N107/6) (2.94 kg) partial maxilla, tooth, braincase, skull fragments, third cervical vertebra (17.5 mm), fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra (16.9 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (14.5 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (13.7 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (13.4 mm), first dorsal vertebra (15.1 mm), second dorsal vertebra (17.2 mm), third dorsal vertebra, mid dorsal vertebra (17.5 mm), mid dorsal vertebra (15.3 mm), posterior dorsal vertebra (14.5 mm) posterior dorsal vertebra (14.2 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (14.1 mm), three proximal dorsal ribs, first sacral vertebra (14.2 mm), second sacral vertebra (14.1 mm), posterior sacrum, proximal caudal vertebra, scapulae (73.1, 73.2 mm), incomplete coracoid, sternum, humeri (36.6, 36.7 mm), radii (18.1, 18.2 mm), ulnae (33.6, 34.4 mm), carpometacarpi (11.9, 9.5, 6.4 mm; 11.8, 8.6, 6.2 mm), phalanx I-1 (19.2, 21.3 mm), manual ungual I (23.9, 26.7 mm), partial ilium, proximal pubes, femora (138.2, 138.6 mm), tibiotarsi (175.2 mm), proximal fibula, metatarsal I (14.5 mm), phalanx I-1 (9 mm), proximal pedal ungual I, partial metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (16.1 mm), phalanx II-2 (11.5 mm), pedal ungual II (19.3 mm), metatarsal III, phalanx III-1 (16.5 mm), phalanx III-2 (12.9 mm), phalanx III-3 (11.9 mm), pedal ungual III (19.1 mm), partial metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1 (12.3 mm), phalanx IV-2 (10.6 mm), phalanx IV-3 (10.9 mm), phalanx IV-4 (10 mm), pedal ungual IV
Diagnosis- (after Chiappe et al., 1998; compared to Shuvuuia) compressed anterior dorsal centra; pubic shaft subtriangular in section; deeper notch at base of astragalar ascending process.
(after Chiappe et al., 2002) thirteenth dorsal vertebra biconvex; fused ilium and ischium; supracetabular crest only developed over anterior portion of acetabulum; two cnemial crests; astragalar ascending process arises from medial margin of astragalar condyle.
(after Suzuki et al., 2002; compared to Shuvuuia) shorter pedal phalanx I-1; pedal phalanx II-2 shorter than pedal ungual II; pedal phalanges IV-2, IV-3 and IV-4 shorter and more robust.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1987, described briefly by Perle et al. (1993), then in more detail by Perle et al. (1994).
Perle et al. (1993) referred IGM 100/99 to Mononykus, though they later (1994) expressed doubts about this assignment. Chiappe et al. (1996) later referred IGM 100/975, 100/977 and 100/1001 to Mononykus as well. These and IGM 100/99 were all assigned to the new genus Shuvuuia by Chiappe et al. (1998), while IGM was reassigned to Parvicursor sp. by Longrich and Currie (2008). This reassignment to Shuvuuia or Parvicursor probably applies to AMNH 6524 as well, which was stated to be a Mononykus specimen found in 1922 in Norell et al. (1993). Subsequently, Mononykus is not known from the Djadokhta Formation, and is not known from complete skulls or pelves, or caudal remains besides a single vertebra.
Several characters previously thought to be diagnostic of Mononykus (cervical pleurocels absent; compressed posterior cervical centra; deltopectoral crest separated from humeral head) are now known to be present in Ceratonykus as well, and probably join the two as sister taxa.
References- Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993. New limb on the avian family tree. Natural History. 9/93, 38-43.
Perle, Norell, Chiappe and Clark, 1993. Flightless bird from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. Nature. 362, 623-626.
Patterson, 1993. Bird or dinosaur? Nature. 365, 21-22.
Perle, Chiappe, Barsbold, Clark and Norell, 1994. Skeletal morphology of Mononykus olecranus (Theropoda: Avialae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3105, 1-29.
Zhou, 1995. Is Mononykus a bird? The Auk. 112(4), 958-963.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1996. Phylogenetic position of Mononykus (Aves: Alvarezsauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 557-582.
Novas, 1996. Alvarezsauridae, Cretaceous basal birds from Patagonia and Mongolia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 675-702.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1997. Mononykus and birds: methods and evidence. The Auk. 114(2), 300-302.
Martin, 1997. The difference between dinosaurs and birds as applied to Mononykus. In Wolberg et al. (eds.). The Dinofest International. 337-342.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 1998. The skull of a relative of the stem-group bird Mononykus. Nature. 392, 275-278.
Chiappe, Norell and Clark, 2002. The Cretaceous, short-armed Alvarezsauridae, Mononykus and its kin. pp. 87-120. in Chiappe and Witmer (eds.). Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Senter, 2005. Function in the stunted forelimbs of Mononykus olecranus (Theropoda), a dinosaurian anteater. Paleobiology. 31(3), 373-381.
Longrich and Currie, 2009. Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae. Cretaceous Research. 30(1), 239-252
M? sp. (Watabe and Suzuki, 2000)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Baron Goyot Formation, Mongolia

Material- (Field number 930921 KmT) complete postcranial skeleton
Comments- This is more likely to be Ceratonykus, Parvicursor or Shuvuuia based on provenence.
Reference- Watabe and Suzuki, 2000. Report on the Japan-Mongolia Joint Paleontological Expedition to the Gobi desert, 1993: In: Results of the Hayashibara Museum of Natural Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Paleontological Center, Joint Paleontological Expedition, n. 1. Hayashibara Museum of Natural Sciences, Research Bulletin. 1, 17-29.