Orionides Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii + Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (modified from Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012)
Comments- A clade containing megalosauroids and avetheropods to the exclusion of basal tetanurines such as Monolophosaurus, Chuandongocoelurus, Piatnitzkysaurus, Condorraptor, "Szechuanoraptor" and/or Xuanhanosaurus has been recognized by most recent analyses (e.g. Rauhut, 2003; Holtz et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2007; Carrano et al., 2012). Carrano et al. finally named it Orionides in 2012.
References- Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Cruxicheiros Benson and Radley, 2010
= "Cruxicheiros" Benson and Radley, 2009 online
C. newmanorum Benson and Radley, 2010
= "Cruxicheiros newmanorum" Benson and Radley, 2009 online
Early Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Chipping Norton Limestone Formation, England
Holotype
- (WARMS G15770) partial femur
Paratype- ....(WARMS G15771) partial posterior cervical or anterior dorsal vertebra, incomplete dorsal neural arch, partial dorsal vertebra, several rib fragments, partial distal caudal vertebra, fragmentary scapulocoracoid, metacarpal (lost), partial ilium, proximal pubis, fibula (lost), fragments
Diagnosis- (after Benson and Radley, 2010) proximomedially inclined ridge within trochanteric fossa of femur.
Comments- The description of Cruxicheiros was realeased online in November 2009, though it was not officially published on paper until March 2010.
Benson and Radley (2010) found Cruxicheiros to be a tetanurine outside Megalosauria+Piatnitzkysauridae+Monolophosaurus+Chuandongocoelurus and Avetheropoda, though only one more step was needed to place it in Megalosauridae (as a eustreptospondyline). Additionally, only 3 more steps were needed to place it sister to Megalosaurus, showing numerous affinities are possible. Adding it to Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix recovered Cruxicheiros as an orionidan outside Spinosauridae and Avetheropoda.
Reference- Benson and Radley, 2010. A new large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Warwickshire, United Kingdom. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 55(1), 35-42.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Dandakosaurus Yadagiri, 1982
D. indicus Yadagiri, 1982
Hettangian-Pliensbachian, Early Jurassic
Kota Formation, India

Holotype- (GSI 1/54Y/76) proximal pubis
Paratypes- ?(GSI coll.) lateral tooth, dorsal vertebra (160 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (150 mm), proximal ischium
Diagnosis- open obturator notch in pubis; anteroproximal flaring and smoothly convex proximal surface of pubis; more proximally placed obturator notch than Patagonykus.
Description- The illustrated tooth is typical of most theropods in being laterally compressed, recurved and having fine serrations. The tooth seems more compressed (30% of FABL) than most theropods (eg. Liliensternus airelensis,
Gojirasaurus, Dilophosaurus, Magnosaurus, Torvosaurus, Szechuanosaurus), though Liliensternus liliensterni is similar in this regard. Though interdental variation could be a factor here, as posterior teeth are known to be more laterally compressed in theropods, Dilophosaurus and Magnosaurus never reach a Dandakosaurus level of compression anywhere in the tooth row.
The dorsal vertebra is opisthocoelous and lacks a pleurocoel. Opisthocoelous dorsals are only known in non-tyrannoraptoran tetanurines (the exception is Parvicursorinae), suggesting Dandakosaurus is a member of this clade. The absence of a pleurocoel is of little use without positional data.
The caudal vertebra is amphicoelous, with "two lateral cavities on either side" and a keeled ventral surface. The first character is common in theropods. The second is only known in Spinostropheus, Carcharodontosaurus, megaraptorans, Patagonykus, caenagnathoids and Achillobator. Keeled proximal caudal centra are known in at least torvosaurs and carnosaurs.
The holotype proximal pubis has several odd characters. There is no obturator fenestra, just an open obturator notch, as in Elaphrosaurus, Eustreptospondylus, Suchomimus, Allosaurus, carcharodontosaurids and most coelurosaurs. The proximal border forms a smooth convex arch from the ilial contact to the ischia contact, with no distinct peduncles. This is approached in some coelophysoids (eg. Coelophysis longicollis referred specimen) and Archaeornithomimus, but is most similar to Patagonykus, Unenlagia and Achillobator. Proximally, the pubis flares sharply anteriorly to form an acute anteroproximal corner. This is similar to the situation in Coelurus, tyrannosaurids, Caudipteryx, Nanshiungosaurus and alvarezsaurids. It seems to only be developed in forms with somewhat mesopubic pelvic orientations. Additional evidence for mesopuby in Dandakosaurus may come from the possible pubic peduncle of the ischium, which fits the ischial surface of the pubis to form an angle of about 35 degrees between the bones.
Only the proximal portion of the ischium is preserved. There is a concave anterior margin which matches up with the ischial peduncular area of the pubis. No other area is appropriate for the pubic contact, though Yadagiri seems to have identified this as the area between the pubic peduncle and obturator process. If the concave area were the acetabulum, the pubis and ischium would be subparallel. Articulating the pubis more dorsoposteriorly on the ischium leaves nowhere for an acetabular surface or ischial peduncle. The acetabular surface is small and sharply concave, so may be broken and continuous with the ischial peduncle in life. The posterior surface is gently concave, while the anterior surface is broken.
Comments- The phylogenetic relationships of this taxon are uncertain, especially considering how advanced it seems for its age. When entered into Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, it emerges as an orionidan excluded from Piatnitzkysauridae, Megalosaurinae, Spinosauridae, Yangchuanosaurus, derived metriacanthosaurines and Allosauria. The possibility elements have been misidentified or derive from more than one taxon (such as a sauropodomorph) should not be excluded. It is one of the earliest tetanurines. Previous suggestions regarding abelisauroid affinity (Aravind, DML 1997) were based on maxillary characters unknown in the specimen. Where Aravind got his data is unknown, but it can be considered irrelevant now that the known material has been determined.
References- Yadagiri, 1982. Osteological studies of a carnosaurian dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Kota Formation: Andhra Pradesh. Geological Survey of India (Progress Report for Field Season Programme 1981-1982), Regional Palaeontological Laboratories, Southern Region. 7 pp.
Aravind, DML 1997. http://dml.cmnh.org/1997May/msg00840.html
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Ichthyovenator Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012
I. laosensis Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012
Late Barremian-Early Cenomanian (Aptian?), Early-Late Cretaceous
Grès supérieurs Formation, Laos
Holotype
- (MDS BK10-01 to 15) twelfth dorsal vertebra (135 mm), partial thirteenth dorsal neural spine, posterior dorsal rib, dorsal rib (uncollected), first sacral neural spine, second sacral neural spine, fused partial second and third sacral vertebrae (third ~90 mm), third sacral neural spine, fourth sacral neural spine, fifth sacral neural spine, third sacral ribs, first caudal vertebra (101 mm), second caudal vertebra (95 mm), ilia (one incomplete; 920, 910 mm), pubes (one fragmentary; 650 mm), ischia (one incomplete; 496, 494 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Allain et al., 2012) sinusoidal dorsosacral sail; twelfth dorsal neural spine is 410% of centrum length with anterodistal finger-like process; posterior dorsal ribs articulated with sternal complex; fan-shaped sacral neural spines 3 and 4; transverse processes of first caudal vertebra with sigmoid profile in dorsal view; deep prezygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossae on first caudal vertebra; long iliac blade with ilium/pubis length ratio 1.46; proximal pubic plate with obturator and pubic notches; large ischial plate with ischial foramen (also in Monolophosaurus); mediolaterally flattened ischial shaft.
Comments- The specimen was discovered in 2010.
Relationships- Allain et al. (2012) found Ichthyovenator to be a basal baryonychine in their phylogenetic analysis. Yet adding it to the much larger matrix of Carrano et al. (2012) results in it being sister to Concavenator, with both sister to Allosauria in Carnosauria. Cau's unpublished (online 2012) analysis recovered it as a basal spinosaurid.
Several characters led to its placement in Allain et al.'s analysis. Ichthyovenator is a megalosauroid due to having a vertical ridge anterior to the hyposphene in the dorsal vertebra. But this is miscoded and is actually absent. It is a spinosaurid due to the tall dorsal neural spine, but these are also present in Concavenator, which was not included in their analysis. It is placed in Baryonychinae due to four characters- the basally webbed dorsal neural spine; an accessory centrodiapophyseal lamina on the dorsal, which is also present in the unincluded Concavenator; a mediolaterally expanded pubic boot; and a posterior pubic boot "reduced to a small flange". But this is correlated with the last character, as a reduced posterior pubic boot (with insignificant anterior boot) leads to a transversely expanded distal pubis, and indeed the only taxa coded as having the first state are also the only ones coded as having the second. It is excluded from Avetheropoda due to the small pubic boot as well. It is excluded from Allosauroidea because the posterior dorsal neural spine is not anteriorly inclined, but this is also true in Concavenator. It's also excluded from Allosauroidea because the ischial obturator foramen is closed. Yet the two coelurosaurs are miscoded as lacking an obturator notch; when that's corrected, Ichthyovenator's closed foramen becomes an autapomorphy. So of the nine characters, three are due to Allain et al. not including Concavenator in their matrix. Two are due to miscodings. The two pubic boot characters are correlated, so are really only one. Yet this character was not used by Carrano et al.. Finally, the neural spine webbing is valid and used by Carrano et al..
Several characters also led to its placement when added to Carrano et al.'s matrix. Ichthyovenator is sister to Concavenator due to three characters- tall dorsal neural spine (also in spinosaurids); accessory centrodiapophyseal lamina (also in baryonychines); peg-and-socket ilioischial articulation (not included by Allain et al.). It is an avetheropod because of four characters- narrow brevis fossa (coded more strictly in Allain et al.); m. cuppedicus shelf (not included by Allain et al.); open pubic obturator notch (however, Suchomimus and Baryonyx are miscoded by Carrano et al.- Rauhut, 2003; Charig and Milner, 1997); large and oval pubic obturator notch/foramen (not included by Allain et al.). It is excluded from Megalosauroidea due to lacking a vertical ridge anterior to the hyposphene (miscoded by Allain et al.) and having a vertical ilial ridge (not included by Allain et al.). So of these nine characters, two are correctly coded as also present in baryonychines, and another is miscoded as being absent in baryonychines. Five others aren't used by Allain et al., and another was miscoded by Allain et al.
In Allain et al.'s matrix, after recoding Ichthyovenator's hyposphene ridge and the coelurosaurs' obturator notches, and excluding the correlated pubic boot character, Ichthyovenator is still a baryonychine. Constraining it to be a non-allosauroid carnosaur takes five extra steps, which is down from the nine it took before (though it was slightly more nested in Carnosauria before, but only by two steps). If we add the five characters Allain et al. didn't use that support this position (the brevis fossa expansion counts too since it is an additional state of a character), then either alternative is equally parsimonious.
In Carrano et al.'s matrix, after recoding Baryonyx and Suchomimus for their obturator notches, Ichthyovenator is now a non-allosauroid carnosaur and Concavenator is back to Carcharodontosauridae (making them sister taxa like before is now one step longer). It now takes three more steps to make Ichthyovenator a spinosaurid, so that's dropped from five. If we add on the transversely wide pubic boot character that they didn't include, we could say it only takes two more steps to make Ichthyovenator a spinosaurid. In conclusion, both matrices give almost the same answer- Ichthyovenator is either equally likely or two steps more likely to be a basal carnosaur instead of a baryonychine. The main flaw was that Allain et al. didn't include several useful characters, which is expected considering their total character number is 51% of Carrano et al.'s. I'd put it in Orionides incertae sedis for now.
References- Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cau, online 2012. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2012/04/coming-soon-ichthyovenator.html

"Megalosaurus" hungaricus Nopcsa, 1902
Coniacian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
unnamed formation, Romania

Holotype- (MAFI ob. 3106, lost) tooth (~22 mm)
Comments- This species was discovered in an unnamed formation, not the later Sinpetru Formation as is often stated (Csiki and Grigorescu, 1998). Carrano et al. (2012) note the widely spaced distal serrations may be diagnostic, and the high DSDI (1.25) resembles basal tyrannosauroids and dromaeosaurids. This is also found in Marshosaurus, Acrocanthosaurus and Falcarius however, so the taxon is provisionally assigned to Orionides incertae sedis.
References- Nopcsa, 1902. Notizen uber Cretacische Dinosaurier. Pt. 2. Megalosaurus hungaricus nov. sp. ein Theropode der Siebenburgischen Kreide. Sitzungsberichte der Koniglichen Akademie Wissenschaften. 3, 104-107.
Csiki and Grigorescu, 1998. Small theropods from the Late Cretaceous of the Hateg Basin (Western Romania) - an unexpected diversity at the top of the food chain. Oryctos. 1, 87-104.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

"Metriacanthosaurus" "reynoldsi" Welles, Powell and Pickering vide Pickering, 1995
Early Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Chipping Norton Limestone Formation (= Charlbury Formation), England

Material- ?(SDM 44.16) proximal scapula (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.19; intended holotype) ilium (Reynolds, 1939)
? tooth (39 mm, FABL 23.5 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
Diagnosis- (suggested) several pronounced vertical ridges above the supracetabular shelf extending halfway to the blade's dorsal edge.
Other diagnoses- Pickering (DML, 2002) listed several features as differing from Metriacanthosaurus parkeri. Of these, the straighter dorsal ilial margin and broadly exposed medial wall of the brevis shelf are seen in Eustreptospondylus, while the long ischial peduncle is also present in Yangchuanosaurus zigongensis. The lower ilial blade are seen in both. Contra Pickering, the pubic peduncle is not noticably longer nor the subpreacetabular notch more open than in Metriacanthosaurus.
Comments- Lydekker (1888) referred a metatarsal III (BMNH R413) from the Chipping Norton Formation to Megalosaurus bucklandi. Gardiner (1937, 1938) and Reynolds (1938) reported large theropod remains from two quarries in the Chipping Norton Limestone Formation, which Reynolds (1939) described and referred to Megalosaurus. Pickering (1995) credited the name Metriacanthosaurus reynoldsi to Welles, Powell and Pickering in his 1995 unpublished bibliographic manuscript. It was later used in the comparative section of another unpublished manuscript (Welles and Pickering, 1999). This paper was largely extracted from the European megalosaur manuscript Welles and Powell worked on in the 1970s but never published, specifically the Megalosaurus redescription section. Pickering intends to publish an updated version of the megalosaur manuscript as Mutanda Dinosaurologica, and has posted small excerpts including the diagnosis of Metriacanthosaurus "reynoldsi" online (DML, 2002). In any case, the name is a nomen nudum as Pickering didn't follow ICZN Article 8.1.3- it must have been produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures numerous identical and durable copies. The 1999 paper shows his new taxon to be based on all the Chipping Norton theropod material from both quarries, as well as BMNH R413, scapula OUM J.29800 and a few other elements. Day and Barrett (2004) believed both their Megalosaurus femoral morphotypes A and B were present in the sample- SDM 44.23 as morphotype B and SDM 44.24 as morphotype A. Benson (2009, 2010) referred the New Park Quarry material to Megalosaurus bucklandii based on the close resemblence of maxilla SDM 44.1 to Taynton Limestone specimens and an M. bucklandii autapomorphy in sacrum SDM 44.4, while other elements were provisionally referred as there is no evidence of more than one taxon in the quarry. These additional elements are- maxilla BMNH R8303, anterior dentary BMNH R8304, partial dentary BMNH R8305, proximal ischium BMNH R9668, proximal caudal vertebrae BMNH R9672-9673, partial anterior cervical vertebra BMNH R9674, mid caudal vertebrae BMNH R9675-9676, proximal caudal vertebra BMNH R9677, mid caudal vertebra SDM 44.5, coracoids SDM 44.14-15, humerus SDM 44.18, femur SDM 44.24 and distal metatarsal IV 44.25. BMNH R413 and OUM J.29800 were also referred to M. bucklandii based on autapomorphies. Additional New Park Quarry material referred by Welles and Pickering to "reynoldsi" but not mentioned by Benson is here provisionally referred to Megalosaurus- sacra BMNH R9679 and R9680 and dorsal SDM 44.10. Finally, Benson (2010) referred two specimens from Oakham Quarry to M. bucklandii based on autapomorphies (ischium SDM 44.20 and metatarsal III BMNH R9665), but refrained from referring additional elements from this quarry as he notes some "can be referred to a second, unnamed taxon (R. B. J. Benson, unpubl. data)." This near certainly refers to "reynoldsi", whose intended holotype is an ilium from Oakham Quarry (SDM 44.19). Further study by Benson and/or Pickering may clarify the identity of the other Oakham Quarry elements. Welles and Pickering also referred several elements from other quarries to "reynoldsi"- dorsal GSM 37523, scapula SDM 34.17 and humerus 44.22 from the Chipping Norton Formation, and proximal caudals OUM J13720 and J.29799 from the Sharp's Hill Formation. These are provisionally placed as Tetanurae incertae sedis here until their descriptions are published.
The identity of SDM 44.19 is difficult to determine from the published illustration, since many useful ilial characters would only be visible in medial or ventral views. However, it is a tetanurine based on the lack of a strong crest between the supracetabular crest and brevis fossa, and is not a coelurosaur based on the large ischial peduncle and widely exposed brevis fossa in lateral view. It differs from Megalosaurus and Metriacanthosaurus in many of the same ways- broad medial wall to the acetabulum, especially posteriorly; longer ischial peduncle; broad esposure of medial wall of the brevis fossa; low ilial blade. It is more similar to Metriacanthosaurus in the wide subpreacetabular notch, and anteroposteriorly wide ischial peduncle, but shares a series of short vertical ridges above the acetabulum with Megalosaurus (albeit more pronounced). Pickering's (DML, 2002) only ilial character for Metriacanthosaurus is "ilium + ischium fused", which isn't true of M. parkeri or "reynoldsi." Thus is seems whatever "reynoldsi" is, there's no reason to refer it to Metriacanthosaurus. A greater resemblence is seen to Eustreptospondylus, which shares the broad esposure of medial wall of the brevis fossa and low ilial blade. Another similar ilium is that of Yangchuanosaurus zigongensis, which shares the broad medial wall to the acetabulum, longer ischial peduncle, and low ilial blade. Which of these two taxa it is more closely related to will require study of the specimen itself and additional specimens from Oakham Quarry. Adding it to Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix results in it being a non-carcharodontosaurid, non-coelurosaur orionidan.
The illustrated Oakham tooth (BMNH or SDM colls) is short (height/FABL 1.66) and moderately recuved with perpendicular serrations on at least the apical half of the distal carina. Only light longitudinal striations are indicated on the enamel. At least one of the scapulae mentioned by Reynolds (SDM 44.16 or 44.17) is unfused to the coracoid, though it is unknown if this one was from Oakham Quarry.
References- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Gardiner, 1937. Reptile-bearing oolite, Stow. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Blackpool). 1936, 296.
Gardiner, 1938. Reptile-bearing oolite, Stow. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Nottingham). 1937, 290.
Reynolds, 1938. A collection of reptilian bones from the Oölite near Stow-in-the-Wold, Glos. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 1937, 356-357.
Reynolds, 1939. A collection of reptile bones from the Oolite near Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. Geological Magazine. 76, 193-214.
Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Welles and Pickering, 1999. Megalosaurus bucklandii. Private publication of Stephen Pickering, An extract from Archosauromorpha: Cladistics & Osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 119 pp.
Day and Barrett, 2004. Material Referred to Megalosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, England: One taxon or two? Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 115, 359-366.
Benson, 2009. An assessment of variability in theropod dinosaur remains from the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) of Stonesfield and New Park Quarry, UK and taxonomic implications for Megalosaurus bucklandii and Iliosuchus incognitus. Palaeontology. 52(4), 857-877.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Pickering, in prep. Mutanda Dinosaurologica.

Sigilmassasauridae Russell, 1996
Sigilmassasaurus Russell, 1996
Diagnosis- (after Russell, 1996) large cervicodorsal hypapophyses; cervicodorsal centra >150% wider than tall.
(after McFeeters et al., 2013) interzygapophyseal laminae absent, so that short neural spine contacts dorsal margin of neural canal anteriorly and posteriorly.
Comments- Russell (1996) suggested Stromer's (1934) Spinosaurus B was referrable to his new genus Sigilmassasaurus. Sereno et al. (1996) later referred the specimen of Spinosaurus B and the material of Sigilmassasaurus to Carcharodontosaurus, based on the supposedly broad cervical vertebra found with the holotype. However, the latter centrum is only 118% broader than tall anteriorly, while Sigilmassasaurus' is 196% and Spinosaurus B's is 176%. The cervical referred to Carcharodontosaurus by Russell (1996) resembles the holotype more, having a ratio of 116%. The cervical (SGM-Din 3) referred to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus by Sereno et al. has a ratio of 170%, and is more likely that of Sigilmassasaurus. While positional variation is possible, other carcharodontosaurids lack vertebrae resembling the Sigilmassasaurus morphotype, leading me to concur with Novas et al. (2005) that Spinosaurus B and SGM-Din 3 belong to Sigilmassasaurus, which is not a junior synonym of Carcharodontosaurus. Novas et al. (2005) further note that pedal unguals associated with Spinosaurus B and found in formations with other Sigilmassasaurus specimens are quite different from carcharodontosaurids. However, that paper also describes the similarity of caudal vertebrae referred to Spinosaurus B and Sigilmassasaurus to Ouranosaurus in their quadrangular shape and elongate posterodorsally projecting neural spines. They are excluded from Sigilmassasaurus here. Canale et al. (2008) proposed these presacral vertebrae belong to iguanodonts, but contra what they write, ornithischians lack pleurocoels and camerate internal structure. Evers et al. (2012) noted Sigilmassasaurus differs from carcharodontosaurids but shares characters with megalosaurs and specifically spinosaurids, suggesting it may belong to that family. McFeeters et al. (2013) were more reserved, placing it in Orionides, though noting shared characters with megalosaurians and some spinosaurids. They referred dorsals except CMN 41858 to Tetanurae indet., and caudals to Dinosauria indet..
When added to Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, Sigilmassasaurus is an orionidan excluded from Piatnitzkysauridae, Megalosaurinae, Spinosauridae, Yangchuanosaurus, derived metriacanthosaurines, Allosauria and Coelurosauria. This was also the result found by McFeeters et al., except that the entirity of Metriacanthosauridae was excluded.
References- Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 22, 1-79.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 7(2), 167-175.
Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005. A large Cretaceous theropod from Patagonia, Argentina, and the evolution of carcharodontosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 92, 226-230.
Canale, Novas and Haluza, 2008. Comments about the cervical vertebrae referred to the African theropods Carcharodontosaurus and Sigilmassasaurus. Libro de Resúmenes III Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados. [pp unknown]
McFeeters, Ryan, Schroder-Adams and Hinic-Frlog, 2011. Rediagnosis and phylogenetic relationships of Sigilmassasaurus, a problematic theropod from the Mid-Cretaceous of Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 155.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Evers, Rauhut and Milner, 2012. Was Stromer right? The affinities of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Theropoda, Tetanurae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 91.
McFeeters, Ryan, Hinic-Frlog and Schröder-Adams, 2013. A reevaluation of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Dinosauria) from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 50(6), 636-649.
S. brevicollis Russell, 1996
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem Formation, Morocco

Holotype- (CMN 41857) first dorsal vertebra (121 mm)
Paratypes- ?(CMN 41772) posterior dorsal vertebra (162 mm)
(CMN 41774) tenth cervical vertebra (67 mm)
?(CMN 41776) mid dorsal vertebra (~150 mm)
(CMN 41790) tenth cervical vertebra (~127 mm)
?(CMN 41850) fifth dorsal vertebra (152 mm)
?(CMN 41851) posterior dorsal vertebra (157 mm)
?(CMN 41856) first dorsal vertebra (146 mm)
?(CMN 41858) second or third dorsal vertebra
?(CMN 50402) mid dorsal vertebra
?(CMN 50407) mid or posterior dorsal vertebra (98 mm)
?(CMN 50428) mid dorsal vertebra
?(CMN 50800) mid or posterior dorsal vertebra (88 mm)
Referred- (SGM-Din 3) anterior cervical vertebra (Sereno et al., 1996)
(SGM-Din 4) anterior cervical centrum (Brusatte and Sereno, 2007)
(SGM-Din 5) mid cervical vertebra (Brusatte and Sereno, 2007)
?(MPCM 13574) pedal ungual III (120 mm) (Novas et al., 2005)
(P.P. No. 481) cervical vertebra (D'Anastasio and Capasso, 2004)
(UCPC OT6) cervical vertebra (Carrano et al. 2012)
Diagnosis- (after Russell, 1996) (compared to S. sp nov. 1) broader and more flexed cervicodorsal centra; smaller cervicodorsal pleurocoel with inflated centrum wall dorsal to it; more ventrally projected cervicodorsal parapophyses; broader cervicodorsal hypapophysis; less constricted distal caudal centra; smaller distal caudal neural canal.
Comments- D'Anastasio and Capasso (2004) describe pathology in a vertebra they assign to Spinosaurus maroccanus, but which was reassigned to Sigilmassasaurus by McFeeters et al. (2013).
Novas et al. (2005) note the caudal vertebrae referred to S. brevicollis by Russell (CMN 41775, 41853, 41854, 41855) are very similar to Ouranosaurus' in their square shape and elongate posterodorsally projecting neural spines. They are excluded from Sigilmassasaurus here. The pedal ungual they describe matches one in the Spinosaurus B specimen, but the latter may not belong to Sigilmassasaurus since more than one theropod specimen and an ornithopod were mixed in that specimen.
References- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
D'Anastasio and Capasso, 2004. Artrosi cervicale post-microtraumatica in un dinosauro creaceo. Reumatismo. 56, 124-128.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 7(2), 167-175.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Evers, Rauhut and Milner, 2012. Was Stromer right? The affinities of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Theropoda, Tetanurae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 91.
McFeeters, Ryan, Hinic-Frlog and Schröder-Adams, 2013. A reevaluation of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Dinosauria) from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 50(6), 636-649.
S. sp. nov. 1
Barremian-Albian(?), Early Cretaceous
Lower Kem Kem Formation(?), Morocco

Material- (CMN 41629) first dorsal vertebra (150 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Russell, 1996) (compared to S. brevicollis) narrower and less flexed cervicodorsal centra; larger cervicodorsal pleurocoel with planar centrum wall dorsal to it; more laterally projected cervicodorsal parapophyses; narrower cervicodorsal hypapophysis; more constricted distal caudal centra; larger distal caudal neural canal.
Comments- Russell (1996) suggested CMN 41629 could be from a separate species, based on differences from the other Sigilmassasaurus specimens. Positional variation is unlikely, as the parapophyses are at the same level as the S. brevicollis holotype. Ontogenetic variation is similarly unlikely, as it is comparable in size with the holotype. Their dark color may indicate it derives from the base of the Kem Kem Formation, which may make it Early Cretaceous. He also questionably referred a distal caudal vertebra (CMN 41862) to this species, but Novas et al. (2005) noted Sigilmassasaurus caudals are more likely to be from Ouranosaurus.
References- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 7(2), 167-175.
S. sp. nov. 2
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

Material- (IPHG 1922 X45; material of Spinosaurus B) two teeth, first dorsal centrum (117 mm), anterior dorsal vertebra (~140 mm), anterior dorsal centrum (~135 mm), incomplete posterior dorsal vertebra (140 mm), posterior dorsal vertebra (160 mm), partial dorsal rib, two proximal dorsal ribs (?), partial gastralia (Stromer, 1934)
? two ilial fragments, distal femur, tibiae (565, 600 mm), phalanx III-1, two pedal digit IV phalanges, pedal ungual (Stromer, 1934)
Diagnosis- (after Russell, 1996) intermediate between S. brevicollis and S. sp. nov. 1 in - cervicodorsal centrum width; cervicodorsal pleurocoel size; ventrolateral projection of parapophyses; cervicodorsal hypapophysis width. resembles S. brevicollis in having an inflated cervicodorsal centrum dorsal to the pleurocoel.
Comments- This was originally described as a second, unnamed, species of Spinosaurus by Stromer (1934). It was distinguished from S. aegyptiacus in part by its low neural spines and called Spinosaurus B. Russell (1996) described additional vertebrae similar to those of Spinosaurus B, naming them Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis. He noted that the Spinosaurus B material was intermediate in cervicodorsal morphology between CMN 41629 and Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis. It may be the sister taxon of S. brevicollis, or an anagenetic ancestor. Any such speculations based solely on cervicodorsal morphology are tentative of course. Novas et al. (2005) note the seven caudal vertebrae referred to Spinosaurus B by Stromer are very similar to Ouranosaurus' in their square shape and elongate posterodorsally projecting neural spines. They are excluded from Sigilmassasaurus here.
References- Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 22, 1-79.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.
S. sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Echkar Formation of the Tegama Group, Niger

Material- (MNNHN IGU11) mid cervical centrum (90 mm) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2007)
?(MNNHN coll.; from In Abangarit) pedal ungual II (90 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- A pedal ungual from In Abangarit referred to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus by Lapparent matches the Spinosaurus B morphotype currently associated with Sigilmassasaurus (Novas et al., 2005). Brusatte and Sereno (2007) describe a cervical centrum as a paratype of Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis. This centrum resembles Sigilmassasaurus sp. nov. 2 in all ways except the hypapophysis is broad as in S. brevicollis.
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 7(2), 167-175.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
S. sp. (Evers, Rauhut and Milner, 2012)
Cretaceous
Africa
Material
- (BMNH and BSP coll.) several cervical vertebrae, anterior dorsal vertebra (Evers et al., 2012)
Reference- Evers, Rauhut and Milner, 2012. Was Stromer right? The affinities of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Theropoda, Tetanurae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 91.
S? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Algeria

Material- (MNNHN coll.; from Alrar) pedal ungual III (100 mm)
Comments- A pedal ungual from Alrar referred to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus by Lapparent matches the Spinosaurus B morphotype currently associated with Sigilmassasaurus (Novas et al., 2005).
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 7(2), 167-175.
S? sp. indet. (Medeiros and Schultz, 2002)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Alcantara Formation of the Itapecuru Group, Brazil

Reference- Medeiros and Schultz, 2002. The dinosaurian fauna of "Laje do Coringa", middle Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 60(3), 155-162.

unnamed orionidan (Galton and Molnar, 2005)
Middle Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Stonesfield Slate, England

Material- (OUM J28971) incomplete ilium
Comments- Galton and Molnar (2005) described OUM J28971 as a specimen of Iliosuchus. Benson (2009) believed OUM J28971 was from a different taxon because its lateral ilial ridge is more vertical, there are accessory ridges anterior and posterior to it, and the brevis fossa is visible laterally at the base of the postacetabular process. The latter difference is more accurately expressed by saying the brevis fossa of the holotype does not extend as close to the ischial peduncle, though even in OUM J28971 it is very shallow and laterally angled there. Additional differences are- the pubic peduncle of OUM J28971 is much wider compared to the length of its articular surface when compared to OUM J29780, and has a posteriorly concave edge on its articular surface; the pubic peduncle is less anteriorly oriented than the holotype. Carrano et al. (2012) agreed with Benson and also proposed larger size as a distinguishing character, but this could be ontogenetic as the age of all specimens is unknown.
Benson merely said this is Theropoda indet., but Carrano et al. specified it further as Tetanurae indet.. Indeed when added to Carrano et al.'s matrix it emerges as a non-piatnitzkysaurid, non-allosaurian orionidan. As most of the characters which differ from Iliosuchus are shared with Megalosaurus and both are found in the same formation, OUM J28971 may be a juvenile of that taxon.
References- Galton and Molnar, 2005. Tibiae of small theropod dinosaurs from Southern England. In Carpenter (Ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. 3-22.
Benson, 2009. An assessment of variability in theropod dinosaur remains from the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) of Stonesfield and New Park Quarry, UK and taxonomic implications for Megalosaurus bucklandii and Iliosuchus incognitus. Palaeontology. 52(4), 857-877.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Megalosauroidea Huxley, 1869 sensu Nopcsa, 1928
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus) (Benson, 2010)
Other definitions- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Allosaurus fragilis, Tyrannosaurus rex) (modified from Carrano et al., 2012)
= Megalosauri Fitzinger, 1843
= Megalosauroides Gervais, 1852
= Spinosauroidea Stromer, 1915 sensu Olshevsky, 1991
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Passer domesticus) (Holtz et al., 2004)
Other definitions- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Torvosaurus tanneri <- Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus) (Allain et al., 2012)
= Spinosauria Olshevsky, 1991
= Torvosauroidea Jensen, 1985 vide Sereno et al., 1994
= Spinosauroidea sensu Allain et al., 2012
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Torvosaurus tanneri <- Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
= Megalosauroidea sensu Carrano et al., 2012
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Allosaurus fragilis, Tyrannosaurus rex)
Comments- Spinosauroidea is the name most commonly given to the megalosaur-spinosaur clade from 1994 to 2010, based on analyses which usually excluded Megalosaurus during the period of time most workers restricted the name to the lectotype dentary and thus excluded it from most analyses. However, according to the ICZN, a superfamily containing Megalosaurus must be called Megalosauroidea. The issue is complicated by the fact Spinosauroidea was originally given a node-based definition, while Megalosauroidea has been given a more inclusive stem-based definition.
Sereno (in press) suggested using Spinosauria for a stem-based clade including Spinosauroidea but excluding avetheropods, in case taxa like eustreptospondylines or Poekilopleuron fall outside the Torvosaurus+Spinosaurus clade. This is similar to his prior use of Torvosauroidea (to contain Afrovenator plus what is now defined as Spinosauroidea) and to Holtz et al.'s and Allain et al.'s stem-based version of Spinosauroidea. However, Megalosauroidea has priority over all of those names and was defined this way by Benson (2010), with the Torvosaurus+Spinosaurus clade now named Megalosauria.
References- Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2009. The phylogeny of megalosauroids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with implications for the evolution of North African paleoecosystems. First International Congress on North African Vertebrate Palaeontology. 21-22.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed megalosauroid (Molnar, Angriman and Gasparini, 1996)
Coniacian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Hidden Lake Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica
Material
- (MLP 89-XII-1-1) (~3 m) distal tibia
Comments- Molnar et al. (1996) believed this was from a megalosauroid or basal carnosaur (due to placing Piatnitzkysaurus in the clade). Carrano et al. (2012) agreed with the similarities, and suggested it was megalosauroid as they placed Piatnitzkysaurus in that clade.
References- Molnar, Angriman and Gasparini, 1996. An Antarctic Cretaceous theropod. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39, 669-674.

Piatnitzkysauridae Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
Definition- (Piatnitzkysaurus floresi <- Megalosaurus bucklandii, Spinosaurus aegyptiacus) (modified after Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) short or absent anterior maxillary ramus; two parallel rows of nutrient foramina on lateral surface of maxilla; vertically striated or ridged paradental plates (also in Megalosaurus); no axial pleurocoels; moderate development of axial diapophyses; reduced axial parapophyses (also in Eustreptospondylus and Afrovenator); anteriorly inclined posterior dorsal neural spines; canted distal humeral condyles (also in Poekilopleuron).
Comments- Smith et al. (2007) recovered Piatnitzkysaurus and Condorraptor in a clade, while Benson (2008, 2010) found Marshosaurus to be related as well. Carrano et al. (2012) named the latter group Piatnitzkysauridae.
Currie and Zhao (1994) advanced the idea Piatnitzkysaurus was an abelisaurid, which is unlike all other authors who believe it to be tetanurine. Holtz (1995), Rauhut (2003) and Smith et al. (2007; with Condorraptor) found Piatnitzkysaurus to be a non-orionidan tetanurine. Benson (2008, 2010) and Carrano et al. (2012) found piatnitzkysaurids to be non-megalosaurian megalosauroids in their large analyses, which is provisionally accepted here. Both Bonaparte (1979) and Gao (1999) place Piatnitzkysaurus in Megalosauridae itself, and Holtz et al. (2004) found it to be a eustreptospondyline/afrovenatorine in his analysis. Paul (1988), Novas (1992), Perez-Moreno et al. (1993) and Holtz (2000) all find Piatnitzkysaurus to be a tetanurine closer to avetheropods than megalosauroids. Molnar et al. (1981) placed Piatnitzkysaurus in his Allosauridae, which is equivalent to modern Allosauroidea. Holtz (1992) found Piatnitzkysaurus to be a non-allosaurian carnosaur. While listed under Allosauridae in Kurzanov (1989) and Molnar et al. (1990), the text indicates they viewed Piatnitzkysaurus as a carnosaur outside Allosaurus+Tyrannosaurus. Bonaparte (1986) in his monograph of the genus placed it in an Allosauridae oddly expanded to include Dilophosaurus, but not Ceratosaurus or Torvosaurus.
Using Carrano et al.'s analysis to test the liklihood of alternate topologies, moving piatnitzkysaurids into Carnosauria is only 2 steps longer (megalosauroids follow), and in this case they are sister to allosauroids. It also takes 2 steps to move them sister to Avetheropoda. Enforcing a non-orionidan position leads to trees 3 steps longer, meaning any of these topologies is easily possible. Megalosaurid piatnitzkysaurids are 4 steps longer, and further enforcing them as afrovenatorines is 6 steps longer, so increasingly less likely but still possible. Placing them as closer to Allosauria than metriacanthosaurids as in Kurzanov and Molnar et al. is 18 steps longer though, and thus implausible. Making Piatnitzkysaurus an abelisaurid (only Condorraptor follows unlike previous tests where Marshosaurus does as well) is 56 steps more, so near certainly wrong.
References- Bonaparte, 1979. Dinosaurs: A Jurassic assembalge from Patagonia. Science. 205, 1377-1379.
Molnar, Flannery and Rich, 1981. An allosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia. Alcheringa. 5, 141-146.
Bonaparte, 1986. Les dinosaures (Carnosaures, Allosauridés, Sauropodes, Cétosauridés) du Jurassique Moyen de Cerro Cóndor (Chubut, Argentina) [The dinosaurs (carnosaurs, allosaurids, sauropods, cetiosaurids) from the Middle Jurassic of Cerro Cóndor (Chubut, Argentina)]. Annales de Paléontologie (Vert.-Invert.). 72(3), 247-289.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Kurzanov, 1989. O proiskhozhdenii i evolyutsii infraotryada dinozavrov Carnosauria [Concerning the origin and evolution of the dinosaur infraorder Carnosauria]. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal. 1989(4), 3-14.
Molnar, Kurzanov and Dong, 1990. Carnosauria. In Weishampel, Osmólska and Dodson (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley. 169-209.
Holtz, 1992. An unusual structure of the metatarsus of Theropoda (Archosauria: Dinosauria: Saurischia) of the Cretaceous. PhD thesis. Yale University. 347 pp.
Novas, 1992. La evolucion de los dinosaurios carnivoros [The evolution of carnivorous dinosaurs]. In Sanz and Buscalioni (eds.). Los Dinosaurios y Su Entorno Biotico: Actas del Segundo Curso de Paleontologia in Cuenca. Instituto "Juan Valdez", Cuenca, Argentina. 126-163.
Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Sudre and Sige, 1993. A theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Southern France. Revue de Paleobiologie. 7, 173-188.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30(10), 2037-2081.
Holtz, 1995. A new phylogeny of the Theropoda. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15(3), 35A
Gao, 1999. [A complete carnosaur skeleton from Zigong, Sichuan: Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis]. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu. 100 pp.
Holtz, 2000. A new phylogeny of the carnivorous dinosaurs. GAIA. 15, 5-61.
Rauhut, 2003. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69, 1-213.
Smith, Makovicky, Hammer and Currie, 2007. Osteology of Cryolophosaurus ellioti (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Jurassic of Antarctica and implications for early theropod evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 151, 377-421.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focusing on basal tetanurans and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Marshosaurus Madsen, 1976
M. bicentissimus Madsen, 1976
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of Morrison Formation, Colorado?, Utah, US

Holotype- (UMNH VP 6373; = UUVP 2826) ilium (375 mm)
Paratypes-........(UMNH VP 6379; = UUVP 2832) ischium (305 mm)
........(UMNH VP 380; = UUVP 2878) ischium
........(UMNH VP 6387; = UUVP 4736) pubis (393 mm)
?(UMNH VP 6364; = UUVP 40-555) dentary
?(UMNH VP 6367; = UUVP 3454) dentary
?(UMNH VP 6368; = UUVP 3502) dentary
(UMNH VP 6372; = UUVP 1182, UUVP 1845) ilia
(UMNH VP 6374; = UUVP 2742) ilium
?(UMNH VP 7820; = UUVP 3236) premaxilla
?(UMNH VP 7824; = UUVP 1846, UUVP 1864) maxillae
?(UMNH VP 7825; = UUVP 4695) maxilla
Referred- ?(BYUVP 5201) proximal caudal vertebra (53 mm) (Britt, 1991)
?(CMNH 21704; = DINO 16455b; = DMN 343; juvenile) posterior skull, posterior mandible, atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, dorsal rib, scapula, humerus (Chure, Madsen and Britt, 1993)
(DMNH 3718) partial skull, vertebrae (Carrano et al., 2012)
(UMNH VP 6374; = UUVP 2742) ilium (Carrano et al., 2012)
(UMNH VP 6384; = UUVP 40-295) pubis (Carrano et al., 2012)
(UMNH VP 6386; = UUVP 1867) pubis (Carrano et al., 2012)
?(UUVP 99) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
?(UUVP 441) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
?(UUVP 5247) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
?(UUVP 5780) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
?(UUVP coll.) dorsal vertebrae (Chure, Britt and Madsen, 1997)
(YPM-PU 72-1) partial pelvis (Carrano et al., 2012)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012)
Comments- Marshosaurus was originally based on pelvic elements, with cranial elements tentatively referred, all from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry of Utah (Madsen, 1976). Britt (1991) described a caudal vertebra from the Dry Mesa Quarry of Colorado which resembled others from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. He tentatively referred these to Marshosaurus, with another form (BYUVP 5073, 5103 and 8908) referred to Stokesosaurus. However, these identifications may be switched. Chure et al. (1993) noted a medium-sized partial skeleton found in the Brushy Basin Member of Dinosaur National Monument, stating the camerate vertebral pneumatization is primitive while the braincase pneumatization resembles tyrannosaurids more than Allosaurus or Ceratosaurus. This was described a bit more by Chure et al. (1997), and referred to Marshosaurus based on resemblence to undescribed and questionably referred dorsal neural spines from Cleveland-Lloyd.
Relationships- Madsen (1976) originally left Marshosaurus as Theropoda incertae sedis, but noted resemblences to several coelurosaurs (Coelurus, Microvenator, Velociraptor, Deinonychus). Benson (2008, 2010) and Carrano et al. (2012) have found it to be a non-megalosaurian megalosauroid, related to Piatnitzkysaurus in Piatnitzkysauridae, which is followed here. Russell (1984) included Marshosaurus in the Megalosauridae. Chure et al. (1993) called Marshosaurus a carnosaur, and in 1997 clarified it as a "primitive carnosaur", closer to Megalosaurus and Eustreptospondylus than derived carnosaurs. Paul (1988) placed it closer to Avetheropoda than megalosauroids. Kurzanov (1989) placed Marshosaurus as an allosaurid, though his family may have been paraphyletic to tyrannosaurids. Holtz et al. (2004) found Marshosaurus to be a basal coelurosaur, though with very low support. Interestingly, Paul, Kurzanov and Holtz et al. all believed Marshosaurus was more closely related to Allosaurus than Piatnitzkysaurus, though only the latter had the genera widely separated.
Enforcing Marshosaurus to be sister to Avetheropoda in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix is 2 steps longer, as is making it be a carnosaur, and making it be a megalosaurid is 4 steps longer, so all are easily possible. Forcing it to be a coelurosaur takes 12 more steps, and forcing it to be closer to Allosauria than metriacanthosaurids takes 18 more steps, so are both unlikely. All of these end up keeping it in Piatnitzkysauridae. Breaking this up by additionally forcing it to be closer to Allosaurus than Piatnitzkysaurus is unlikely regardless of the alternate placement- sister to Avetheropoda (Piatnitzkysaurus ends up just basal to both as in Paul, 1988) takes 10 more steps; coelurosaur (Piatnitzkysaurus ends up outside Avetheropoda) takes 16 more steps, and closer to Allosauria than metriacanthosaurids (Piatnizkysaurus is a non-allosauroid carnosaur) takes 23 more steps.
References- Madsen, 1976. A second new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of East Central Utah. Utah Geology. 3, 51-60.
Russell, 1984. A check list of the families and genera of North American dinosaurs. Syllogeus. 53, 1-35.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 37, 1-72.
Chure, Britt and Madsen, 1993. New data on the theropod Marshosaurus from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic: Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) of Dinosaur NM. In Santucci (ed.). National Park Service Paleontology Research Abstract Volume. Technical Report NPS/NRPEFO/NRTR 93/11:28
Chure, Madsen and Britt, 1993. New data on theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic Morrison FM. (MF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 13(3), 30A.
Chure, Britt and Madsen, 1997. A new specimen of Marshosaurus bicentesimus (Theropoda) from the Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic) of Dinosaur National Monument. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 38A.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focusing on basal tetanurans and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
M? sp. (Naish, online 2001)
Late Jurassic?
Europe
Comments
- Naish (DML, 2001) alludes to European Marshosaurus remains.
Reference- Naish, DML 2001. http://dml.cmnh.org/2001Mar/msg00328.html

Condorraptor Rauhut, 2005
C. currumili Rauhut, 2005
Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Canadon Asfalto Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (MPEF-PV 1672) tibia
Paratypes- ....(MPEF-PV 1673) ?fourth cervical vertebra (57 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1674) ?seventh cervical vertebra (70 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1675) tenth cervical vertebra (59 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1676) first dorsal centrum (61 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1677) mid dorsal centrum (~70 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1678) mid dorsal centrum (~68 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1679) partial anterior dorsal neural arch
....(MPEF-PV 1680) posterior dorsal vertebra (80 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1681) second sacral vertebra (75 mm), third sacral vertebra (75 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (72 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1682) mid caudal vertebra (77 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1683) distal caudal vertebra (67 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1684) dorsal rib fragment
....(MPEF-PV 1685) dorsal rib fragment
....(MPEF-PV 1686) ilial fragment
....(MPEF-PV 1687) ilial fragment
....(MPEF-PV 1688) pubic fragment
....(MPEF-PV 1689) partial ischium
....(MPEF-PV 1690) distal femur
....(MPEF-PV 1691) distal femur
....(MPEF-PV 1692) metatarsal IV (242 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1693) proximal pedal ungual
....(MPEF-PV 1694) lateral tooth (FABL 11 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1695) lateral tooth (FABL 10.5; ~26 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1696) proximal pubis
....(MPEF-PV 1697) ?second dorsal vertebra (57.5 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1700) posterior dorsal vertebra (76 mm)
.....(MPEF-PV 1701) first sacral vertebra (69 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1702) anterior caudal vertebra (56 mm)
....(MPEF-PV 1703) partial chevron
....(MPEF-PV 1704) ilial fragment
....(MPEF-PV 1705) anterior dorsal vertebra (65 mm)
Diagnosis- (from Rauhut, 2005) pleurocoel in anterior cervical vertebrae placed behind the posteroventral corner of the parapophyses; large, shallow depression laterally on the base of the cnemial crest; metatarsal IV with a distinct step dorsally between shaft and distal articular facet.
Other diagnoses- Carrano et al. (2012) noted a large nutrient foramen on the lateral side of the ischial peduncle of the ilium is also present in other theropods like Piatnitzkysaurus and Megalosaurus. They also stated the proximal tibia is abraded, making the absence of a posterior notch uncertain.
Comments- Originally ambigiously said to be a basal tetanurine by Rauhut (2005), Smith et al. (2007), Benson (2008, 2010) and Carrano et al. (2012) have all since found it to be a piatnitzkysaurid.
References- Rauhut, 2002. Dinosaur evolution in the Jurassic: A South American perspective. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 89A.
Rauhut, 2005. Osteology and relationships of a new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia. Palaeontology. 48(1), 87-110.
Smith, Makovicky, Hammer and Currie, 2007. Osteology of Cryolophosaurus ellioti (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Jurassic of Antarctica and implications for early theropod evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 151, 377-421.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focusing on basal tetanurans and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Piatnitzkysaurus Bonaparte, 1979
P. floresi Bonaparte, 1979
Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Canadon Asfalto Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (PVL 4073) (4.24 m, 275 kg (Mazzetta et al., 2000 estimated 450 kg) subadult) maxillae, frontal, braincase, anterior dentary, axis, incomplete fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, partial seventh cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, incomplete first dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, partial seventh dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal fragments, thirteenth dorsal neural arch, fourteenth dorsal vertebra, three dorsal rib fragments, four sacral vertebrae, second caudal vertebra, fourth caudal vertebra, incomplete scapulae (480 mm), partial coracoids, humerus (286 mm), ulna (218 mm), partial ilia, incomplete pubes (450 mm), ischium (~423 mm), femora (552 mm), tibiae (492 mm), fibulae (470 mm), metatarsal III (282 mm)
Referred- (MACN CH 895) two posterior dorsal vertebrae, two dorsal centra, four sacral vertebrae, humerus, pubis, partial ischia, tibia (515 mm), metatarsal II (253 mm), metatarsal III (290 mm), metatarsal IV (252 mm) (Bonaparte, 1986)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2004) parasphenoid recess; parasphenoid recesses communicate; basipterygoid recesses longer anteroposteriorly than high dorsoventrally; width of the articular surface of the basipterygoid processes is more than twice their length and the transverse span between the processes of the left and right side is less than the width of the basal tubera (also in Piveteausaurus?).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) strongly inflated base of maxillary ascending process; evenly rounded ventral surfaces of most sacral centra, except sacral 3 bears flat midline strip and sacral 5 is broad and flat.
Comments- This genus has had numerous suggested affinities, from abelisaurid to allosaurid (see Comments under Piatnitzkysauridae).
References- Bonaparte, 1979. Dinosaurs: A Jurassic assembalge from Patagonia. Science. 205, 1377-1379.
Bonaparte, 1986. Les Dinosaures (Carnosaures, Allosauridés, Sauropodes, Cétiosauridés) du Jurassique moyen de Cerro Cóndor (Chubut, Argentine). [The Middle Jurassic dinosaurs (carnosaurs, allosaurids, sauropods, cetiosaurids) from Cerro Cóndor (Chubut, Argentina).] Annales de Paléontologie. Paris, France. 72, 247-289.
Rauhut, 2004. Braincase structure of the Middle Jurassic theropod dinosaur Piatnitzkysaurus. Canadian Journal of Earth Science. 41(9), 1109-1122.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Megalosauria Bonaparte, 1850
Other definitions- (Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis, Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus) (Allain et al., 2012)
= Spinosauroidea sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus + Torvosaurus tanneri) (modified)
= Spinosauroidea sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus + Torvosaurus tanneri, - Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
Comments- Though originally a term equivalent to Theropoda, this term has been used for two different definitions recently. Allain et al. (2012) defined it as all taxa closer to Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis and Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis than to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Allosaurus fragilis or Passer domesticus. This is equivalent to Megalosauridae in some phylogenies where it is valid, and doesn't include Megalosaurus in other phylogenies (e.g. Holtz, 2000). A month later, Carrano et al. (2012) used this name for the megalosaurid+spinosaurid node. While they did not define it, (Megalosaurus bucklandii + Spinosaurus aegyptiacus) would be the obvious definition. As this is a more useful clade and always includes its eponymous genus, Carrano et al.'s definition is used here.
References- Bonaparte, 1850. Conspectus Systematum Herpetologiae et Amphibiologiae. Editio Altera Reformata [Survey of the systems of reptiles and amphibians. Second revised edition]. E. J. Brill, Leyden. [pp unknown]
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.

Streptospondylidae Kurzanov, 1989
Streptospondylus Meyer, 1832
= "Streptospondylus" Meyer, 1830
S. altdorfensis Meyer, 1832
= Streptospondylus rostromajor Owen, 1842
= Laelaps gallicus Cope, 1867
= Poekilopleuron gallicum (Cope, 1867; as Poecilopleurum gallicum) Cope, 1869
= Dryptosaurus gallicus (Cope, 1867) Olshevsky, 1991
Late Callovian-Early Oxfordian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Vaches Noires Cliffs, Calvados, France

Lectotype- (MNHN 8605) (subadult) distal pubis
....(MNHN 8606) distal fibula
....(MNHN 8607) distal tibia (140 mm wide)
....(MNHN 8608) astragalus (114 mm wide)
....(MNHN 8609) calcaneum
....(MNHN 8787) tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal vertebra (76 mm), second dorsal vertebra (64 mm), proximal dorsal rib
....(MNHN 8788) posterior part of fifth sacral vertebra, first caudal vertebra
....(MNHN 8789) fifth or sixth dorsal vertebra (74 mm)
....(MNHN 8789) posterior dorsal vertebra (97 mm)
....(MNHN 8793) fourth or fifth dorsal vertebra (72 mm)
....(MNHN 8794) postzygopophysis of twelfth dorsal vertebra, posterior half of thirteenth dorsal vertebra, first sacral vertebra (98 mm), anterior part of second sacral vertebra
....(MNHN 8907) three posterior dorsal vertebrae (90, 95 mm)
Referred- ?...(MNHN 9645) distal femur (Gaudry, 1890)
Diagnosis- (from Allain, 2001) two hypapophyses on anterior dorsal vertebrae; anterior dorsal centra strongly opisthocoelous and strongly flattened; posterior dorsal vertebrae platycoelous; elongate mid and posterior dorsal centra; lateral extension of the medial buttress above the dorsomedial edge of the ascending process of the astragalus doesn’t reach the median part of the distal end of the tibia; large depression at the base of the ascending process of the astragalus; lack of posteromedial process on the astragalus.
Comments- Allain (2001) states "the theropod vertebrae are designed here as a lectotype of this taxon" but then lists all material except the femur as the lectotype, making it uncertain exactly what the lectotype is.
This taxon was recently suggested to be the sister taxon of Eustreptospondylus (Allain, 2001; Smith et al., 2007) based on the presence of carotid processes in their anterior dorsal vertebrae. Benson (2008, 2010) found it to be a member of either Megalosauroidea or Carnosauria, until further data (Benson et al., 2010) placed it in Sinraptoridae sister to Lourinhanosaurus. Their most recent study (Carrano et al., 2012) instead has it a megalosaurian outside Spinosauridae, and Megalosaurinae+Afrovenatorinae (or when properly ordered, Megalosaurinae OR Afrovenatorinae). It only takes 2 more streps to make Streptospondylus an afrovenatorine (though in that case Streptospondylinae has priority for the subfamily name).
References- Meyer, 1830. uber fossile Saurier. Isis. 1830, 517-519.
Meyer, 1832. Paleologica zur Geschichte der Erde und ihrer Gashopfe. Frankfurt am Main. 560 pp.
Owen, 1842. Report on British fossil reptiles. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 11, 60-204.
Cope, 1867. Account of extinct reptiles which approach birds. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1867, 234-235.
Cope, 1869. Synopsis of the Extinct Batrachia and Reptilia of North America. Part 1. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series. 14, 252 pp.
Gaudry, 1890. Les Enchaînements du monde animal dans les temps géologiques. Fossiles secondaires. Savy, Paris. 322 pp.
Olshevsky, 1991. A revision of the parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, excluding the advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings. 2, 196 pp.
Allain, 2001. Redescription of Streptospondylus altdorfensis, Cuvier’s theropod dinosaur, from the Jurassic of Normandy. Geodiversitas. 23(3), 349-367.
Allain, 2002. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. 329 pp.
Smith, Makovicky, Hammer and Currie, 2007. Osteology of Cryolophosaurus ellioti (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Jurassic of Antarctica and implications for early theropod evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 151, 377-421.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focussing on basal tetanurans, and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Benson, Brusatte and Carrano, 2010. A new clade of large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic. Naturwissenschaften. 97, 71-78.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed megalosaurian (Janensch, 1925)
Late Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Material- (MB R 1926) astragalus (212 mm wide), calcanear fragment
....(MB R 3627; = MW 1) incomplete fibula
Comments- MB R 3627 was originally a syntype of Ceratosaurus roechlingi (Janensch, 1925), though he did not mention the probably associated tarsus. Not only are they too large for the roechlingi type, Rauhut (2011) assigned them to Megalosauroidea based on the basal tetanurine grade astragalus and absent proximomedial fibular fossa. The latter has since been optimized as a megalosaurian character. Other tetanurine material from Tendaguru (e.g. ilium MB R 3628) may belong to the same taxon.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

unnamed possible megalosaurian (El-Zouki, 1980)
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Cabao Formation, Libya

Material- posterior dorsal centrum (El-Zouki, 1980)
Comments- El-Zouki (1980) referred a vertebra to ?Spinosaurus as a caudal, but Le Loeuff et al. (2010) note the figure does not allow precise identification. Carrano et al. (2012) reinterpret it as a posterior dorsal centrum, noting the proportions match baryonychines and the ventral surface being only slightly narrower than the centrum is like Megalosaurus and Cristatusaurus. They refer it to Megalosauria.
References- El-Zouki, 1980. Stratigraphy and lithofacies of the continental clastics (Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous) of Jabal Nafusah, NW Libya. In Salem and Busrewil (eds.). The Geology of Libya, Vol. II. London: Academic Press. 393-418.
Le Loeuff, Métais, Dutheil, Rubinos, Buffetaut, Ois Lafont, Cavin, Moreau, Tong, Blanpied and Sbeta, 2010. An Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from the Cabao Formation of NW Libya. Geological Magazine. 147(5), 750-759.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Megalosauridae Huxley, 1869
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus) (Holtz et al., 2004)
Other definitions- (Torvosaurus tanneri + Afrovenator abakensis + Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis) (modified from Allain, 2002)
(Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Sinraptor dongi, Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (Benson, 2010)
= Eustreptospondylidae Paul, 1988
= Torvosauridae Jensen, 1985 sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Torvosaurus tanneri <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus) (modified)
= Megalosauridae sensu Benson, 2010
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Sinraptor dongi, Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus)
= Megalosauria sensu Allain et al., 2012
Definition- (Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis, Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
= Torvosauridae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Torvosaurus tanneri <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
Comments- Traditionally a large paraphyletic family containing most basal tetanurines and carnosaurs, Megalosauridae has been limited since the late 1980's to include far fewer taxa.
References- Jensen, 1985. Uncompahgre dinosaur fauna: A preliminary report. Great Basin Naturalist. 45, 710-720.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013

Streptospondylus? cuvieri Owen, 1842
= Megalosaurus cuvieri (Owen, 1842) Huene, 1908
Early Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Inferior Oolite Formation, England

Holotype- (Kingdon coll.; lost) tooth, partial anterior dorsal vertebra (~114 mm), partial dorsal neural spine, broad flat bone, long bone fragments
Comments- Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis was referred to Streptospondylus cuvieri before it was named. This taxon is not necessary the same as Streptospondylus altdorfensis, which lived later in France. Owen (1842) also referred an anterior dorsal from the Toarcian Jet Rock Formation (Ripley coll.), but this is indeterminate past Tetanurae.
The convex anterior articular surface suggests a tetanurine, while the camerate interior excludes it from Carcharodontosauridae and Megaraptora. The absence of a ventral keel is unlike Piatnitzkysaurus+Condorraptor, megalosaurines+afrovenatorines, spinosaurids and metriacanthosaurines. The large pleurocoel (49% of anterior articular surface height) is like Streptospondylus and megalosaurids, so it is tentatively referred to that clade here. It thus may actually belong to Streptospondylus.
References- Owen, 1842. Report on British fossil reptiles. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 11, 60-204.
Huene, 1908. Die Dinosaurier der Europäischen Triasformation mit berücksichtigung der Ausseuropäischen vorkommnisse [The dinosaurs of the European Triassic formations with consideration of occurrences outside Europe]. Geologische und Palaeontologische Abhandlungen. Suppl. 1(1), 1-419.

unpublished megalosaurid (Siegwarth et al., unpublished)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Material- (TATE coll.) ilium
Comments- This was found by "Brontoraptor" but smaller and different in morphology.
Reference- Siegwarth, Lindbeck, Redman, Southwell and Bakker, unpublished. Megalosaurid dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of Eastern Wyoming. 27 pp.

Eustreptospondylinae Paul, 1988
Definition- (Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis <- Megalosaurus bucklandii) (Holtz et al., 2004)
Other definitions- (Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis <- Torvosaurus tanneri, Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Allosaurus fragilis) (Sereno, in press)
Comments- Holtz et al.'s (2004) definition only includes Megalosaurus bucklandii as an external specifier, and I agree with Sereno (in press) that additional ones are useful in case eustreptospondylines are closer to allosaurids than to Megalosaurus (Paul, 1988; Kurzanov, 1989; Molnar et al., 1990; Holtz, 2000). This is especially true considering Megalosaurus' uncertain placement among theropods.

Eustreptospondylus Walker, 1964
E. oxoniensis Walker, 1964
= Magnosaurus oxoniensis (Walker, 1964) Rauhut, 2003
Late Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Middle Oxford Clay Formation, England

Holotype- (OUM J13558) (4.63 m, 218 kg; subadult) (partial skull ~483 mm) premaxillae, incomplete maxillae, lacrimal, postorbitals, squamosal, quadrate, frontals, parietal, partial braincase, dentaries, teeth (lost), axis, third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical centrum, sixth cervical centrum, seventh cervical centrum, eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal centrum, third dorsal centrum, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal centrum, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal centrum, first sacral vertebra, third sacral vertebra, fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral centrum, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra, third caudal centrum, fourth caudal vertebra, partial fifth caudal centrum, seventh caudal centrum, eighth caudal vertebra, tenth caudal centrum, twelfth caudal centrum, thirteenth caudal centrum, sixteenth caudal vertebra, twenty-first caudal vertebra, scapula (299 mm), humerus (231 mm), ilium (365 mm), pubes (451 mm), ischia (358 mm), femora (498 mm), tibiae (479 mm), fibulae (467 mm), astragali (86 mm wide), calcaneum (lost), metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (64 mm), phalanx II-2, metatarsal III (232 mm), phalanx III-1 (80, 85mm), phalanx III-2 (65, 63mm), phalanx III-3 (54 mm), pedal ungual III (54 mm), metatarsal IV (207 mm), phalanx IV-1 (76 mm), phalanx IV-2 (53 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) differs from Magnosaurus in the proximal extent of the pubic symphysis.
(after Sadlier et al., 2008) shallow lacrimal fenestra that incorporates a second smaller foramen; fossa on posterolateral surface of ventral postorbital process; squamosal with a hypertrophied ventral flange that overhangs the laterotemporal fenestra in lateral view, partially obscuring its posterodorsal corner; ventral keels absent on presacral vertebrae; marked depression on anterior part of ventral surface of tenth cervical vertebra.
differs from Magnosaurus in having interdental plates which are longer than tall; pubis with less transverse expansion at acetabular margin in proximal view; lateral margin of distal femur straight in posterior view; dorsoventrally extending ridge on lateral surface of cnemial crest absent.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) pubic peduncle of ilium as broad anteroposteriorly as mediolaterally; lateral wall of iliac brevis fossa nearly horizontal, exposing medial wall of fossa along entire length in lateral view.
Comments- This specimen was originally described by Phillips (1871) as combining Streptospondylus and Megalosaurus attributes, but left unnamed. Nopcsa (1905, 1906) referred the specimen to Streptospondylus cuvieri in his description, while Huene referred the specimen to either Streptospondylus cuvieri (1907-08, 1923, 1926) or Megalosaurus cuvieri (1926, 1932). Walker (1964) erected the new genus Eustreptospondylus for the specimen, as it not referrable to Megalosaurus or Streptospondylus. Streptospondylus? cuvieri is now restricted to the lost holotype partial dorsal vertebra, which is an indeterminate theropod.
The jugal mentioned by Huene (1926) is probably the squamosal. The supposed parts of the coronoid and angular figured by Nopcsa (1906) are probably parts of the dentaries. Huene's (1926) fourteenth dorsal vertebra does not exist and his account of 29 preserved caudal vertebrae is in error as well. Phillips (1871) and Huene (1926) describe and illustrate a distal metacarpal and manual phalanx, which are either lost or misidentified pedal elements.
Though found as a basal megalosaurid by Carrano et al. (2012), only three more steps are needed to place it in Afrovenatorinae (which would then be called Eustreptospondylinae) as in Allain (2002), so either possibility is likely. Five more steps are needed to place Eustreptospondylus closer to spinosaurids than Afrovenator as in Sereno et al. (1994) and 7 more steps are needed to place it closer to spinosaurids than Torvosaurus or Afrovenator are, as in Smith et al. (2007). These possibilities are possible though less likely.
References- Phillips, 1871. Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames. 529 pp.
Nopcsa, 1905. Notes on British dinosaurs. Part III: Streptospondylus. Geological Magazine. 5, 289-293.
Nopcsa, 1906. Zur kenntnis des Genus Streptospondylus [On the knowledge of the genus Streptospondylus]. Beiträge zur Paläontologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orients. 19, 59-83.
Huene, 1908. Die Dinosaurier der Europäischen Triasformation mit berücksichtigung der Ausseuropäischen vorkommnisse [The dinosaurs of the European Triassic formations with consideration of occurrences outside Europe]. Geologische und Palaeontologische Abhandlungen Suppl. 1(1), 1-419.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 1-167.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 248, 53-134.
Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Dutheil and Sues, 1994. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Sahara. Science. 266, 267-271.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. 329 pp.
Rauhut, 2003. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69, 1-213.
Smith, Makovicky, Hammer and Currie, 2007. Osteology of Cryolophosaurus ellioti (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Jurassic of Antarctica and implications for early theropod evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 151, 377-421.
Sadlier, Barrett and Powell, 2008. The anatomy and systematics of Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis, a theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic from Oxfordshire, England. Monograph of the Palaeontological Society. 1-82.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013

= Megalosaurinae sensu Holtz et al., 2004
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis)

= Megalosauridae sensu Allain, 2002
Definition- (Torvosaurus tanneri + Afrovenator abakensis + Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis) (modified)

Megalosaurinae Huxley, 1869 sensu Nopcsa, 1928
Definition- (Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Afrovenator abakensis) (modified from Carrano et al., 2012)
Other definitions- (Poekilopleuron bucklandii <- Torvosaurus tanneri) (modified from Allain, 2002)
(Megalosaurus bucklandii <- Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis) (Holtz et al., 2004)
= Torvosaurinae Jensen, 1985 vide Allain, 2002
Definition- (Torvosaurus tanneri <- Poekilopleuron bucklandii, Afrovenator abakensis) (modified from Allain, 2002)

Duriavenator Benson, 2008a
= "Walkersaurus" Welles and Powell, 1995 vide Welles, Powell and Pickering, 1994
D. hesperis (Waldman, 1974) Benson, 2008a
= Megalosaurus hesperis Waldman, 1974
= "Walkersaurus" hesperis (Waldman, 1974) Welles and Powell, 1995 vide Welles, Powell and Pickering, 1994
Late Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Upper Inferior Oolite, England

Holotype- (BMNH R332) (~5 m) partial premaxillae, maxilla, vomer, partial dentaries, partial surangular, teeth, fragments
Diagnosis- (after Benson, 2008a) deep groove on dorsal surface of jugal process containing numerous pneumatic foramina; array of small foramina in ventral part of articular surface for premaxilla.
Comments- This specimen was originally described by Owen (1883) and referred to Megalosaurus bucklandi. Walker (1964) noted it was probably a distinct species, due to tooth count and a supposed lateral groove between the premaxilla and maxilla. Waldman (1974) officially named the species Megalosaurus hesperis. The taxon was studied by Welles and Powell in the 1970's as part of their redescription of European theropods, where they intended to rename it Walkersaurus hesperis. This was not made publically available until Pickering revised it and sent it to a few colleagues in 1994, though due to its low circulation most paleontologists only learned about the name in 1999 from his 1995 description of Dilophosaurus "breedorum" (often cited as being from 1999) and his bibliographic work "Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry". Both of these papers face similar problems to the 1994 work in that they do not conform to IZCN Article 8.1.3- it must have been produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures numerous identical and durable copies. Thus "Walkersaurus" is a nomen nudum, though Pickering does plan to include it in his book "Mutanda Dinosaurologica". Holtz (2000) found the species to have several possible positions as a tetanurine less derived than Afrovenator + Avetheropoda in his cladistic analysis. Most recently, Benson (2008a) has redescribed the material and placed it in a new genus- Duriavenator. Benson (2008b, 2010) found Duriavenator to emerge as a megalosaurid in his phylogenetic analysis. Carreano et al. (2012) further found it to be a megalosaurine, but as only one more step is necessary to make it an afrovenatorine, this is highly uncertain.
References- Owen, 1883. On the skull of Megalosaurus. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 39, 334-347.
Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 248, 53-134.
Waldman, 1974. Megalosaurids from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of Dorset. Palaeontology. 17, 325-339.
Welles, Powell and Pickering, 1994. An extract from: Archosauromorpha: Cladistics and osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 10 pp.
Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Welles and Pickering, 1995. An extract from: Archosauromorpha: Cladistics and osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 70 pp.
Holtz, 2000. A new phylogeny of the carnivorous dinosaurs. Gaia. 15, 5-61.
Benson, 2008a. A redescription of 'Megalosaurus' hesperis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Inferior Oolite (Bajocian, Middle Jurassic) of Dorset, United Kingdom. Zootaxa. 1931, 57-67.
Benson, 2008b. A new theropod phylogeny focusing on basal tetanurans and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013
Pickering, in prep. Mutanda Dinosaurologica.

Megalosaurus Buckland, 1824
= "Megalosaurus" Parkinson, 1822
M. bucklandii Mantell, 1827
= Megalosaurus "conybeari" Ritgen, 1826
= Megalosaurus bucklandi Meyer, 1832
= Metriacanthosaurus "brevis" Welles, Powell and Pickering vide Pickering 1995
Middle Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Taynton Limestone Formation (=Stonesfield Slate), England

Lectotype- (OUM J13505) anterior dentary, teeth
Paralectotypes- (OUM J13561) incomplete femur (860 mm)
(OUM J13563) incomplete pubis
(OUM J13565) incomplete ischium (610 mm)
(OUM J13572) distal metatarsal II
(OUM J13576) incomplete sacrum (113, 108, 99, 108, 113 mm)
(OUM J13577) incomplete posterior dorsal vertebra (114 mm)
(OUM J13579) incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (99 mm)
(OUM J13580) posterior dorsal rib
(OUM J13585) posterior cervical rib
(OUM J29881) ilium
(OUM coll.; lost) tooth
Referred- (BMNH 2016) fragmentary humerus (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH 2331) tooth (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH 25581) partial mid caudal centrum (Lydekker, 1888)
?(BMNH 25582) proximal ischium (Lydekker, 1888)
?(BMNH 28301) fragmentary ?pubis (Lydekker, 1888)
?(BMNH 28608) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 28957) two sacral vertebrae (Lydekker, 1888)
....(BMNH R1098) partial sacrum (Owen, 1857)
(BMNH 31804) incomplete femur (~825 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31805) tibia (Benson, 2010)
(BMNH 31806) femur (805 mm) (Owen, 1857)
(BMNH 31808) incomplete femur (~835 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31809) tibia (645 mm) (Owen, 1857)
(BMNH 31810) coracoid (150 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31811; intended holotype of Metriacanthosaurus "brevis") partial ilium (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31812) partial mid caudal vertebra (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH 31813) posterior dorsal vertebra (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31824) dorsal rib (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31825) dorsal rib (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 31828) jugal (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(BMNH 31834) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
?(BMNH 31932) pedal phalanx (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 33229) mid caudal vertebra (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH 36585) ulna (232 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 37303) dorsal rib (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 40127) tooth, tooth fragment, anterior tooth (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH 40128a; = 40125a in Lydekker, 1888?) metatarsal IV (Phillips, 1871)
(BMNH 40131) partial coracoid (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 41305) partial tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 42024) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 44097) dorsal rib (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 44097a) dorsal rib (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 47963) tooth, tooth tip(Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R234) two teeth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R283) partial ilium (Lydekker, 1888)
?(BMNH R285) cervical vertebra (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R700) partial sacrum (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R1099) incomplete scapulocoracoid (830 mm; scapula 705 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R1100) ilium (770 mm) (Owen, 1857)
(BMNH R1101) ilium (~832 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R1102) tibia (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R1103) distal tibia (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R12557) tibia (Benson, 2010)
(CAMSM Woodwardian collection D.11.35.c) partial scapula (Benson, 2009)
?(Duke of Marlborough coll.) partial dentary (lost) (Owen, 1857)
(GSM 57809) metatarsal II (Benson, 2009)
(GSM 113081) tooth (Benson, 2009)
(MNHN 9630) incomplete femur (~745 mm) (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J13506) maxilla (451 mm) (Huxley, 1869)
(OUM J13559) incomplete maxilla (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J13560) ilium (~765 mm) (Walker, 1964)
(OUM J13562) tibia (660 mm) (Galton and Molnar, 2005)
(OUM J13567) incomplete pubis (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J13568) incomplete tibia (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J13569) metatarsal III (335 mm) (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J13573) distal metatarsal II (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J13574) scapulocoracoid (845 mm; scapula 704 mm) (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J13575) humerus (388 mm) (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J13578) proximal caudal vertebra (108 mm) (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J13582) mid dorsal rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J13583) mid dorsal rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J13584) dorsal rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29751) rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29752) rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29753a) proximal femur (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J29754) proximal femur (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29758) distal tibia (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29761) incomplete humerus (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J29762) tooth (Benson, 2009)
?(OUM 29764) long bone shaft (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29766) sacral fragment (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29767) sacral fragment (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29768) proximal caudal centrum (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J29777) basal tooth (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29779) pedal ungual (102 mm) (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J29792) dorsal rib (Benson et al., 2008)
(OUM J29802) incomplete femur (~675 mm) (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J29803) incomplete femur (~720 mm) (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J29809) tooth (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29810) apical tooth (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29813) posterior mandible (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29863) tooth (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29864) tooth fragment (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29869) distal humerus (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29872) ischial shaft (Phillips, 1871)
(OUM J29873) proximal ischium (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29874) scapula (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29875) tibia (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29879) incomplete scapula (765 mm) (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J29880) femoral fragment (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29882) ilium (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29883) partial ilium (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29884) partial ilium (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29885) partial ilium (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29888) partial scapulocoracoid (795 mm) (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J29889) partial scapulocoracoid (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(OUM J29890) scapula (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29891) scapulocoracoid (Benson, 2009)
(OUM J29892) rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29893) dorsal rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J29895) rib (Benson, 2010)
(OUM J48171) tooth (Benson, 2009)
(OUM coll.) chevron (169 mm) (Huene, 1926)
Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Great Oolite Group, England

(BMNH R413) metatarsal III (Lydekker, 1888)
Early Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Chipping Norton Limestone Formation, England

(BMNH R8303) incomplete maxilla (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
(BMNH R8304) partial dentary (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
(BMNH R8305) partial dentary (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH R9665) metatarsal III (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
(BMNH R9666) proximal metatarsal IV (Benson, 2009)
(BMNH R9668) proximal ischium (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
(BMNH R9669) dorsal rib (Benson, 2010)
(BMNH R9672) incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (124 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
(BMNH R9673) proximal caudal vertebra (118 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
(BMNH R9674) partial anterior cervical vertebra (Benson, 2010)
(BMNH R9675) incomplete mid caudal vertebra (Reynolds, 1939)
(BMNH R9676) mid caudal vertebra (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
(BMNH R9677) incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
(BMNH R9678) partial anterior dorsal vertebra (Benson, 2010)
?(BMNH R9679) sacrum (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(BMNH R9680) sacrum (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(BMNH coll.) ribs, bone fragments (Benson, 2010)
(SDM 44.1) partial maxilla (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.4) partial sacrum (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.3) tooth (Benson, 2009)
(SDM 44.5) incomplete mid caudal vertebra (82.5 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.6) posterior dorsal centrum (119.5 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.7) proximal caudal vertebra (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(SDM 44.10) dorsal vertebra (131 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.13) dorsal rib (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.14) coracoid (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.15) coracoid (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.18) incomplete humerus (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.20) incomplete ischium (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.21) distal ischium (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.23) femur (785 mm) (Day and Barrett, 2004)
(SDM 44.24) femur (800 mm) (Reynolds, 1939)
(SDM 44.25) distal metatarsal IV (Reynolds, 1939)
Early-Middle Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Sharp's Hill Formation, England

(OUM J.29800) incomplete scapula (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
Jurassic?
England

?(Royal College of Surgeons coll.) tooth, tooth fragments, femur, partial femur, tibia, phalanx, bone fragment (Owen, 1954)
?(GPIT 18392?) proximal femur, fibula (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(GSM 3887) sacrum (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(OUM J12142) partial mandible, teeth (Delair, 1975)
?(OUM J13598) tooth (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
?(OUM J13882) tooth (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
?(OUM J29765) proximal scapula (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
?(OUM J29773) tooth (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
?(OUM J29797) partial pubis (Reid, 1985)
?(Phillips coll.) pedal ungual (lost) (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(RCS 72) femur (lost) (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(RCS 73) partial femur (lost) (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
?(RCS 74) distal tibia (lost) (Welles and Pickering, 1999)
? posterior cervical centrum (60 mm) (Phillips, 1871)
Diagnosis- (after Walker, 1964) dorsally directed flange around midheight on the scapular blade.
(after Benson, 2009) lateral dentary groove broad (also in Torvosaurus); ventral surface of second sacral centrum bearing longitudinal, angular ridge (also in "Brontoraptor"); an array of posterodorsally inclined grooves on the lateral surface of the median iliac ridge (also in "Metriacanthosaurus" "reynoldsi"); anteroposteriorly thick ischial apron with an almost flat medial surface; a prominent, rugose distal ischial tubercle; and complementary groove and ridge structures on the articular surfaces between metatarsals II and III.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) dorsally directed flange at mid-height of scapular blade.
Other diagnoses- Benson et al. (2008) stated the longitudinal groove in the ventral part of the lateral surface of the dentary was an autapomorphy, but Benson (2010) found this to be due to damage. He also cited the slit-like foramen anterior to the termination of the Meckelian groove, but in 2010 reported this was prone to individual variation in Allosaurus fragilis. The presence of 13-14 dentary teeth (which is estimated from the 11 preserved in the lectotype) is also true in other megalosaurids- ~14(11+) in Magnosaurus, 13 in Dubreuillosaurus and Eustreptospondylus, and ~14-15(13+) in Duriavenator.
Benson (2009, 2010) reported a unique combination of dentary characters to distinguish the lectotype, but most of these are plesiomorphic. The lack of an enlarged third dentary alveolus is also found in Monolophosaurus and most non-megalosauroids. The dentary is straight in dorsal view in all megalosaurids and is not more transversely expanded anteriorly in Duriavenator, Eustreptospondylus or Dubreuillosaurus. Duriavenator and Magnosaurus also have tall dentary interdental plates. Those of all megalosaurids are unfused. All megalosaurids also have two Meckelian foramina and shallow Meckelian grooves. Benson also proposed postcranial autapomorphies. The sacral centra 1-3 and 5 of most non-maniraptoriform theropods are evenly rounded.
Comments- The lectotype dentary was collected in 1797. Parkinson (1822) used the name "Megalosaurus", but without description or indication of type material, making it a nomen nudum. The same can be said of Ritgen's (1826) species Megalosaurus "conybeari". Molnar et al. (1990) incorrectly attributed the species M. bucklandii to Ritgen, 1826. Meyer (1832) used the spelling bucklandi for the species, and has been followed by numerous authors, but this is incorrect. Molnar et al. designated OUM J13505 as the lectotype, making the additional elements described by Buckland (1824) paralectotypes.
Buckland (1824) described the paralectotype pubis as a fibula, and ischium as a clavicle (Phillips, 1871). Owen (1857) followed the ischial identification, described an Iguanodon ischium as the scapula, and the ilia as coracoids. Owen incorrectly stated the partial sacrum BMNH R1098 is from the Wealden. Philips also reports Cuvier believed the metatarsal to be a humerus. He also described two elements as a scapula and ischium (= sacral rib?), but these are lost and may not belong to theropods (Benson, 2010). Phillips believed the proximal caudal vertebra was a posterior dorsal vertebra. The ulna (OUM J36585) was misidentified as a sacral rib by Lydekker (1888). Huene (1926) incorrectly listed two mandibles as being preserved in the type material, and listed the Kimmeridge Clay metatarsus (OUM J13586) and tibia (OUM J29886) as being from the Stonesfield Slate. The partial maxilla SDM 441. was misidentified by Reynolds (1939) as a dentary. While Welles and Pickering (1999) listed GPIT 18392 as a partial Megalosaurus hindlimb, this number has been associated in the literature with a Sellosaurus specimen. Benson et al. (2008) incorrectly stated rib OUM J29792 was part of the paralectotype.
Not Megalosaurus bucklandii- Owen (1857) figured several teeth as M. bucklandi (BMNH 2828, 2332, 3222-3225), but these are from Cretaceous deposits and are probably indeterminate theropods. A large unfused scapulocoracoid mentioned by Phillips (1871) as being from a different species of megalosaur is possibly OMNH J29887, a proximal scapula which Day and Barrett (2004) and Benson (2009) reidentified as a sauropod. Phillips (1871) illustrated a metatarsus (OUM J13586) as Megalosaurus that was later illustrated by Huene (1926) with an associated tibia (OUM J29886) as M. bucklandii. Welles and Powell recognized these limb bones were distinct in the 1970's, and the nomen nudum Megalosaurus phillipsi was later assigned to the taxon by Pickering (1995). It is here suggested to be more closely related to Torvosaurus and described in its own entry. Owen (1883) described a partial skull as Megalosaurus bucklandi, but this was later named Megalosaurus hesperis by Waldman (1974) and placed it its own genus (Duriavenator) by Benson (2008). Lydekker (1888) referred several specimens to M. bucklandi- an incomplete sacrum (museum of the Geological Society collection) from the Coral Rag; two teeth (BMNH 47152, R497) from the Inferior Oolite; a tooth (BMNH 28608) from the Cotswold Slates; a dorsal centrum (BMNH 47169) from the Cornbrash Formation; a tooth (BMNH 39476) from the Forest Marble Formation; a dorsal vertebra (BMNH 42028) from the Potton Sands; and a proximal tibia (BMNH 32725) from the Vaches Noires Cliffs. These are all indeterminate theropods. He also claimed Owen (1857) referred the Cretaceous theropod manual ungual BMNH R1105 and distal pedal ungual BMNH R2482 to M. bucklandi, but Owen's plate caption merely says "Megalosaurus (?)". Huene (1906) described a partial braincase from the Taynton Limestone as Megalosaurus bucklandi, but this was reidentified as Cetiosaurus by Woodward (1910), a conclusion confirmed by Galton and Knoll (2006). Reynolds (1939) referred numerous specimens to Megalosaurus, of which ilium SDM 44.19 is a different taxon referred to as Metriacanthosaurus "reynoldsi" by Pickering (1995), while scapulae SDM 44.16 and 44.17, a tooth from Oakham Quarry and humerus SDM 44.22 are less diagnostic.
Megalosaurus morphotypes A and B- The disarticulated nature of Megalosaurus remains and lack of proper description until recently have led to suggestions that more than one taxon could be represented, and that only the lectotype dentary should be referred to the genus (e.g. Rauhut, 2000; Allain and Chure, 2002; Benson et al., 2008). Welles and Powell were among the first to suggest this, based on parts of their 1970's manuscript that have been subsequently released by Pickering (Welles and Pickering, 1999). They separated Chipping Norton remains as Metriacanthosaurus reynoldsi and some Taynton Limestone remains as Metriacanthosaurus brevis. These issues are discussed below. Allain and Chure (2002) noted the femur BMNH 31806 differs from the paralectotype OUM J13561 in being straight with a medially directed head. This was expanded on by Day and Barrett (2004), who grouped Megalosaurus femora in two morphotypes. Morphotype A included BMNH 31804 and 31806, MHHN 9630, OUM J29753a and J29802, and SDM 44.24. They are also distinguished by a distomedially oriented buttress supporting the anterior trochanter, a narrow ridge connecting the anterior trochanter to the femoral head, a shallow extensor groove, and subequally sized distal condyles. Morphotype B femora included BMNH 31808, OUM J13561 and J29803, and SDM 44.23. Benson (2009) reviewed these supposed differences. He found the femoral head is always anteromedially oriented, though the more anterior angle in morphotype B femora (~40 degrees) is due to damage and deformation, seen in morphotype A femur BMNH 31804 as well. The difference in curvature is attributed to distortion of originally straight shafts, with similar variation seen in Cleveland-Lloyd Allosaurus. The distomedial buttress is identified as the anterior intermuscular line and is found to not correspond to femoral types, with morphotype A femur BMNH 31806 lacking it and morphotype B femora BMNH 31808 and OUM J13561 having them. Individual variation is also noted for this feature in Dry Mesa Ceratosaurus. The ridge connecting the anterior trochanter and femoral head is present in all well preserved specimens, including morphotype B femur SDM 44.23. The extensor groove is present in all specimens as well, though shallower in OUM J13561 due to erosion of the anterior condyles. Finally, the distal condyles have similar proportions in most specimens, with a broader lateral condyle but longer medial condyle, with the exception of OUM J29803. The latter specimen is highly crushed transversely, explaining the difference. Benson concluded only one taxon was represented by the femora and most other Taynton Limestone and New Park Quarry cranial and postcranial material, which led to him referring all of it to M. bucklandii in his later (2010) osteology of the taxon.
A Stonesfield Slate sinraptorid? Bakker et al. (1992) thought maxilla OUM J13506 was from a sinraptorid due to its short anterior ramus, while Naish and Martill (2007) noted this was primitive and suggested it could be an abelisauroid instead. Note this would be consistant with Welles and Pickering' idea of Metriacanthosaurus "brevis" being in that formation, though they refer the maxilla to Megalosaurus. Benson (2007) noted it differed from sinraptorids in having a maxillary fossa instead of fenestra, and from ceratosaurs in having unfused interdental plates, but resembled other jaw elements of Megalosaurus.
Metriacanthosaurus brevis- Owen (1857) originally described Megalosaurus ilia as coracoids, noting three specimens were in the BMNH and figuring one. Lydekker (1888) recognized these as ilia and incorrectly listed the one illustrated by Owen as BMNH 31811, though Pickering (DML, 2002) notes it is actually BMNH R1100. BMNH 31811 remained as a specimen of Megalosaurus bucklandii until Pickering credited the name Metriacanthosaurus brevis to English theropod material in his 1995 unpublished bibliographic manuscript. It was later used in the comparative section of another unpublished manuscript (Welles and Pickering, 1999). This paper was largely extracted from the European megalosaur manuscript Welles and Powell worked on in the 1970s but never published, specifically the Megalosaurus redescription section. Pickering intends to publish an updated version of the megalosaur manuscript as Mutanda Dinosaurologica, and has posted small excerpts including the diagnosis of Metriacanthosaurus "brevis" online (DML, 2002). In any case, the name is a nomen nudum as Pickering didn't follow ICZN Article 8.1.3- it must have been produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures numerous identical and durable copies. Pickering says of M. "brevis" and Metriacanthosaurus parkeri, "their great height and shortness -- diagnostic for Metriacanthosaurus -- separates them from ilia of Megalosaurus bucklandii and Allosaurus." Additionally, Allain and Chure (2002) stated BMNH 31811 and R1100 (misidentified as OUM J13560) are "quite different from one another in shape in proportions." However, Day and Barrett (2004) found the shortness was an illusion caused by a broken postacetabular process and a plaster reconstructed preacetabular process. Benson (2009) agreed and also found it shared an autapomorphy with other M. bucklandii ilia- a series of posterodorsally oriented ridges that give the posterior part of the median ridge an undulating texture. Indeed, the characters Pickering lists as distinguishing M. "brevis" from M. parkeri are largely also those that distinguish M. bucklandii from M. parkeri (nearly straight upper margin; taller preacetabular process), or don't distinguish M. "brevis" from M. bucklandii (narrower notch between preacetabular process and pubic peduncle; longer, lower acetabulum; 250 mm long). So I see no reason to support M. "brevis" and synonymize it with M. bucklandii. Pickering also referred several other specimens to M. "brevis". OUM J29888 is a pectoral girdle which Day and Barrett and Benson couldn't distinguish from M. bucklandii. BMNH 31806 is a femur which Allain and Chure stated differs from the paralectotype in being straight with a medially directed head. Day and Barrett (2004) used this as the basis for their morphotype A femora, but Benson (2009) found the head orientation to be individual variation and the curvature of type B femora to be taphonomic. Additional differences between morphotype A and B femora were also found to be preservational or individual variation (see below), and Benson (2009, 2010) referred both types to M. bucklandii. Ironically, M. parkeri's femur has a sigmoid shaft, though it does have a medially directed head. BMNH 31809 and OUM J13562 are tibiae which Benson (2009, 2010) referred to M. bucklandii and which share a bulbous fibular crest with that taxon. BMNH 31809 differs from M. parkeri in having a smaller cnemial crest which is not as laterally angled and a smaller and more laterally placed fibular crest. Thus all supposed Metriacanthosaurus "brevis" material is referrable to Megalosaurus bucklandii and does not bear particular resemblence to Metriacanthosaurus itself. Coincidentally, BMNH 31806 and 31809 are the femur and tibia illustrated as examples of those elements in Benson's (2010) redescription of M. bucklandii, though the other tibia and the pectoral girdle remain unillustrated.
Chipping Norton remains- Lydekker (1888) referred a metatarsal III (BMNH R413) from the Chipping Norton Formation to Megalosaurus bucklandi. Gardiner (1937, 1938) and Reynolds (1938) reported large theropod remains from two quarries in the Chipping Norton Limestone Formation, which Reynolds (1939) described and referred to Megalosaurus. Reynolds misidentified maxilla SDM 44.1 as a dentary, dorsal centrum SDM 44.6 as a caudal. Pickering (1995) credited the name Metriacanthosaurus reynoldsi to Welles, Powell and Pickering in his unpublished 1995 manuscript and later used it in the comparative section of Welles and Pickering, 1999. It is a nomen nudum in both though, as Pickering didn't follow ICZN Article 8.1.3- it must have been produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures numerous identical and durable copies. The 1999 paper shows his new taxon to be based on all the Chipping Norton theropod material from both quarries, as well as BMNH R413 and a few other elements. Day and Barrett (2004) believed both their femoral morphotypes A and B were present in the sample- SDM 44.23 as morphotype B and SDM 44.24 as morphotype A. Benson (2009, 2010) referred the New Park Quarry material to Megalosaurus bucklandii based on the close resemblence of maxilla SDM 44.1 to Taynton Limestone specimens and an M. bucklandii autapomorphy in sacrum SDM 44.4, while other elements were provisionally referred as there is no evidence of more than one taxon in the quarry. Additional New Park Quarry material referred by Welles and Pickering to "reynoldsi" but not mentioned by Benson is here provisionally referred to Megalosaurus- sacra BMNH R9679 and R9680 and dorsal SDM 44.10. Benson (2010) also referred two specimens from Oakham Quarry to M. bucklandii based on autapomorphies (ischium SDM 44.20 and metatarsal III BMNH R9665), but refrained from referring additional elements from this quarry as he notes some "can be referred to a second, unnamed taxon (R. B. J. Benson, unpubl. data)." This near certainly refers to "reynoldsi", whose intended holotype is an ilium from Oakham Quarry which resembles Eustreptospondylus and Yangchuanosaurus zigongensis most closely. Further study by Benson and/or Pickering may clarify the identity of the other Oakham Quarry elements.
References- Parkinson, 1822. Outlines of Oryctology. An introduction to the study of fossil organic remains, especially those found in the British Strata. London. 350pp.
Buckland, 1824. Notice on the Megalosaurus or great fossil lizard of Stonesfield. Transactions of the Geological Society of London. 21, 390-397.
Ritgen, 1826. Versuchte Herstellung einiger Becken urweltlichter Thiere. Nova Acta Caesareaa Leopold.-Carol. Ger. Nat. Curiosorum. 13, 331-358.
Mantell, 1827. Illustrations of the geology of Sussex. London: Lupton Relfe. 92 pp.
Meyer, 1832. Palaeologica zur Geschichte der Erde. Frankfurt am Main: S. Schmerber. 560 pp.
Owen, 1854. Descriptive catalogue of the fossil organic remains of Reptilia and Pisces contained in the Museum of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. Taylor and Francis, London. 184 pp.
Owen, 1857. Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia of the Wealden Formations. Part III. Dinosauria (Megalosaurus). Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 34, 1-26.
Huxley, 1869. On the upper jaw of Megalosaurus. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 25, 311-314.
Huxley, 1870. Further evidence of the affinity between the dinosaurian reptiles and birds. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 26, 12-31.
Phillips, 1871. Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 523 pp.
Hulke, 1879. Note on Poikilopleuron bucklandi of Eudes Deslongchamps (père), identifying it with Megalosaurus bucklandi. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 35(1-4), 233-238.
Owen, 1883. On the skull of Megalosaurus. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 39, 334-347.
Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1906. Ueber das Hinterhaupt von Megalosaurus bucklandi aus Stonesfield. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. 1906, 1-12.
Woodward, 1910. On a skull of Megalosaurus from the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton (Gloucestershire). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 66, 111-15.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 1-167.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Gardiner, 1937. Reptile-bearing oolite, Stow. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Blackpool). 1936, 296.
Gardiner, 1938. Reptile-bearing oolite, Stow. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Nottingham). 1937, 290.
Reynolds, 1938. A collection of reptilian bones from the Oölite near Stow-in-the-Wold, Glos. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 1937, 356-357.
Reynolds, 1939. A collection of reptile bones from the Oolite near Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. Geological Magazine. 76, 193-214.
Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 248, 53-134.
Waldman, 1974. Megalosaurids from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of Dorset. Palaeontology. 17, 325-339.
Delair and Sarjeant, 1975. The earliest discoveries of dinosaurs. Isis. 66(231), 5-25.
Reid, 1985. On supposed Haversian bone from the hadrosaur Anatosaurus, and the nature of compact bone in dinosaurs. Journal of Paleontology. 59, 140-148.
Molnar, Kurzanov and Dong, 1990. Carnosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford. 169-209.
Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth and Filla, 1992. Edmarka rex, a new, gigantic theropod dinosaur from the middle Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic of the Como Bluff outcrop, with comments on the evolution of the chest region and shoulder in theropods and birds and a discussion of the five cycles of origin and extinction among giant dinosaurian predators. Hunteria. 2(9), 1-24.
Benton and Spencer, 1995. Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain. Geological Conservation Review Series, Chapman & Hall. 386 pp.
Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Rayfield, 1998. Finite element analysis of the snout of Megalosaurus bucklandi. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 71A.
Welles and Pickering, 1999. Megalosaurus bucklandii. Private publication of Stephen Pickering, An extract from Archosauromorpha: Cladistics & Osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 119 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. 329 pp.
Allain and Chure, 2002. Poekilopleuron bucklandii, the theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Normandy. Palaeontology. 45, 1107-1121.
Pickering, DML 2002. http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Mar/msg00553.html
Day and Barrett, 2004. Material referred to Megalosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, England: One taxon or two? Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 115, 359-366.
Galton and Molnar, 2005. Tibiae of small theropod dinosaurs from Southern England, from the Middle Jurassic of Stonesfield near Oxford and the Lower Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight. In Carpenter (ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. 3-22.
Galton and Knoll, 2006. A saurischian dinosaur braincase from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) near Oxford, England: From the theropod Megalosaurus or the sauropod Cetiosaurus? Geological Magazine. 143(6), 905-921.
Benson, 2008. A redescription of 'Megalosaurus' hesperis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Inferior Oolite (Bajocian, Middle Jurassic) of Dorset, United Kingdom. Zootaxa. 1931, 57-67.
Benson, Barrett, Powell and Norman, 2008. The taxonomic status of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Oxfordshire, UK. Paleontology. 51, 419-424.
Benson, 2009. An assessment of variability in theropod dinosaur remains from the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) of Stonesfield and New Park Quarry, UK and taxonomic implications for Megalosaurus bucklandii and Iliosuchus incognitus. Palaeontology. 52(4), 857-877.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013
Pickering, in prep. Mutanda Dinosaurologica.
M? sp. indet. (Owen, 1857)
Early Jurassic
Coral Rag of Dry Sandford, England

Material- (GSL coll.; cast as BMNH R1027) incomplete sacrum (first vertebra 127 mm) (Owen, 1857)
teeth (Huene, 1932)
Comments- Owen (1857) described the sacrum as Megalosaurus, and Lydekker (1888) referred it to M. bucklandi. This specimen is probably too early to be Megalosaurus, but should be checked for that genus' apomorphic keeled second centrum.
References- Owen, 1857. Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia of the Wealden Formations. Part III. Dinosauria (Megalosaurus). Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 34, 1-26.
Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
M? sp. indet. (Owen, 1857)
Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Inferior Oolite, England

Material- (BMNH 47152) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R497) partial tooth (Owen, 1857)
Comments- Owen (1857) illustrates BMNH R497 as Megalosaurus, while Lydekker (1888) refers it and 47152 to M. bucklandi. Huene (1932) thought these might belong to Magnosaurus instead of Megalosaurus. These specimens cannot be referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii because the teeth of that taxon lack described apomorphies.
References- Owen, 1857. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck Formations. Part III. Dinosauria (Megalosaurus). [Wealden]. The Palaeontographical Society, London. 1855, 1-26.
Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
M? sp. indet. (Lydekker, 1888)
Middle Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Cotswold Slates, England

Material- (BMNH 28608) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R2635) tooth (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
(GLCRM T.70-1, G.72-3, T.74-6) ribs, limb elements (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
Comments- These specimens cannot be referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii because the teeth of that taxon lack described apomorphies and the Cotsweld postcrania have yet to be described.
References- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Benton and Spencer, 1995. Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain. Geological Conservation Review Series, Chapman & Hall. 386 pp.
M? sp. indet. (Lydekker, 1888)
Late Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Cornbrash Formation, England

Material- (BMNH 47169) dorsal centrum
Comments- Lydekker (1888) provisionally referred this centrum to Megalosaurus bucklandi. This specimen cannot be referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii because the dorsal vertebrae of that taxon lack described apomorphies.
Reference- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
M? sp. indet. (Phillips, 1871)
Late Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Forest Marble Formation, England

Material- (BMNH 39476) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(OUM J29772) metatarsal IV (Phillips, 1871)
(Parker coll.) femur (Huene, 1926)
distal femur (~914 mm) (Phillip, 1871)
partial femur (~1.07 m) (Phillips, 1871)
teeth (Freeman, 1979)
Comments- Lydekker (1888) refers BMNH 29476 to Megalosaurus bucklandi. Huene (1932) stated he could find no differences between Megalosaurus bucklandii and BMNH 39476 and the Parker collection femur.
References- Phillips, 1871. Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames: Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 523 pp.
Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 1-167.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Delair, 1973. The dinosaurs of Wiltshire. Whiltshire Archaeology and Natural History Magazine. 68, 1-7.
Freeman, 1979. A Middle Jurassic mammal bed from Oxfordshire. Palaeontology. 22(1), 135-166.
M? sp. indet. (Owen, 1842)
Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Corallian Oolite, England
Materia
l- (Yorkshire Museum coll.) teeth
Reference- Owen, 1842. Report on British fossil reptiles, part II. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 11, 60-204.
M? sp. indet. (Lydekker, 1888)
Early Cretaceous
Potton Sands, England

Material- (BMNH 42028) fragmentary posterior dorsal vertebra
Comments- Lydekker (1888) provisionally referred this vertebra to Megalosaurus bucklandi. This specimen is too late to be Megalosaurus, and cannot be referred to that taxon because the dorsal vertebrae of M. bucklandii lack described apomorphies.
Reference- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
M? sp. indet. (Owen, 1854)
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Weald Clay, England

Material- (Royal College of Surgeons coll.) posterior dorsal vertebra
(Royal College of Surgeons coll.) dorsal centrum, caudal vertebra, distal caudal vertebra
(Royal College of Surgeons coll.) partial neural arch
(Royal College of Surgeons coll.) ungual
Comments- These specimens are too late to be Megalosaurus, and cannot be referred to that taxon because the vertebrae and unguals of M. bucklandii lack described apomorphies.
Reference- Owen, 1854. Descriptive catalogue of the fossil organic remains of Reptilia and Pisces contained in the Museum of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. Taylor and Francis, London. 184 pp.
M? sp. indet. (Buckland, 1837)
Jurassic?
Besancon, France
Material
- (University of Besancon coll.) (lost) jaw fragments, teeth, bones (Buckland, 1837)
(University of Besancon coll.) two sacral vertebrae (Buffetaut et al., 2007)
References- Buckland, 1837. Geology and Minerology Considered with Reference to Natural Theology. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea and Blanchard. 443 pp.
Buffetaut, Cuny and Pharisat, 2007. William Buckland's French Megalosaurus. Terra Nova. 6(3), 323-326.
M? sp. indet. (Sauvage, 1900)
Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Indre, France

Material- tooth
Comments- This specimen cannot be referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii because the teeth of that taxon lack described apomorphies.
Reference- Sauvage, 1900. Note sur les poissons et les reptiles du Jurassique inferieur du department de l'Indre. Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France, 3rd series. 28, 500-504.
M? sp. indet. (Mercier, 1937)
Early Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Ecouche Limestone, France

Material- tooth
Comments- This specimen cannot be referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii because the teeth of that taxon lack described apomorphies.
References- Mercier, 1937. Notes paleontologiques. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Normandie, 8e série. 9, 33-36.
Buffetaut, Cuny and Le Loeuff, 1991. French Dinosaurs: The best record in Europe? Modern Geology. 16(1/2), 17-42.
M? sp. indet. (Lydekker, 1888)
Late Callovian-Early Oxfordian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Vaches Noires Cliffs, Calvados, France

Material
- (BMNH 32725) proximal tibia (740 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(Tubingen Palaeontological University Museum coll.) distal femur, pedal phalanx III-1 (Huene, 1926)
Comments- Lydekker (1888) referred BMNH 32725 to Megalosaurus bucklandi.
References- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 1-167.
M? sp. indet. (Royo and Gomez, 1927)
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Weald Clay, Spain

Comments- These specimens are too late to be Megalosaurus.
Reference- Royo and Gomez, 1927. Sur le facies wealdien d'Espange. Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France, 4th series. 27, 125-128.
M? sp. indet. (Ubaghs, 1892)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Maastricht Formation, Belgium

Material- fragmentary tooth
Comments- This specimen is too late to be Megalosaurus, and cannot be referred to that taxon because the teeth of M. bucklandii lack described apomorphies. Based on its age, this is more probably abelisaurid or dromaeosaurid.
Reference- Ubaghs, 1892. Le Megalosaurus dans la craie superieure du Limbourg. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d'Hydrologie, Bruxelles. 6, 26-29.

"Megalosaurus" "phillipsi" Welles, Powell and Pickering vide Pickering, 1995
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Kimmeridgian Clay, England

Material- (OUM J29886) tibia (740 mm) (Huene, 1926)
....(OUM J13586) metatarsal II (360 mm), incomplete metatarsal III, incomplete metatarsal IV (Phillips, 1871)
Diagnosis- (from Pickering, DML 2002) cnemial crest more laterally angled.
(suggested) metatarsal II transversely narrower in proximal view; a wide lateral flare to the ventral rim of the lateral ligament pit on metatarsal II.
Other diagnoses- Pickering has listed his intended diagnosis for this species online (DML, 2002). Of his listed characters, the tibia does not seem noticably straighter in "phillipsi" than in Megalosaurus or Torvosaurus. The fibular crest begins at a similar position proximally. I cannot confirm the presence of a pit in the astragalar facet in M. bucklandii, and the "concavity of the distal end is wider" in Torvosaurus and "Brontoraptor" as well. The latter is also true of the medial malleolus, which "does not extend so far below the medial end." The tibia is equally robust in "Brontoraptor", Torvosaurus tanneri and T? sp. ML 430 from Portugal, which also share the transversely expanded lateral condyle. While the fibular crest extends more distally than in M. bucklandii, it does not do so more than "Brontoraptor" or ML 430.
Comments- OUM J29886 is intended as the holotype, though Huene (1926) felt they belonged to the same individual.
Phillips (1871) illustrated the metatarsus as Megalosaurus in figure 68. Huene (1926) later illustrated both the tibia and metatarsus as Megalosaurus bucklandi, incorrectly stating they derive from the Stonesfield Slate (Pickering, DML 2002). Huene also lists the metatarsals again as Megalosaurus sp. under entry 54 of his list, which also get listed as ?Megalosaurus sp. by him in 1932. Pickering (1995) first mentioned the name Megalosaurus phillipsi in an unpublished bibliographic manuscript. It was later used in the comparative section of another unpublished manuscript (Welles and Pickering, 1999). This paper was largely extracted from the European megalosaur manuscript Welles and Powell worked on in the 1970s but never published, specifically the Megalosaurus redescription section. Pickering intends to publish an updated version of the megalosaur manuscript as Mutanda Dinosaurologica, and has posted small excerpts including the diagnosis of "phillipsi" online (DML, 2002). In any case, the name is a nomen nudum as Pickering didn't follow ICZN Article 8.1.3- it must have been produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures numerous identical and durable copies. Curiously, Benson's (2010) recent redescription of Megalosaurus does not even mention the specimens, though they do lack the only character in his diagnosis of M. bucklandii for which it can be checked- complementary groove and ridge structures on the articular surfaces between metatarsals II and III.
When entered into my saurischian supermatrix, "phillipsi" emerges in a polytomy with non-spinosaurid megalosauroids. This specimen will be compared to Megalosaurus bucklandii, Torvosaurus and "Brontoraptor" (note Pickering and Welles synonymized the first two at least), as it differs markedly from Eustreptospondylus (used as the outgroup comparison), while Magnosaurus and Dubreuillosaurus are too incomplete to be compared usefully and Afrovenator remains largely undescribed. Poekilopleuron differs in having a proximal corner on its medial malleolus and an astragalar facet that extends far up the medial edge of the tibia. As noted above in the 'other diagnoses' section, "phillipsi" apomorphically resembles Morrison megalosaurs and ML 430 more than Megalosaurus in being robust and having a transversely expanded lateral condyle. It apomorphically resembles "Brontoraptor" and ML 430 more in having a distally extending fibular crest, but is primitively more like Megalosaurus than any of these taxa in having a low angled medial malleolus. The proximodistally wide medial side to the astragalar facet is most similar to "Brontoraptor" and Torvosaurus, and the fibular crest lacks the apomorphically bulbous shape of Megalosaurus'. In proximal view, the incisura tibialis is plesiomorphically shallower than Megalosaurus as in Torvosaurus and "Brontoraptor", but the shape is plesiomorphically more similar to Megalosaurus than "Brontoraptor" in having a narrower cnemial crest and more posteriorly extensive medial condyle. Metatarsal II is of equal robusticity to Megalosaurus, unlike Torvosaurus' apomorphically massive element. It apomorphically shares the medial flare to the ventral rim of the collateral ligament pit with Torvosaurus though. It differs from both in being transversely narrower proximally and having a wide lateral flare to the ventral rim of the opposite collateral ligament pit. In proximal view, Megalosaurus and "phillipsi" both have a posterior concavity on metatarsal II, and share a convex anterior edge, as in the outgroup. Distally, it is primitively deeper than in either Megalosaurus or Torvosaurus. Metatarsal III is primitively more medially bowed than either, and is again less robust than Torvosaurus'. Proximally, metatarsal III is closer to Torvosaurus in having an apomorphic highly concave lateral margin and lacking the apomorphic sinuous medial margin of Megalosaurus. It has a primitively blunter posteromedial corner than either of them. Distally, the lateral condyle is apomorphically narrower as in Torvosaurus. Metatarsal IV has an apomorphically concave lateral edge as in Megalosaurus, unlike the sinusoidal edge of Torvosaurus. The distal shaft width is intermediate, and the articular end plesiomorphically expands transversely less than in Megalosaurus. Ignoring the symplesiomorphies then, "phillipsi" shares five apomorphic states with Torvosaurus, and only one with Megalosaurus. It also shares these apomorphies with "Brontoraptor" and ML 430 where known, and shares the distally projecting fibular crest uniquely with those two specimens. I conclude Welles, Powell and Pickering were correct to refer "phillipsi" to their more inclusive version of Megalosaurus, but if Torvosaurus is separated as most modern workers do, it would be better referred to that genus. "Brontoraptor" has been recently assumed to be synonymous with Torvosaurus, and if so the features "phillipsi" shares with the former to the exclusion of the latter may be individual variation or incorrectly illustrated for "Brontoraptor". However, the fact Portuguese tibia ML 430 has the same characters suggests this may not be the case. Whether ML 430 should be referred to "phillipsi" is an interesting question, as they are both from Late Jurassic Europe. While the distally extensive fibular crest might suggest so, the broadly flared medial malleolus and laterally straight lateral malleolus of ML 430 resemble Torvosaurus more, while the medially narrow astragalar facet is more like Megalosaurus than any torvosaur. Both "phillipsi" and ML 430 are best referred to Megalosauridae.
References- Phillips, 1871. Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 523 pp.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 35-167.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Welles and Pickering, 1999. Megalosaurus bucklandii. Private publication of Stephen Pickering. An extract from Archosauromorpha: Cladistics & Osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 119 pp.
Pickering, online 2002. http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Mar/msg00553.html
Pickering, in prep. Mutanda Dinosaurologica.

"Brontoraptor" Redman, 1995
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Material- (TATE 0012; = CPS 1003; = TATE 1003) (adult) atlas (60 mm), axis (150 mm), sacrum (620 mm), first caudal vertebra (105 mm), second caudal vertebra (113 mm), third caudal vertebra (121 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (112 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (113 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (111 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (118 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (118 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (119 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (118 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (118 mm), six chevrons (305, 285, 265, 245, 210, 118 mm), scapula, coracoids, ilium (~930 mm), pubis (~610 mm), ischium (590 mm), femur (830 mm), tibia (700 mm), fibula (650 mm)
Diagnosis- (from Siegwarth et al., unpublished) differs from Torvosaurus tanneri in- ilium with straight dorsal edge; vertical pubic peduncle of ilium; brevis shelf oriented laterally; short pubic symphysis; reduced pelvic canal; ischium not strongly curved; obturator process present; no ischial symphysis.
differs from Edmarka rex in- scapula expanded distally; pubis and ischium more gracile with different distal expansions
Comments- Siegwarth et al. (unpublished, though written after 1994 based on the bibliography, and listed as 1997 by Carrano et al., 2012) wrote a manuscript that is oddly credited to volume 2 of the nonexistant journal 'Contributions from the Tate Museum Collections, Casper, Wyoming'. In it, they describe the sacrum, first caudal vertebra, ilium, pubis, femur, tibia and fibula of TATE 0012 as parts of Edmarka paratype TATE 1003. A later version of the manuscript included Bakker and described more material from the specimen, this time calling it TATE 0012, which Edmarka paratype CPS 1003 had apparently been integrated into as TATE 0012-11. All of this material was discovered in 1993-1996. Redman (1995) had used the name Brontoraptor for this material in a magazine article (without species name, making it a nomen nudum- ICZN 13.3). In the second unpublished manuscript, Seigwarth et al. state TATE 0012 is at least a different species than Torvosaurus tanneri and probably a different genus. They note earlier versions of the manuscript called the specimen Brontoraptor but that based on a recommendation by Carpenter, they will wait for further comparison to Torvosaurus to name a new genus. The manuscript has yet to be published, though Mateus et al. (2006) and Carrano et al. have listed the material as Torvosaurus without justification. The latter merely state "Brontoraptor" and Edmarka "may represent species level variants of Torvosaurus, but we do not consider the observed differences as sufficient to justify a new taxon at this time."
References- Redman, 1995. [title unknown]. Paleo Horizons. Winter Issue, [pp unknown].
Bakker, 1996. The real Jurassic Park: Dinosaurs and habitats at Como Bluff, Wyoming. In Morales (ed.). Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60, 35-49.
Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006. The large theropod fauna of the Lourinha Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosaurus. In Foster and Lucas (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36, 123-129.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Siegwarth, Lindbeck, Redman, Southwell, unpublished. Giant carnivorous dinosaurs of the family Megalosauridae from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of eastern Wyoming. Contributions from the Tate Museum Collections, Casper, Wyoming. 2, 40 pp.
Siegwarth, Lindbeck, Redman, Southwell and Bakker, unpublished. Megalosaurid Dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of Eastern Wyoming. 27 pp.

Edmarka Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth and Filla, 1992
E. rex Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth and Filla, 1992
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Syntypes- (CPS 1002) incomplete scapula (~950 mm), partial coracoid
(CPS 1004) dorsal ribs
(CPS 1005) jugal (444 mm)
(CPS 1006) first caudal vertebra (140 mm)
Paratype- (CPS 1001) partial third dorsal rib, fourth dorsal rib, ninth dorsal rib, tenth dorsal rib, partial eleventh dorsal rib, dorsal rib
Referred- ?(CPS 1010) pubis (866 mm) (Bakker et al., 1992)
?(TATE coll.) pubis (790 mm), proximal ischium (Siegwarth et al., unpublished)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Utah, US

?(CEUM 3301) pubes (Siegwarth et al., unpublished)
Comments- Bakker et al. (1992) confusingly label the proximal caudal vertebra as CPS 1005 in the material list, which is the same number as the jugal. In the discussion, it is called CPS 1006. Also, they label the ribs CPS 1001 in the discussion and figures, but as CPS 401 in the material list. Given the other specimen numbers, CPS 1001 is the more likely possibility. A coracoid (CPS 1003, though now apparently part of TATE 0012) was originally included as a paratype, but is part of a specimen Siegwarth et al. (unpublished) believe differs from Edmarka and which has been called "Brontoraptor".
Synonymized with Torvosaurus tanneri by Holtz et al. (2004) and Carrano et al. (2012) without detailed analysis.
References- Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth and Filla, 1992. Edmarka rex, a new, gigantic theropod dinosaur from the Middle Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic of the Como Bluff outcrop, with comments on the evolution of the chest region and shoulder in theropods and birds and a discussion of the five cycles of originn and extinction among giant dinosaurian predators. Hunteria. 2(9), 1-24.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Siegwarth, Lindbeck, Redman, Southwell and Bakker, unpublished. Megalosaurid Dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of Eastern Wyoming. 27 pp.

Torvosaurus Galton and Jensen, 1979
Diagnosis- (after Britt, 1991) interdental wall making up one-half the medial surface of the maxillary body.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) very shallow maxillary fossa; fused interdental plates.
(after Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b) protuberant ridge below maxillary fossa, in ventral part of anterior corner of lateral antorbital fossa.
Other diagnoses- Hendrickx and Mateus (2014b) also listed expanded fossae in posterior dorsal and anterior caudal centra forming enlarged and deep pneumatic openings; highly ossified puboischiadic plate; and distal expansion of ischium with prominent lateral midline crest and oval outline in lateral view. However, these areas are unpreserved in T. gurneyi and thus only scorable in T. tanneri.
References- Galton and Jensen, 1979. A new large theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Colorado. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 26(2), 1-12.
Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 37, 1-72.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods. PLoS ONE. 9(3), e88905.
T. tanneri Galton and Jensen, 1979
= Megalosaurus tanneri (Galton and Jensen, 1979) Paul, 1988
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of Morrison Formation, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, US

Lectotype- (BYUVP 2002 in part) humerus (429)
Paralectotypes- (BYUVP 2002 in part) humerus (412 mm), radius (187 mm), ulnae (225, 229 mm)
(BYUVP 2003) (skull ~1.31 m) anterior dentary
(BYUVP 2004a-d) fragment of fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra (115 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (123 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (121 mm)
(BYUVP 2005) first dorsal vertebra (135 mm)
(BYUVP 2006) fifth dorsal vertebra (118 mm)
(BYUVP 2007) sixth dorsal vertebra (~107 mm)
(BYUVP 2008) twelfth dorsal vertebra
(BYUVP 2009) dorsal vertebra
(BYUVP 2010) metacarpal I (72.3 mm)
(BYUVP 2011) metacarpal II (117.5 mm)
(BYUVP 2012) metacarpal III (96.5 mm)
(BYUVP 2013) ilium
(BYUVP 2014) pubes (736 mm)
(BYUVP 2015) ischium (736 mm)
(BYUVP 2016) tibia (725 mm)
(BYUVP 2017) incomplete tibia
(BYUVP 2018) manual phalanx I-1 (~65 mm)
(BYUVP 5029) astragalus
(BYUVP 9620) fibula (688 mm)
(BYUVP 9622) calcaneum
Referred- (BYUVP 2020) manual ungual I (Galton and Jensen, 1979)
(BYUVP 4860) third cervical vertebra (90 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4881) distal ischium (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4882) premaxilla (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 4883) jugals (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 4884) atlantal intercentrum (50 mm), neurapophysis (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 4890) thirteenth dorsal vertebra (130 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4976a-k) eighth caudal vertebra (115 mm), eighth chevron, ninth caudal vertebra (118 mm), ninth chevron, tenth caudal vertebra (119 mm), tenth chevron (232 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (116 mm), eleventh chevron (220 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (104 mm), twelfth chevron (190 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (109 mm), thirteenth chevron (185 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (100 mm), fourteenth chevron (~180 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra, fifteenth chevron, sixteenth caudal vertebra (100 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 4977) ilium (853 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4998) fourth dorsal vertebra (124 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5004) fourth caudal vertebra (127 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5005) metatarsal III (320 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5009) metatarsal III (348 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5020) calcaneum (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5077) metatarsal II (295 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5086) second caudal vertebra (116 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5110) quadrate (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5129) fibula (686 mm), astragalus (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5136) fibula (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5147) metatarsal II (303 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5241) metatarsal III (357 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5276) metatarsal II (288 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5277) metatarsal III (358 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5278) metatarsal IV (302 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5279) metatarsal IV (308 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5280) metatarsal III (365 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5281) metatarsal II (307 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 5286) lacrimal (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 8966) metatarsal IV (302 mm) (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 9013) twelfth caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9090) tenth dorsal vertebra (~113 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9120) seventh dorsal vertebra (112 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9121) ninth dorsal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9122) maxilla (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP 9135) twenty-third caudal vertebra (86 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9249) postorbital (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9621) astragalus (Jensen, 1985)
(BYUVP coll.) teeth (Jensen, 1985)
(CM 1254) tooth (Britt, 1991)
(DMNH 2243) posterior dorsal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(FMNH PR 3060) three gastralial fragments, metacarpal III (85 mm), phalanx III-2 (34 mm), pedal phalanx I-1 (80 mm), incomplete metatarsal II (~306 mm), incomplete metatarsal III (~356 mm), metatarsal IV (287 mm) (Hanson and Makovicky, 2013)
(YPM coll.) tooth (>100 mm) (Lull, 1927)
two teeth (Foster, 2005)
Middle Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado

humerus (Carpenter, 1998)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae with a pronounced flat rim around the anterior ball (unknown in T. gurneyi); fenestra in neural arch of dorsal vertebrae in front of hyposphene (unknown in T. gurneyi).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) expanded pneumatic fossae in posterior dorsal and anterior caudal vertebrae centra forming enlarged, deep openings (unknown in T. gurneyi); highly ossified puboischiadic plate (unknown in T. gurneyi); distal expansion of ischium with prominent lateral midline crest and oval outline in lateral view (unknown in T. gurneyi).
(after Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b) protuberant ridge on anterior part of medial shelf, posterior to anteromedial process; interdental wall falling short relative to lateral wall; interdental plates with broad V-shaped
ventral margin.
Other diagnoses- The shallow maxillary fossa and fused interdental plates listed by Carrano et al. (2012) are also present in T. gurneyi.
Comments- Britt (1991) noted the forelimb elements of BYUVP 2002 were found disarticulated and that at least two equally sized individuals were preserved in the quarry, so that restriction of the holotype would be preferrable. He chose the left humerus, but the ICZN doesn't allow a holotype to be designated after the fact. The humerus would be a lectotype, which is how it is interpreted by Hendrickx and Mateus (2014b). Also note the original BYU 2016 of Galton and Jensen (1979) was divided into several specimen numbers by Britt.
Allain et al. (2012) believed manual ungual I BYUVP 2020 could be from a spinosaurid because of its elongation, but as no other spinosaurid remains are known from the Morrison, this is questionable.
References- Lull, 1927. Organic Evolution, Macmillan, New York. 729 pp.
Galton and Jensen, 1979. A new large theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Colorado. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 26(2), 1-12.
Jensen, 1985. Uncompahgre dinosaur fauna: A preliminary report. Great Basin Naturalist. 45, 710-720.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 37, 1-72.
Carpenter, 1998. Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Morrison Formation near Cañon City, Colorado. Modern Geology. 23, 407-426.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Foster, 2005. Evidence of size-classes and scavenging in the theropod Allosaurus fragilis at the Mygatt-Moore Quarry (Late Jurassic), Rabbit Valley, Colorado: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 59A.
Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hanson and Makovicky, 2013. A new specimen of Torvosaurus tanneri originally collected by Elmer Riggs. Historical Biology. doi:10.1080/08912963.2013.853056.
Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods. PLoS ONE. 9(3), e88905.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013
T. gurneyi Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Porto Novo-Amoreira Member of Lourinha Formation, Portugal

Holotype- (ML 1100) (~10 m, ~4-5 tons) (skull ~1.15 m) maxilla (612 mm), tooth (127 mm), partial proximal caudal centrum
Paratype- (ALT-SHN.116) maxillary fragment (Malafaia et al., 2008)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Sobral Member of Lourinha Formation, Portugal

Referred- (FUB PB Ther 1) lateral tooth (Rauhut and Kriwet, 1994)
?(FUB PB Ther 2) partial tooth (Rauhut and Kriwet, 1994)
(ML 1188) (embryo) maxilla, dentary, dentary tooth, five teeth, three centra, bones, eggshell fragments (Araujo et al., 2012)
Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Bombaral Member of Lourinha Formation, Portugal

(ML 430) (~7 m, ~1.6-1.7 tons) tibia (820 mm) (Mateus and Antunes, 2000)
(ML 962) anterior tooth (85.8 x 31.2 x 20.2 mm) (Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014a)
Late Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Lourinha Formation, Portugal

(ML 148) tooth (? x 35.2 x 17.7 mm) (Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press)
(ML 500) tooth (? x 41.3 x 19.9 mm) (Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press)
(ML 632) (~10 m; ~3-4 tons) distal femur (~1.11 m) (Mateus et al., 2006)
(ML 857) tooth (59.5 x 32.2 x 17.1 mm) (Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press)
(ML 1853) tooth (43.5 x 24.8 x 13.7 mm) (Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press)
Diagnosis- (after Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b) than eleven maxillary teeth; interdental plates with straight ventral margin; interdental wall nearly coincidental with lateral wall of maxillary body; absence of protuberant ridge on anterior part of medial shelf, posterior to anteromedial process, with coincidental posterior extension of dorsal and medial ridges of anteromedial process.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 2003 and first described by Mateus et al. (2006), then described in depth later by Hendrickx and Mateus (2014b). Rauhut and Kriwet (1994) first described FUB PB Ther 1 and 2 as "Megalosaurus" pombali specimens which they placed as Carnosauria indet., but the first was later referred to Torvosaurus gurneyi by Hendrickx and Mateus (2014b). The eggshells associated with Torvosaurus are dendroolithid.
References- Rauhut and Kriwet, 1994. Teeth of a big theropod dinosaur from Porto das Barcas (Portugal). Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, E. 13, 179-185.
Mateus and Antunes, 2000. Torvosaurus sp. (Dinosauria: Theropoda) in the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Livro de Resumos do I Congresso Iberico de Paleontologia. 115-117.
Antunes and Mateus, 2003. Dinosaurs of Portugal. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2, 77-95.
Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006. The large theropod fauna of the Lourinha Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosaurus. In Foster and Lucas (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36, 123-129.
Malafaia, Ortega, Silva and Escaso, 2008. Fragmento de un maxilar de teropodo de Praia da Corva (Jurasico Superior. Torres Vedras, Portugal). Palaeontologica Nova SEPAZ. 8, 273-279.
Araujo, Castanhinha, Mateus and Martins, 2012. Late Jurassic theropod embryos from Porto das Barcas, Lourinha Formation, Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 57.
Araujo, Castanhinha, Martins, Mateus, Hendrickx, Beckmann, Schell and Alves, 2013. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports. 3, 1924.
Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014a. Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and dentition-based phylogeny as a contribution for the identification of isolated theropod teeth. Zootaxa. 3759(1), 1-74.
Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014b. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods. PLoS ONE. 9(3), e88905.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013
T? sp. (Lu and Hu, 1998)
Late Jurassic
Datong, Shanxi, China

Material- eighth dorsal centrum (~140 mm), partial eleventh dorsal vertebra, partial thirteenth dorsal centrum (~134 mm), fused partial second, third and partial fourth sacral centra
Comments- Lu and Hu (1998) referred these to Allosaurus sp., but Carrano et al. (2012) felt the "overall morphology and cavernous lateral depressions" were comparable to Torvosaurus and considered them Tetanurae indet. cf. Torvosaurus.
References- Lü and Hu, 1998. Dinosaur remains from Datong Suburb, Shanxi Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 36(3), 252-256.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Afrovenatorinae Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
Definition- (Afrovenator abakensis <- Megalosaurus bucklandii)
= Megalosaurinae sensu Allain, 2002
Definition- (Poekilopleuron bucklandii <- Torvosaurus tanneri) (modified)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) squared anterior margin of maxillary antorbital fenestra (also in Irritator); puboischiadic plate broadly open along midline.
References-Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Afrovenator Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Duthell and Sues, 1994
A. abakensis Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Duthell and Sues, 1994
Bathonian-Oxfordian, Middle-Late Jurassic
Tiouraren Formation of the Irhazer Group, Niger

Holotype- (UC UBA 1) (6.76 m) skull (~840 mm) (lacking premaxilla, nasal, frontal, parietal and quadratojugal), prearticular, axis, third cervical cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, cervical rib, first dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal centrum, eighth dorsal centrum, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, two dorsal ribs, proximal caudal vertebra, two mid caudal vertebrae, ten distal caudal vertebrae, fifteen chevrons, humerus (~400 mm), distal radius, distal ulna, semilunate carpal, metacarpal I (62 mm), phalanx I-1 (112 mm), manual ungual I (80 mm), metacarpal II (135 mm), proximal phalanx II-1, manual ungual II (76 mm), phalanx III-3 (53 mm), manual ungual III (40 mm), incomplete ilium (567 mm), incomplete pubis (644 mm), ischium (533 mm), femur (760 mm), tibia (~687 mm), fibula, astragalus lacking ascending pr., calcaneum, metatarsal I (103 mm), phalanx II-1 (122 mm), pedal ungual II (76 mm), (metatarsal III ~344 mm), metatarsal IV (321 mm), phalanx IV-1 (90 mm), phalanx IV-2 (106 mm), phalanx IV-3 (87 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Sereno et al., 1994) third cervical vertebra with low, rectangular neural spine; very flat semilunate carpal; metacarpal I with broad flange for articulation against metacarpal II.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) rounded, lobate anterior maxillary margin of antorbital fossa; posterior extension of distal pubic expansion inset from lateral surfaces of anterior extension, forming pair of conjoined, posterior flanges.
Comments- Though originally identified as Hauterivian-Barremian (Sereno et al., 1994), the Tiouraren Formation has been reinterpreted as Bathonian-Oxfordian (Rauhut and Lopez-Arbarello, 2009).
Sereno et al. placed Afrovenator as a non-megalosaurian megalosauroid, which takes five more steps in Carrano et al.'s matrix (whose phylogeny is followed here). Rauhut (2003) found it to be closer to allosauroids than megalosauroids, which takes 3 more steps when constrained. Each possibility is quite likely.
References- Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Dutheil and Sues, 1994. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Sahara. Science. 266, 267-271.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Rauhut and Lopez-Arbarello, 2009. Considerations on the age of the Tiouaren Formation (Iullemmeden Basin, Niger, Africa): Implications for Gondwanan Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 271, 259-267.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013

Dubreuillosaurus Allain, 2005
= "Calvadosaurus" Holtz, 2007
D. valesdunensis (Allain, 2002) Allain, 2005
= Poekilopleuron valesdunensis Allain, 2002
Middle Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Calcaire de Caen Formation, France

Holotype- (MNHN 1998-13) partial skull (~490 mm), dentary splenials, surangular impression, angular, incomplete cervical centrum (45 mm excluding anterior ball), incomplete posterior cervical vertebra (50 mm excluding anterior ball), axial rib, proximal cervical ribs, two partial anterior dorsal centra, three partial anterior dorsal neural arches, two posterior dorsal centra (70 mm), dorsal ribs, two gastralia, partial second sacral vertebra, partial third sacral vertebra (85 mm), partial fifth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral rib, proximal caudal neural arch, seven mid caudal vertebrae (60-65 mm), two distal caudal vertebrae (38, 40 mm), two chevrons (110, 90 mm), partial scapula, manual ungual I or II (83 mm on curve), incomplete femur (~450 mm), proximal tibia, incomplete fibula, phalanx III-1 (65 mm), metatarsal V (58 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Allain, 2005) very low skull, at least three times longer than high; double curvature of the anterodorsal margin of the maxillary nasal ramus; postorbital ventral process with U-shaped cross section; parietals not visible in lateral view; straight medial margin of the upper temporal fenestra; absence of paraquadrate fenestra; well developed ventral process on the jugal ramus of the ectopterygoid; deeply grooved posterior margin of the ectopterygoid ahead of the subtemporal fenestra; large external mandibular fenestra; mylohyoid foramen largely opened anteroventrally; femoral head medioventrally directed; convex anterior surface of distal end of femur.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) ventral notch in posterior outline of braincase between exoccipitalopisthotics and basioccipital.
References- Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Laboratoire de Paleontologie. 329 pp.
Allain, 2002b. Discovery of a megalosaur (dinosauria, Theropoda) in the Middle Bathonian of Normandy (France) and its implications for the phylogeny of basal Tetanurae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 548-563.
Allain, 2005. The postcranial anatomy of the megalosaur Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis (Dinosauria Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Normandy, France. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(4), 850–858.
Holtz, 2007. Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages. Random House. 432 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013

Leshansaurus Li, Peng, Ye, Jiang and Huang, 2009
L. qianweiensis Li, Peng, Ye, Jiang and Huang, 2009
Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Shangshaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (QW200701) (~6.2 m) incomplete skull, posterior mandible, three teeth, hyoid (95 mm), atlas, axis (78 mm), third cervical vertebra (80 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (76 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (80 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (70 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (60 mm), first dorsal vertebra (70 mm), second dorsal vertebra (80 mm), third dorsal vertebra (87 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (98 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (99 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (103 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (105 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (107 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (102 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (97 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (102 mm), fourteenth dorsal vertebra (82 mm), most dorsal ribs (to 600 mm), sacrum (100, 95, 90, 90, 95 mm), two mid caudal vertebrae, chevron, metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, phalanges II-1, metacarpal III (70 mm), phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, incomplete ilium, pubis (585 mm), proximal ischial fragment, femur (600 mm), tibia (580 mm), incomplete fibula, metatarsal II (275 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, phalanx III-1, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV
Paratype- (QW200702) (juvenile) femur (220 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Li et al., 2009) supraoccipital with sharp midline ridge; frontal 2.4 times longer than wide; slender basipterygoid processes; atlantal intercentrum horseshoe-shaped; slender dorsal transverse processes; thin dorsal and sacral neural spines; distinct ventral sacral keel; conspicuous medial ridge along acetabular edge of ilium.
Comments- Li et al. (2009) assigned this taxon to Sinraptoridae, but Cau (online, 2009) referred it to Megalosauridae instead, as the sister taxon to Megalosaurus. As he noted, the elongate anterior maxillary ramus, lack of medial fenestrae in the antorbital fossa, long frontal, only slightly decurved paroccipital processes, and long dorsal centra are all more similar to megalosauroids than sinraptorids. In addition, I note a ventral keel is present in the sacra of Megalosaurus and "Brontoraptor", and the medial acetabular ridge is a megalosauroid synapomorphy in Benson's analysis. Carrano et al. (2012) found it to be an afrovenatorine particularly similar to Piveteausaurus.
References- Cau, online 2009. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2009/12/leshansaurus-li-et-al-2009-sinraptoride.html
Li, Peng, Ye, Jiang and Huang, 2009. A new carnosaur from the Late Jurassic of Qianwei, Sichuan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica. 83(9), 1203-1213.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Magnosaurus Huene, 1923
M. nethercombensis (Huene, 1923) Huene, 1932
= Megalosaurus nethercombensis Huene, 1923
= Streptospondylus nethercombensis (Huene, 1923) Paul, 2010
Early Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Inferior Oolite Formation, England

Holotype- (OUM J12143) (~4.6 m; adult) incomplete dentaries, partial posterior dorsal vertebra, rib impressions, partial mid caudal vertebra (~66 mm), ilial fragment, pubes (one proximal; one incomplete), distal femora, tibiae (one proximal; one incomplete; 490 mm), distal fibula, fragments
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) differs from Eustreptospondylus in the proximal extent of the pubic symphysis.
(after Sadlier et al., 2008) differs from Eustreptospondylus in having interdental plates which are taller than long; pubis with greater transverse expansion at acetabular margin in proximal view; lateral margin of distal femur concave in posterior view; dorsoventrally extending ridge on lateral surface of cnemial crest.
(after Benson, 2010) anteroposteriorly elongate foramina located ventrally on the lateral surface of the dentary.
Comments- In Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, it only takes a single step to move Magnosaurus from Afrovenatorinae and into Eustreptospondylinae as in Rauhut (2000).
References- Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1926a. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 167 pp.
Huene, 1926b. On several known and unknown reptiles of the order Saurischia from England and France. Annal and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 9. 17, 473-489.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Waldman, 1974. Megalosaurids from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of Dorset. Palaeontology 17, 325-339.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Laboratoire de Paleontologie. 329 pp.
Sadlier, Barrett and Powell, 2008. The anatomy and systematics of Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis, a theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic from Oxfordshire, England. Monograph of the Palaeontological Society. 82 pp.
Benson, 2010. The osteology of Magnosaurus nethercombensis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of the United Kingdom and a re-examination of the oldest records of tetanurans. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 8(1), 131-146.
Paul, 2010. The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. Princeton University Press. 320 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Mateus and Araújo, in press. The dentition of megalosaurid theropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00056.2013

Piveteausaurus Taquet and Welles, 1977
P. divesensis (Walker, 1964) Taquet and Welles, 1977
= Eustreptospondylus divesensis Walker, 1964
= Proceratosaurus divesensis (Walker, 1964) Paul, 1988
Late Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Marnes de Dives, France

Holotype- (MNHN 1920-7) (adult) frontals, parietals, braincase
Comments- Carrano et al. (2012) note that because the braincase is so similar to Leshansaurus, and other known megalosaurid braincases (Eustreptospondylus and Dubreuillosaurus) are from juveniles, the validity of this species is uncertain.
This taxon is generally placed in Megalosauridae (Taquet and Welles, 1977; Kurzanov, 1989), which was recently found in Benson's (2008, 2010) and Carrano et al.'s (2012) phylogenetic analyses. Exceptions are Allain (2002) and Paul (1988), who found it to be carnosaurian.
References- Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 248, 53-134.
Taquet and Welles, 1977. Redescription du crâne de dinosaure théropode de dives (Normandie). Annales de Paléontologie (Vertébrés). 63(2), 191-206.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Laboratoire de Paleontologie. 329 pp.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focussing on basal tetanurans, and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Poekilopleuron Eudes-Deslongchamps, 1837
= "Poecilopleuron" Eudes-Deslongchamps vide Bronn, 1937
P. bucklandii Eudes-Deslongchamps, 1837
= "Poecilopleuron bucklandi" Eudes-Deslongchamps vide Bronn, 1937
= Liopleurodon bucklandi (Eudes-Deslongchamps, 1837) Sauvage, 1873
= Megalosaurus poikilopleuron Huene, 1923
Middle Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Calcaire de Caen Formation, France

Holotype- (destroyed; plastoholotype MNHN 1897-2) cervical ribs (lost), dorsal ribs (lost), gastralia, twenty-one caudal vertebrae (lost), six chevrons (lost), scapula (lost), humerus (~306 mm), radius (170 mm), ulna (182 mm), metacarpal I (58 mm), phalanx I-1 (66 mm; lost), femur (lost), distal tibia (lost), partial fibula (lost), astragalus (lost), phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual; II, metatarsal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, pedal ungual IV, ten gastroliths
Diagnosis- (after Allain and Chure, 2002) mid caudal neural spines as long as their corresponding centrum length; deltopectoral crest extending to midlength of humerus; ulna lacking olecranon process; distal end of radius as wide as proximal end; strong ulnar process at midlength of posteromedial edge of radius; convex lateral margin of ascending process of astragalus.
(after Rauhut, 2000) metacarpal I with small lateral flange behind distal articular facet.
Comments- Traditionally considered a megalosaurid (Allain, 2002; Holtz et al., 2004), Benson (2008, 2010) found it to be a carnosaur and more recently (Benson et al., 2010) a sinraptorid. Most recently, Carrano et al. (2012) later recovered it as an afrovenatorine, though this is highly uncertain as only one more step is needed for it to be a piatnitzkysaurid, allosaur or any other kind of megalosaurid. Moving it to Sinraptoridae takes 4 more steps so is still quite possible.
References- Bronn, 1837. Lethaea Geognostica oder Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der für die Gebirge-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. 1, 1-544.
Eudes-Deslongchamps. 1837. Mémoire sur le Poekilopleuron bucklandi, grande saurien fossile, intermédiare entre les crocodiles et les lézards, découvert dans les carrières de la Maladrerie, près Caen, au mois de juillet 1835 [Memoir on the Poekilopleuron bucklandi, a great fossil saurian, intermediate between crocodiles and lizards, discovered in the Maladrerie quarries, near Caen, in July 1835]. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne Normandie. 6, 1-114.
Sauvage, 1873. Notes sur les reptiles fossiles. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, série 3. 1, 365-386.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Laboratoire de Paleontologie. 329 pp.
Allain, 2002b. Discovery of a megalosaur (dinosauria, Theropoda) in the Middle Bathonian of Normandy (France) and its implications for the phylogeny of basal Tetanurae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 548-563.
Allain and Chure, 2002. Poekilopleuron bucklandi, the theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Normandy. Paleontology. 45(6), 1107-1121.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focussing on basal tetanurans, and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Benson, Brusatte and Carrano, 2010. A new clade of large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic. Naturwissenschaften. 97, 71-78.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
P? sp. indet. (Eudes-Deslongchamps, 1837)
Middle Jurassic
Grande Oolithe, France

Material- (destroyed) tooth
Comments- This cannot be compared to Poekilopleuron, so cannot be referred to the genus.
Reference- Eudes-Deslongchamps. 1837. Mémoire sur le Poekilopleuron bucklandi, grande saurien fossile, intermédiare entre les crocodiles et les lézards, découvert dans les carrières de la Maladrerie, près Caen, au mois de juillet 1835 [Memoir on the Poekilopleuron bucklandi, a great fossil saurian, intermediate between crocodiles and lizards, discovered in the Maladrerie quarries, near Caen, in July 1835]. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne Normandie. 6, 1-114.
P? sp. indet. (Owen, 1854)
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Weald Clay, England

Material- (Royal College of Surgeons coll.) partial dorsal centrum
Comments- Based on its age, this material is unlikely to be Poekilopleuron, and cannot be compared to the genus in any case.
Reference- Owen, 1854. Descriptive catalogue of the fossil organic remains of reptilia and pisces contained in the Museum of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 184 pp.

Spinosauridae Stromer, 1915
Definition-
(Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Torvosaurus tanneri) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
Other definitions- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Megalosaurus bucklandii, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus) (Holtz et al., 2004)
(Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Torvosaurus tanneri, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus) (Allain et al., 2012)
= Baryonychidae Charig and Milner, 1986
= Irritatoridae Martill et al., 1996
= Spinosauridae sensu Holtz et al., 2004
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Megalosaurus bucklandii, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
= Spinosauridae sensu Allain et al., 2012
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Torvosaurus tanneri, Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) Dentary with strongly developed anterior expansion; anterior dentary teeth much larger than the relatively small and closely spaced posterior teeth; medial alveolar border is as high as the lateral border and formed by a sheet of bone of the dentary, rather than by separately ossified interdental plates; teeth almost round in basal cross section and only slightly recurved; very long premaxillae, forming a rostral rosette; seven premaxillary teeth; ventral margin of premaxilla strongly concave; anterior ramus of maxilla strongly elongated; angle between anterior and ventral ramus of the lacrimal less than 45°; dorsal vertebrae with several small vertical laminae connecting the transverse process with the neural spine dorsally; humerus extremely robust, with strongly expanded internal tuberosity and distal condyles; ulna with a broad and very strongly developed olecranon process; ischium with a long and low obturator flange.
Comments- Sereno's (in press) definition is the same as Holtz et al.'s (2004) except for the substitution of Torvosaurus for Megalosaurus. Sereno's has an advantage that Torvosaurus is more often included in analyses than Megalosaurus (Sereno, 1999; Rauhut, 2000; Allain, 2002), and has a more certain phylogenetic position. Incidentally, I believe a node-based Spinosauridae may be a better idea, for this stem-based one could include Chilantaisaurus (Rauhut, 2000, 2003), coelophysoids (Paul, 1988), tyrannosaurids (Walker, 1964), carcharodontosaurids (Bonaparte et al., 1990) and other taxa proposed to be more closely related to Spinosaurus than megalosaurids, allosaurids or birds.
Ex-spinosaurids- Canudo et al. (2004) and Salgado et al. (2004) reffered a tooth (Endemas-PV 6) from the Cerro Lisandro Formation of Argentina to Spinosauridae and cf. Spinosauridae respectively, but Hasegawa et al. (2010) referred it to Hamadasuchus. Buffetaut (2008) considered teeth from the Tendaguru Formation of Tanzania (MB R 1084 and possibly 1091) previously referred to Labrosaurus stechowi to be spinosaurid, but Rauhut (2011) noted they were more similar to other stechowi teeth and thus possibly ceratosaurid.
References- Canudo, Salgado, Barco, Bolatti and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2004. Dientes de dinosaurios terópodos y saurópodos de la Formación Cerro Lisandro (Cenomaniense superior-Turoniense inferior, Cretácio superior) en Río Negro (Argentina). Geo-Temas. 6, 31-34.
Buffetaut, 2008. Spinosaurid teeth from the Late Jurassic of Tengaduru, Tanzania, with remarks on the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the Spinosauridae. In Mazin, Pouch, Hantzpergue and Lacombe (eds.). Mid-Mesozoic life and environments. Documents des Laboratoires de Geologie Lyon. 164, 26-28.
Salgado, Canudo, Garrido, Ruiz-Omeñaca, Garcýa, de la Fuente, Barco and Bollati, 2009. Upper Cretaceous vertebrates from El Anfiteatro area, Rio Negro, Patagonia. Cretaceous Research. 30, 767-784.
Hasegawa, Tanaka, Takakuwa and Koike, 2010. Fine sculptures on a tooth of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History. 14, 11-20.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.

unnamed possible spinosaurid (Bittencourt and Kellner, 2003)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Romualdo Member of Santana Formation, Brazil

Material- (MN 4743-V) (subadult) incomplete third and fourth sacral vertebrae, fifth sacral vertebra, six proximal caudal vertebrae, three proximal chevrons
Comments- Bittencourt and Kellner (2003) excluded MN 4743-V from Ceratosauria based on the lack of a synsacrum and a ventral midline groove on the proximal caudal centra. They excluded it from Coelurosauria based on the transversely rounded ventral sacral margin and anterior chevrons with a roblike proximal section. They suggested spinosaurid affinities based on the infradiapophyseal laminae on the proximal caudals, as well as undisclosed similarities to an undescribed specimen (MN 4819-V) tentatively referred to that family.
However, a ventral midline groove on proximal caudal centra is present in nearly every theropod, even Shuvuuia (only the first two caudals are keeled). It's absence is only reported for Elaphrosaurus, Carnotaurus, Eustreptospondylus, Cristatusaurus, Shaochilong and Ornithomimus? sedens. Additionally, synsacra are highly variable in theropods (seemingly due to age and individual variation). "Ceratosaurs" (sensu lato) that lack complete sacral fusion include Liliensternus, some Coelophysis rhodesiensis specimens, Dilophosaurus and abelisaurids. Tyrannosauroids lack ventrally flattened sacral centra, a condition that has also been reported for SMNK 2349 PAL and Ornitholestes. Thus, the flat venter may be a maniraptoriform character, not a coelurosaurian one. I have not observed any difference in the anteroposterior elongation of the proximal end of anterior chevrons between coelurosaurs and non-coelurosaurs. The expansion seen in most coelurosaurs (but not all- eg. Gallimimus) is also found in many other theropods, such as Dilophosaurus, Torvosaurus, Acrocanthosaurus and Allosaurus. This is mostly caused by paired anterior processes at the proximal end. Baryonyx lacks these however, adding further proof to their possible spinosaurid identification.
Reference- Bittencourt and Kellner, 2003. New theropod remains from the Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Aptian-Albian), Northeastern Brazil. III Simpósio Brasileiro de Paleovertebrados, Resumos. 18.
Bittencourt and Kellner, 2004. On a sequence of sacrocaudal theropod dinosaur vertebrae from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation, northeastern Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro. 62(3), 309-320.

undescribed spinosaurid (Kellner, 2001)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Romualdo Member of Santana Formation, Brazil

Material- (MN 4819-V) dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, incomplete forelimbs including carpal, metacarpals, phalanges and manual ungual I, ilium (553 mm), pubis, ischium, incomplete hindlimbs
Comments- Both Kellner (2001) and Kellner and Bittencourt (2004) incorrectly referred to this specimen as MN 4802-V instead of 4819-V (Machado and Kellner, 2005). Kellner stated the manual ungual I is large and the ischium has an obturator notch. Machado and Kellner stated it has tall neural spines as well. Bittencourt and Kellner stated it was indeterminate but also that it differed from MN 4743-V.
Reference- Kellner, 2001. New information on the theropod dinosaurs from the Santana Formation (Aptian-Albian), Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 67A.
Bittencourt and Kellner, 2004. On a sequence of sacrocaudal theropod dinosaur vertebrae from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation, northeastern Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro. 62(3), 309-320.
Machado and Kellner, 2005. Notes on Spinosauridae (Theropoda, Dinosauria). Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ. 28(1), 158-173.
Machado, Kellner and Campos, 2005. Preliminary information on a dinosaur (Theropoda, Spinosauridae) pelvis from the Cretaceous Santana Formation (Romualdo Member) Brazil. II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados. Rio de Janeiro, 2005. Boletim de resumos. 161-162.
Machado and Kellner, 2008. An overview of the Spinosauridae (Dinosaurida, Theropoda) with comments on the Brasilian material. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 109A.

undescribed possible spinosaurid (Sayao, Saraiva, Silva and Kellner, 2011)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Romualdo Member of Santana Formation, Brazil

Material- (MPSC R-2089) distal femur, proximal tibia, fibula, pedal digit I, metatarsal II, phalanx II-?, metatarsal III, pedal ungual III (35 mm), metatarsal IV, pedal ungual IV (31 mm)
Reference- Sayao, Saraiva, Silva and Kellner, 2011. A new theropod dinosaur from the Romualdo Lagerstatte (Aptian-Albian), Araripe Basin, Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 187.

unnamed spinosaurid (Barrett, Benson, Rich and Vickers-Rich, 2010)
Late Aptian-Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Eumeralla Formation of the Otway Group, Victoria, Australia
Material
- (NMV P221081) (juvenile) partial seventh or eighth cervical vertebra (37 mm, excluding anterior ball)
References- Barrett, Benson, Rich and Vickers-Rich, 2010. A definitive spinosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Australia and its implications for Gondwanan paleobiogeography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 57A.
Barrett, Benson, Rich and Vickers-Rich, 2011. First spinosaurid dinosaur from Australia and the cosmopolitanism of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas. Biology Letters. 7(6), 933-936.
Benson, Rich, Vickers-Rich and Hall, 2012. Theropod fauna from Southern Australia indicates high polor diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality. PLOS One. 7(5), e37122.

undescribed Spinosauridae (Mueller, Bussert, David, Klein and Salih, 2011)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Shendi or Wadi Milk Formation, Sudan
Material
- jaw fragments, teeth
Reference- Mueller, Bussert, David, Klein and Salih, 2011. New discoveries and investigations on the Late Cretaceous vertebrate fauna of Northern Sudan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 163-164.

undescribed possible spinosaurid (Serrano-Martinez, Ortega and Knoll, 2013)
Bathonian?, Middle Jurassic
Argiles de l'Irhazer of the Irhazer Group, Niger

Material- tooth
Comments- Serrano-Martinez et al. (2013) noted this has spinosaurid characters (subconical, textured enamel, minute serrations) but is not as conical as Cretaceous spinosaurids and lacks fluting. It plots between spinosaurids and basal tetanurines when examined morphometrically. This led the authors to propose it may be a basal spinosaurid.
Reference- Serrano-Martinez, Ortega and Knoll, 2013. Isolated theropod teeth from the "Argiles de l'Irhazer" (Middle Jurassic) of Niger. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 210.

Baryonychinae Charig and Milner, 1986 vide Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998
Definition- (Baryonyx walkeri <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus) (Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Sereno et al., 1998)

Baryonyx Charig and Milner, 1986
B. walkeri Charig and Milner, 1986
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Upper Weald Clay, England

Holotype- (BMNH R9951) (9.1 m, 1.7-2.7 tons) (skull 915 mm) premaxillae, anterior maxilla, posterior nasals, lacrimal, prefrontal, frontal, partial parietal, laterosphenoid, orbitosphenoid, occiput, quadrates, partial pterygoid, dentaries (one fragmentary), splenials (one fragmentary), partial surangular, partial angulars, coronoid, incomplete prearticular, teeth, atlantal pleurocentrum, axial intercentrum, axis (73 mm), third cervical vertebra (81 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (74 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (95 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (120 mm), axial rib, three cervical ribs (one complete), first dorsal vertebra (91 mm), second dorsal vertebra (108 mm), third dorsal vertebra (92 mm), partial fourth dorsal vertebra (90 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (92 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (88 mm), seventh dorsal neural arch, eighth dorsal centrum (93 mm), tenth dorsal neural arch, eleventh dorsal vertebra (105 mm), thirteenth dorsal centrum (108 mm), fourteenth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), dorsal ribs, several gastralia, proximal caudal vertebra (134 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (144 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (140 mm), three fragmentary caudal centra, proximal caudal neural arch, two proximal caudal neural spines, five chevrons, incomplete scapulae, coracoids, incomplete sternum, humeri (463 mm), radii (225 mm), ulna (283 mm), distal phalanx I-1, manual ungual I (240 mm), phalanx III-2 (132 mm), phalanx III-3 (91 mm), manual ungual III (142 mm), phalanx IV-1 (65 mm), incomplete ilium (~820 mm), incomplete pubis, incomplete ischium, partial femur (~890 mm), tibial fragment, proximal fibula, astragalar fragment, calcaneum, two distal metatarsals, proximal pedal ungual, gastrolith
Referred- (Maidstone Museum MNEMG 1996.133) tooth (Charig and Milner, 1997)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Wessex Formation, England

(IWCMS 1995 207) tooth (Martill and Hutt, 1996)
(IWCMS 1995 208) tooth (Martill and Hutt, 1996)
(IWCMS 1995 209) tooth (Martill and Hutt, 1996)
(IWCMS 3642) tooth (Martill and Hutt, 1996)
(IWCMS 5120) tooth (Martill and Hutt, 1996)
(IWCMS 5122) tooth (Martill and Hutt, 1996)
?(MIWG.6527) (~10-11 m) manual phalanx I-1 (Naish, Hutt and Martill, 2001)
(UOP.97) tooth (Charig and Milner, 1997)
(UOP C001.2004) dorsal vertebra (Hutt and Newbery, 2004)
?(private coll.; Weenyonyx) (~1.9 m) manual ungual (~50 mm) (Naish, DML 1997)
Barremian-Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Wealden Formation, Spain

(PS.C.-15,30) tooth (Torcida et al., 1997)
(PS.C.-15,32) tooth (43.5 mm) (Torcida et al., 1997)
(PS.CLST,2) tooth (30 mm) (Torcida et al., 1997)
(PS.TBMV,13) tooth (Torcida et al., 1997)
?teeth (Royo and Gomez, 1927)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Papo Seco Formation, Portugal

(MML 1190) partial dentary, two teeth, four dorsal neural arches, several dorsal rib fragments, proximal caudal centrum (95 mm), mid caudal centrum (105 mm), mid caudal centrum (104 mm), mid caudal centrum (96 mm), distal caudal centrum (82 mm), partial distal caudal centrum, chevron fragments, proximal scapula, ilial fragment, partial pubis, calcanea, pedal ungual (78 mm) (Mateus, Araujo, Natario and Castanhinha, 2011)
Diagnosis- (after Sereno et al., 1998) fused nasals with a median crest terminating posteriorly in a cruciate process; solid subrectangular lacrimal horn; marked transverse constriction of the sacral or anterior caudal centra; well-formed peg-and-notch articulation between the scapula and coracoid; everted distal margin of the pubic blade; very shallow fibular fossa.
Comments- Sereno et al. (1998) reidentified the supposed jugal from Charig and Milner (1997) as a preartcular, the postorbital as a posterior surangular fragment, the atlantal neurapophysis as a partial pterygoid, and the left angular as being from the right side.
Buffetaut (2010) notes Royo and Gomez (1927) mentioned Suchosaurus teeth from the Wealden of Spain, and they are here tentatively assigned to Baryonyx.
Hutt and Newbery (2004) describe a dorsal vertebra showing Baryonyx had taller dorsal neural spines than previously suggested.
The teeth described by Martill and Hutt (1996) differ from those in the holotype in having strong labial fluting, but variation of this kind is also known in Cristatusaurus (Taquet and Russell, 1998), Spinosaurus (Bouaziz et al., 1988) and the Oxalaia (Medeiros, 2006). Thus it should not be used as a diagnostic character for distinguishing spinosaurid species. The referred material is assigned to Baryonyx purely based on stratigraphic grounds, and is no more similar to that genus than to Cristatusaurus, Suchosaurus or most of the known isolated baryonychine teeth. Suchosaurus cultridens is a likely senior synonym of Baryonyx walkeri based on provenence, but this cannot be proven at present (see Suchosaurus comments). Weenyonyx is a nickname proposed by Munt and Hutt for a small ungual in Simpson's collection supposedly similar to Baryonyx's holotype (Naish, DML 1997). If it is Baryonyx, it is a juvenile, but without more information, even its identification as a spinosaurid is uncertain.
References- Royo and Gomez, 1927. Sur le facies wealdien d’Espagne. Comptes Rendus de la Societe geologique de France. 10, 125-128.
Charig and Milner, 1986. Baryonyx, a remarkable new theropod dinosaur. Nature. 324, 359-361.
Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Ghanmi, Jaeger, Martin, Mazin, and Tong, 1988. Nouvelle découvertes de vertébrés fossiles dans l'Albien du Sud tunisien. [New finds of fossil vertebrates in the Albian of southern Tunisia.]. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 4, 335-339.
Buffetaut, 1989. New remains of the enigmatic dinosaur Spinosaurus from the Cretaceous of Morocco and the affinities between Spinosaurus and Baryonyx. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 1989, 79-87.
Charig and Milner, 1990. The systematic position of Baryonyx walkeri, in the light of Gauthier's reclassification of the Theropoda. In Carpenter and Currie (eds.). Dinosaur Systematics: Approaches and Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. 127-140.
Buffetaut, 1992. Remarks on the Cretaceous theropod dinosaurs Spinosaurus and Baryonyx. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 1992, 88-96.
Martill and Hutt, 1996. Possible baryonychid dinosaur teeth from the Wessex Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Barremian) of the Isle of Wight, England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association. 107, 81-84.
Charig and Milner, 1997. Baryonyx walkeri, a fish-eating dinosaur from the Wealden of Surrey. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London (Geology). 53, 11-70.
Naish, DML 1997. http://dml.cmnh.org/1997Nov/msg00480.html
Torcida, Fuentes, Izquierdo, Montero and Urien, 1997. Dientes de dinosaurios teropodos (cf. Baryonyx) en el Weald de Burgos (Espana). Studia Geologica Salamanticensia. 33, 59-65.
Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of the spinosaurids. Science. 282(5392), 1298-1302.
Taquet and Russell, 1998. New data on spinosaurid dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Sahara. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences à Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes. 327, 347-353.
Naish, Hutt and Martill, 2001. Saurischian dinosaurs 2: Theropods. In Martill and Naish (eds). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association (London). 242-309.
Hutt and Newbery, 2004. A new look at Baryonyx walkeri (Charig and Milner, 1986) based upon a recent fossil find from the Wealden. SVPCA 2004. 18.
Medeiros, 2006. Large theropod teeth from the Eocenomanian of northeastern Brazil and the occurrence of Spinosauridae. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 9(3), 333-338.
Rayfield, Milner, Xuan and Young, 2007. Functional morphology of spinosaur 'crocodile-mimic' dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 892-901.
Mateus, Natário, Araújo, Castanhinha, 2008. A new specimen of spinosaurid dinosaur aff. Baryonyx from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Livro de Resumos do X Congresso Luso-Espanhol de Herpetologia. Universidade de Coimbra. 51.
Buffetaut, 2010. Spinosaurs before Stromer: Early finds of spinosaurid dinosaurs and their interpretations. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 343, 175-188.
Mateus, Araujo, Natario and Castanhinha, 2011. A new specimen of the theropod dinosaur Baryonyx from the early Cretaceous of Portugal and taxonomic validity of Suchosaurus. Zootaxa. 2827, 54-56.

Baryonychinae indet. (Charig and Milner, 1997)
Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous
Ashdown Sand, England

Diagnosis- compared to Baryonyx, carinae do not extend to base of crown.
Material- (BEXHM:1993.485) tooth
Reference- Charig and Milner, 1997. Baryonyx walkeri, a fish-eating dinosaur from the Wealden of Surrey. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London (Geology). 53, 11-70.

Suchosaurus Owen, 1841
Comments- Owen (1841) originally named this as a subgenus of Crocodylus. Milner (2003) has noted Suchosaurus teeth are identical or extremely similar to Baryonyx, while Buffetaut (2007) referred Suchosaurus girardi to Baryonyx sp.. The only noted difference from the Baryonyx holotype is the presence of strong labial fluting, compared to the weak or absent fluting in Baryonyx. However, fluting is known to vary in Cristatusaurus (Taquet and Russell, 1998), Spinosaurus (Bouaziz et al., 1988) and Oxalaia (Medeiros, 2006). Thus it should not be used as a diagnostic character for spinosaurid teeth. This leaves both Suchosaurus species indeterminate relative to Baryonyx walkeri, and S. cultridens at least is probably the same species as B. walkeri, given their spatiotemporal closeness. Yet Suchosaurus is also indistinguishable from Cristatusaurus, so synonymizing the former with Baryonyx would be unwarranted. Instead, both S. cultridens and S. girardi are indeterminate baryonychines, along with the vast majority of isolated baryonychine teeth.
References- Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Ghanmi, Jaeger, Martin, Mazin, and Tong, 1988. Nouvelle découvertes de vertébrés fossiles dans l'Albien du Sud tunisien. [New finds of fossil vertebrates in the Albian of southern Tunisia]. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 4, 335-339.
Taquet and Russell, 1998. New data on spinosaurid dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Sahara. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences à Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes. 327, 347-353.
Milner, 2003. Fish-eating theropods: A short review of the systematics, biology and palaeobiogeography of spinosaurs. In Hurtado and Fernandez-Baldor (eds.). Actas de las II Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontologýa de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. 129-138.
Medeiros, 2006. Large theropod teeth from the Eocenomanian of northeastern Brazil and the occurrence of Spinosauridae. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 9(3), 333-338.
Buffetaut, 2007. The spinosaurid dinosaur Baryonyx (Saurischia, Theropoda) in the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Geological Magazine. 144, 1021-1025.
Mateus, Araujo, Natario and Castanhinha, 2011. A new specimen of the theropod dinosaur Baryonyx from the early Cretaceous of Portugal and taxonomic validity of Suchosaurus. Zootaxa. 2827, 54-56.
S. cultridens Owen, 1841
= Crocodylus (Suchosaurus) cultridens Owen, 1841
Valanginian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Wealden Group, England

Holotype- (BMNH R36536) several teeth
Referred- (BMNH 3240) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 3279) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 3309) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 3311) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 3312) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 3315) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 3316) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 3330) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 3381) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH 10822) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 26030) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 26031) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 26032) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 33119) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH 33121) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R215) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R635) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R641) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH R642) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH R977) three teeth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R1901) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH R2312) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH R2313) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH R5165) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(BMNH R5226) tooth (Fowler, 2007)
(Woodwardian Museum Ji910) tooth (Seeley, 1869)
(Woodwardian Museum Ji911) tooth (Seeley, 1869)
(Woodwardian Museum Ji912) tooth (Seeley, 1869)
(Woodwardian Museum Ji913) tooth (Seeley, 1869)
Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Wadhurst Clay, England
Referred
- (BMNH R4415) tooth (30 mm) (Mantell, 1827)
teeth
Diagnosis- Indeterminate within Baryonychinae.
Comments- Mantell first discovered Suchomimus teeth around 1820, with BMNH R36536 illustrated by Cuvier (1824) as crocodylian and BMNH R4415 mentioned by Mantell (1827) as resembling Teleosaurus and Gavialis. However, Owen (1841) was the first to name them as a new taxon of crocodilian. Specifically, Owen erected Suchosaurus as a subgenus of Crocodylus, similar to material later referred to Pristichampsus. Vertebrae referred to the taxon by Owen (1842) (including BMNH 2123 and 2138) were later referred to Hylaeosaurus and Iguanodon respectively by Lydekker (1888). The species Suchosaurus laevidens (Owen, 1884) is probably a misspelling of S. cultridens. Long considered a pholidosaurid neosuchian, Olshevsky (DML, 2000) reported that Milner et al. have identified this as a spinosaurid (and possible synonym of Baryonyx) at SVP meetings. This was published by Milner (2003) and Buffetaut (2007, 2010). Specimen numbers for teeth reported by Fowler (2007) are taken from Bertin (2010). Buffetaut reports the holotype has marked labial and lingual fluting, wrinkled enamel and apparently worn off serrations.
Austen et al. (2010) reported additional teeth he referred to Baryonyx walkeri from the Wadhurst Clay.
References- Cuvier, 1824. Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, deuxieme edition. 5(2e). Dufour & d’Ocagne, Paris. 547 pp.
Mantell, 1827. Illustrations of the geology of Sussex. London: Lupton Rolfe. 92 pp.
Owen, 1841. Odontography. London: Hippolyte Bailliere. 655 pp.
Owen, 1842. Report on British fossil reptiles. Part II. Reports of the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 11, 61-204.
Ward, 1861. Goniopholis and Suchosaurus remains in Wealden strata. The Geologist. 4, 263.
Seeley, 1869. Index to the fossil remains of Aves, Ornithosauria, and Reptilia from the Secondary system of strata, arranged in the Woodwardian Museum of the University of Cambridge. With a prefatory notice by the Rev. Adam Sedgewick. London, Bell & Daldy. 143 pp.
Owen, 1878. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck Formations. Supplement VIII, (Goniopholis, Petrosuchus, and Suchosaurus). Palaeontolographical Society Monographs, London. 32, 1-15.
Owen, 1884. A History of British Fossil Reptiles, Volume II. Cassell, London. 224 pp.
Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
http://dml.cmnh.org/2000Sep/msg00045.html
Milner, 2003. Fish-eating theropods: A short review of the systematics, biology and palaeobiogeography of spinosaurs. In Hurtado and Fernandez-Baldor (eds.). Actas de las II Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontologýa de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. 129-138.
Buffetaut, 2007. The spinosaurid dinosaur Baryonyx (Saurischia, Theropoda) in the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Geological Magazine. 144, 1021-1025.
Fowler, 2007. Recently rediscovered baryonychine teeth (Dinosauria Theropoda): New morphologic data, range extension and similarity to ceratosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 76A.
Austen, Brockhurst and Honeysett, 2010. Vertebrate fauna from Ashdown Brickworks, Bexhill, East Sussex. Wealden News. 8, 13-23.
Bertin, 2010. A catalogue of the material and review of the Spinosauridae. PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 7(4), 1-39.
Buffetaut, 2010. Spinosaurs before Stromer: Early finds of spinosaurid dinosaurs and their interpretations. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 343, 175-188.
S? girardi Sauvage, 1898
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Papo Seco Formation, Portugal
Holotype
- (Museu Geologico 29) three dentary fragments, tooth (lost)
Diagnosis- Indeterminate within Baryonychinae.
Comments- The formation has also been identified as the Gres Marneux a Grands Sauriens (Choffat, 1904), and does not belong to the Almargem Beds, contra Choffat and Sauvage.
Sauvage (1897/98) described the holotype as a goniopholidid but never diagnosed the species relative to Suchosaurus cultridens (it is not a nomen nudum however, as diagnoses are not required by the ICZN prior to 1931- Article 12.1). Indeed, Buffetaut noted they are virtually identical in dental morphology. Yet as neither possesses apomorphies relative to other baryonychines, they should not be synonymized. cf. Baryonyx walkeri remains (ML 1190) have been found in the same formation and probably belong to the same taxon.
The teeth are recurved, only slightly compressed labiolingually, have densely wrinkled enamel, distinct labial and lingual fluting, and 6-7 serrations per mm.
References- Sauvage, 1898. Vertebres fossiles du Portugal. Contribution a letude des poissons et des reptiles du Jurassique et du Cretacique. Lisbonne. Direction des Travaux geologiques du Portugal. 46 pp.
Choffat, 1904. Le Cretacique dans l’Arrabida et dans la contree d’Ericeira. Comunicacoes de Commissao do Servico Geologico de Portugal. 6, 1-44.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957. Les dinosauriens du Portugal. Mémoires du Service géologique du Portugal. 2, 1-63.
Buffetaut, 2007. The spinosaurid dinosaur Baryonyx (Saurischia, Theropoda) in the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Geological Magazine. 144, 1021-1025.

Baryonychinae indet. (Ruiz-Omenaca, Canudo, Cruzado-Caballero, Infante and Moreno-Azanza, 2005)
Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Blesa Formation, Spain
Material
- (MPZ 97/468) tooth fragment (FABL 6 mm) (Ruiz-Omenaca et al., 1997)
(MPZ 2001/207) tooth (FABL 15 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2003)
(MPZ 2001/208) tooth (FABL 8.1 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2003)
(MPZ 2005/303) tooth fragment (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/304) tooth (FABL 8.7 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/305) tooth fragment (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/306) tooth (FABL 6.6 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/307) tooth (FABL 6.4 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/308) tooth fragment (FABL ~9 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/309) tooth (FABL 4.7 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/310) tooth (FABL 2.5 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/311) tooth (FABL 3 mm) (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/312) tooth fragment (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/313) tooth fragment (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/314) tooth fragment (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(MPZ 2005/315) tooth fragment (Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
(TPFM coll.) several teeth (Ruiz-Omenaca et al., 2005)
Comments- MPZ 97/468 was originally described as Theropoda indet. B by Ruiz-Omenaca et al. (1997), and later assigned to Baryonychidae indet. (Ruiz-Omenaca et al., 1998). Canudo and Ruiz-Omenaca (2003) illustrated MPZ 2001/207 and 2001/208 as Baryonychinae indet.. These three specimens and MPZ 2005/303-315 were described in detail by Ruiz-Omenaca et al. (2005).
The teeth are generally similar to Baryonyx, but differ in being more labiolingually compressed, having labial fluting and a greater variation in serration density (6-13 per mm vs. 7 per mm).
References- Ruiz-Omeñaca, Canudo and Cuenca-Bescós, 1997. Primera evidencia de un área de alimentación de dinosaurios herbívoros en el Cretácico Inferior de España (Teruel). Monografías de la Academia de Ciencias de Zaragoza. 10, 1-48.
Ruiz-Omeñaca, Canudo and Cuenca-Bescós, 1998. Primera cita de dinosaurios barionícidos (Saurischia: Theropoda) en el Barremiense Superior (Cretácico Inferior) de Vallipón (Castellote, Teruel). Mas de las Matas. 17, 201-223.
Canudo and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2003. Los restos directos de dinosaurios teropódos (excluyendo Aves) en España [Direct remains of theropod dinosaurs (excluding Aves) in Spain]. Ciencias de la Tierra. 26, 347-373.
Ruiz-Omenaca, Canudo, Cruzado-Caballero, Infante and Moreno-Azanza, 2005. Baryonychine teeth (Theropoda: Spinosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of La Cantalera (Jose, NE Spain). Kaupia. 14, 59-63.

Baryonychinae indet. (Falset, Santos-Cubedo, Figols and Fuster, 2009)
Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Cantaperdius Formation, Spain
Material
- (MG98-I-I) tooth (~35x14x12 mm)
Reference- Falset, Santos-Cubedo, Figols and Fuster, 2009. Primera cita de Baryonychine (Theropoda: Spinosauridae) en el Hauterviense terminal-Barremiense basal (Formación Cantaperdius) de Castellón (España). Journal of Paleontology and Paleoecology, Paleolusitana. 1, 391-396.

Baryonychinae indet. (Sánchez-Hernández, Benton and Naish, 2007)
Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
El Castellar Formation, Spain
Material
- (MOAL-1/1) tooth (22.7x14x10.5 mm) (Gasca et al., 2008)
(MPG PX-23) tooth (1.3x.7x.4 mm) (Sanchez-Hernandez et al., 2007)
(SM-2/D1) tooth (11.6x9x6.8 mm) (Gasca et al., 2008)
References- Sánchez-Hernández, Benton and Naish, 2007. Dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of the Galve area, NE Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimate, Palaeoecology. 249, 180-215.
Gasca, Moreno-Azanza and Canudo, 2008. Dientes de dinosaurios terópodos espinosáuridos de la Formación El Castellar (Cretácico Inferior, Teruel). Palaeontologica Nova. 8, 233-234.

unnamed baryonychine (Fuentes Vidarte, Meijide Calvo, Izquierdo, Molinero, Montero, Pérez, Urien, Meijide Fuentes and Meijide Fuentes, 1999)
Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Pinilla de los Moros Formation, Spain
Material
- (J.G. 1) (subadult) chevron (160 mm)
....(J.G. 2) proximal cervical rib
....(J.G. 3) proximal cervical rib
....(J.G. 4) proximal cervical rib
....(J.G. 5) squamosal
....(J.G. 6) postorbital
....(J.G. 7) caudal centrum (90.5 mm)
....(J.G. 8) posterior sacral fragment (fifth centrum 71.5 mm)
....(J.G. 9) cervical neural arch
....(J.G. 10) metacarpal I (65 mm)
....(J.G. 12) proximal metacarpal II
....(J.G. 18) proximal metacarpal III
....(J.G. 21) manual phalanx I-1 (130 mm)
....(J.G. 284) tooth fragment
....(J.G. coll.) 36 fragments
References- Fuentes Vidarte, Meijide Calvo, Izquierdo, Molinero, Montero, Pérez, Urien, Meijide Fuentes and Meijide Fuentes, 1999. Restos de Baryonyx (Dinosauria, Theropoda) en el weald de Salas de los Infantes (Burgos, España). I Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontología de dinosaurios y su entorno. 25-26.
Fuentes Vidarte, Meijide Calvo, Izquierdo, Montero, Pérex, Torcida, Urién, Meijide Fuentes and Meijide Fuentes, 2001. Restos fósiles de Baryonyx (Dinosauria, Theropoda) en el Cretácico inferior de Salas de los Infantes (Burgos, España). Actas de las I Jornadas internacionales sobre Paleontología de Dinosaurios y su entorno. 349-359.

Baryonychinae indet. (Sánchez-Hernández, Benton and Naish, 2007)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Camarillas Formation, Spain
Material
- (MPG CR(m)-1) tooth (17x7x4 mm)
(MPG CR(m)-2) tooth (12x6x4 mm)
(MPG CR(m)-3) tooth (18x6x6 mm)
(MPG CR(m)-4) tooth (17x9x7 mm)
(MPG POCA-6) tooth (3.9x1.9x.9 mm)
(MPG POCA-7) tooth (3.1x1.5x? mm)
(MPG POCA-14) tooth (3x1.8x1.5 mm)
(MPG POCA-15) tooth (2.8x1.5x.8 mm)
(MPG POCA-18) tooth (2x1x.5 mm)
(MPG SC-1) tooth (16x9x8 mm)
(MPG SC-2) tooth (21x12x7 mm)
Comments- These were first mentioned by Ruiz-Omenaca et al. (1998).
References- Ruiz-Omeñaca, Canudo and Cuenca-Bescós, 1998. Primera cita de dinosaurios barionícidos (Saurischia: Theropoda) en el Barremiense Superior (Cretácico Inferior) de Vallipón (Castellote, Teruel). Mas de las Matas. 17, 201-223.
Sánchez-Hernández, Benton and Naish, 2007. Dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of the Galve area, NE Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimate, Palaeoecology. 249, 180-215.

Baryonychinae indet. (Infante, Canudo and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2005)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Mirambel Formation, Spain
Material
- (LAD0-2) tooth fragment (?x6.7x5.3 mm)
Comments- This tooth preserves both labial and lingual fluting and 4.9 serrations per mm.
Reference- Infante, Canudo and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2005. Primera evidencia de dinosaurios terópodos en la Formación Mirambel (Barremiense inferior, Cretácico Inferior) en Castellote, Teruel [First evidence of theropod dinosaurs in the Mirambel Formation (lower Barremian, Lower Cretaceous) in Castellote, Teruel]. Geogaceta. 38, 31-34.

Baryonychinae indet. (Viera and Torres, 1995)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Encisco Formation, Spain

Material- (GA-2065) (6.75 m) maxillary fragment (Viera and Torres, 1995)
Reference- Viera and Torres, 1995. Presencia de Baryonyx walkeri (Saurischia, Theropoda) en el Weald de La Rioja (Espana). Nota previa. Munibe (Ciencias Naturales). 47, 57-61.

unnamed possible baryonychine (Ruiz-Omeñaca, Canudo and Cuenca-Bescós, 1998)
Late Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Artoles Formation, Spain
Material
- (MPZ 98/59) tooth (19x10x8 mm)
(MPZ 98/60) tooth (16x8x6.4 mm)
(MPZ 98/61) tooth (~17x~7.4x~6.3 mm)
Comments- These differ from Baryonyx in having both lingual and labial fluting, and in lacking mesial serrations. This opens the possibility of them being from a basal spinosaurine.
Reference- Ruiz-Omeñaca, Canudo and Cuenca-Bescós, 1998. Primera cita de dinosaurios barionícidos (Saurischia: Theropoda) en el Barremiense Superior (Cretácico Inferior) de Vallipón (Castellote, Teruel). Mas de las Matas. 17, 201-223.

Baryonychinae indet. (Torcida Fernández, Izquierdo Montero, Huerta Hurtado, Montero Huerta and Pérez Martínez, 2003)
Late Barremian-Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Castrillo de la Reina, Spain
Material
- (PS-JTS 20) tooth (?x9x7 mm)
(PS C-1 11) tooth (?x14x10 mm)
Comments- These teeth are similar to Baryonyx except for having both labial and lingual fluting. PS-JTS 20 has 6 serrations per mm mesially (though lacking them basally), and 6-8 per mm distally. PS C-1 11 has 6 per mm mesially and 5-6 per mm distally.
Reference- Torcida Fernández, Izquierdo Montero, Huerta Hurtado, Montero Huerta and Pérez Martínez, 2003. Dientes de dinosaurios (Theropoda, Sauropoda), en el Cretácico Inferior de Burgos (España). In Pérez-Lorente (ed.). Dinosaurios y otros Reptiles Mesozoicos en España (IER, Ciencias de la Tierra, 26). 335-346.

Baryonychinae indet. (Canudo, Gasulla, Ortega and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2004)
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Arcillas de Morella Formation, Spain
Material-
(CMP-2-175) dentary tooth (~22.4x8.6x6.6 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-182) dentary tooth (~39.9x17.5x12.7 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-196) maxillary tooth (~17.2x11.3x7 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-360) tooth (~38.8x17.8x11.8 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
?(CMP-3-369) maxillary tooth (~32.8x16.9x13 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-370) tooth (~17.3x16.9x10.7 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-532) tooth (10.8x9.3x7 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-538) lateral tooth (15.6x8.8x6.6 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-758) lateral tooth (~40.8x19.5x12.9 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-759) tooth (~33.7x15.4x10.1 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-760) tooth (~39.4x16.9x13 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
?(CMP-3-790) tooth (21.2x9.1x7.5 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
?(CMP-3-791) tooth (15.6x12.2x10 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-896) tooth (20.8x8.9x6.8 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-897) tooth (21.2x9.5x6.7 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3-1012) tooth (19.8x8.1x6.5 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-3b-9) lateral tooth (30.4x11.3x8.2 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-5b-46) lateral tooth (24.2x14.1x10.4 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
(CMP-9-37) lateral tooth (36.5x17.1x11.3 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
?(CMP-9-49) maxillary tooth (37.7x18.5x12.1 mm) (Canudo et al., 2008)
posterior cervical vertebra (Gasulla et al., 2009)
Comments- Some of the teeth were originally assigned to plesiosaurs (Yague et al., 2003). The teeth differ from Baryonyx in having both lingual and labial fluting. They have 5-9 serrations per mm on mesial carinae (when present) and and 5-9 on distal carinae. A few (CMP-3-369, 790, 791 and 9-49) lack both mesial and distal serrations, so may be spinosaurines or may reflect positional variation.
References- Yagüe, Ortega, Noé, Gasulla and García, 2003. Reptiles marinos (Plesiosauria) del Aptiense inferior de Morella (Castellón). Ciencias de la Tierra. 26, 399-404.
Canudo, Gasulla, Ortega and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2004. Presencia de Baryonychinae (Theropoda) en el Aptiense inferior (Cretácico inferior) de Laurasia: Cantera Mas de la Parreta, Formación Arcillas de Morella (Morella, Castellón). III Jornadas Internacionales sobre Palaeontología de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. 11-12.
Canudo, Gasulla, Gómez-Fernández, Ortega, Sanz and Yagüe, 2008. Primera evidencia de dientes aislados atribuidos a Spinosauridae (Theropoda) en el Aptiano inferior (Cretácico Inferior) de Europa: Formación Arcillas de Morella (España). Ameghiniana. 45, 649-662.
Gasulla, Ortega, Sanz, Escaso and Pérez Garcia, 2009. A spinosaurid cervical vertebra from the Morella Formation (lower Aptian) of Morella, Spain. In Schwarz-Wings, Wings and Sattler (eds.). Abstract Book 7th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Paleontologists. 31.

unnamed baryonychine (Hone et al., 2010)
Middle Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Majiacun Formation, Henan, China
Material
- (XMDFEC V0010) tooth (52x15x9 mm)
Reference- Hone, Xu and Wang. 2010. A probable baryonychine (Theropoda: Spinosauridae) tooth from the Upper Cretaceous of Henan Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 48, 19-26.

Cristatusaurus Taquet and Russell, 1998
= Suchomimus Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998
C. lapparenti Taquet and Russell, 1998
= Suchomimus tenerensis Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998
= Baryonyx tenerensis (Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998) Sues, Frey, Martill and Scott, 2002
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Tegama Bed of the Elrhaz Formation, Niger

Holotype- (MNHN GDF 366) (subadult) premaxillae, partial maxilla, partial dentary
Paratypes- (MNHN GDF 357, 358, 361) dorsal vertebrae (135 mm)
(MNHN GDF 359) posterior (11th?) dorsal neural arch (centrum ~100 mm)
(MNHN GDF 365) (adult) premaxilla
Referred- (MNHN GAD 513) cervical vertebrae 2-10, dorsal vertebrae 1-5, ribs, gastralia, girdle and limb elements, manual and pedal elements, furcula (Lipkin et al., 2007)
(MNHN GDF 500; holotype of Suchomimus tenerensis) (11.0 m, 2.9-4.8 tons) third cervical rib, fifth cervical rib, eighth cervical rib, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal neural spine, eleventh dorsal centrum, thirteenth dorsal vertebra, fourteenth dorsal vertebra, fifteenth dorsal vertebra, sixteenth dorsal vertebra, ten dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacral neural spines 3-5, caudal transverse processes 2-5, caudal neural spines 1-5, six mid caudal centra, distal caudal vertebra, three chevrons, scapula, coracoid, humerus (560 mm), radius (255 mm), ulna, manual ungual I (264 mm), manual ungual II (165 perp. to art,), metacarpal III (130 mm), manual ungual III (120 perp. to art.), ilium, pubis, ischium, femur (1.075 m), tibia (945 mm), pedal phalanx (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 501; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) premaxillae, maxillae (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 502; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) quadrate (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 503; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) partial dentary (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 504; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) partial dentary (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 505; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) partial dentary (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 506; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) axis (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 507; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) posterior cervical vertebra (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 508; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) posterior dorsal vertebra (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 510; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) caudal vertebra (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN GDF 511; paratype of Suchomimus tenerensis) caudal vertebra (Sereno et al., 1998)
(MNHN coll.) teeth, bones (Sereno et al., 1998)
snout, prefrontal frontal, braincase (Ibrahim and Sereno, 2011)
Diagnosis- (after Taquet and Russell, 1988) sagittal crest on premaxilla.
(modified after Sereno et al., 1998) elongate subnarial process that nearly excludes maxilla from external naris (unknown in Baryonyx); broadened posterior dorsal, sacral and proximal caudal neural spines (ontogenetic compared to Baryonyx?); robust humeral tuberosities; hook-shaped radial entepicondyle.
Other diagnoses- Sereno et al. (1998) listed 'hypertrophied ulnar olecranon process that is offset from the humeral articulation' as a diagnostic character, but Carrano et al. (2012) note it is present in Baryonyx too.
Comments- Contra Sereno et al. (1998), Charig and Milner (1997) and Carrano et al. (2012), Cristatusaurus is not a nomen dubium. Taquet and Russell (1998) are correct in noting the "brevirostrine" condition distinguishes Cristatusaurus from Baryonyx, except that they define this as having a sagittal crest (pg. 351) as opposed to the more obvious interpretation of having a short snout. A Suchomimus paratype (MNHN GDF 501) has a sagittal crest too. This may be due to ontogeny, but the same can be said of the characters Sereno et al. proposed to distinguish Suchomimus from Baryonyx. In addition, Cristatusaurus and Suchomimus resemble each other more than Baryonyx in having a less rounded anterodorsal margin to their premaxillae, and having a comparatively larger second alveolus (though it is smaller in Suchomimus than Cristatusaurus). Since both are from the same formation, share an apparently apomorphy, and have no obvious differences besides alveolar proportions, they are synonymized here.
Several authors have suggested synonymizing Cristatusaurus/Suchomimus with Baryonyx (Charig and Milner, 1997; Milner pers. comm. 1999 to Naish et al., 2001; Sues et al., 2002; Milner in prep.). While Charig and Milner's (1997) decision to sink the Cristatusaurus material into Baryonyx sp. indet. made sense prior to the naming of Cristatusaurus or Suchomimus, one cannot now sink a named species like lapparenti into "sp. indet.", nor can one sink Cristatusaurus into Baryonyx without placing Suchomimus there too (as nothing suggests lapparenti is closer to walkeri than to tenerensis; quite the opposite, as seen above). Thus Buffetaut and Ouaja (2002) were wrong to formally sink Cristatusaurus into Baryonyx sp. but leave Suchomimus as provisionally valid. Similarly, even though Sues et al. state "There exists at present no evidence to indicate the presence of more than one taxon of spinosaurid in the faunal assemblage from GAD 5", they incorrectly refer to this taxon as Baryonyx tenerensis instead of B. lapparenti (which would have priority if lapparenti and tenerensis are one taxon). The combination Baryonyx lapparenti has yet to appear in the literature, however. Ultimately, this is a subjective decision since there is no objective definition of 'genus'. The characters listed by Sereno et al. (1998) to differentiate Suchomimus from Baryonyx do seem minor, and are perhaps due to ontogeny or individual variation. Originally, Sereno et al. (1998) also included the height of the neural spines in the diagnosis, but Hutt and Newberry (2004) demonstrated Baryonyx has tall neural spines as well. The scapulae seem quite different though, with that of Baryonyx being unexpanded distally with more of a flare at the glenoid. The humerus of Baryonyx looks less robust and the distal ulna seems to flare less, but these could be due to differing perspectives. The pubic peduncle is less flared distally, while the ischial peduncle is more prominent and the medial blade of the brevis fossa is exposed for a greater distance posteriorly. Also, Baryonyx's ilium is more shallow and has a less hooded supracetabular crest. Yet these scapular and ilial differences could also be due to the schematic nature of Sereno et al.'s skeletal reconstruction. Until the Suchomimus material is described and illustrated in detail, further resolution will not be possible. A more practical reason for keeping Baryonyx and Cristatusaurus separate is that synonymizing them would mean all known baryonychines could be referrable to Baryonyx, even though they range from the Hauterivian to the Aptian and are known from Brazil, England, Spain, Portugal, Cameroon and Niger. This includes Suchosaurus, which would have priority over both Cristatusaurus and Baryonyx, but is based on a very fragmentary type specimen. Having all baryonychines be species of Suchosaurus would be unpopular in the paleontological community and would no doubt result in petition to the ICZN to conserve Baryonyx walkeri, so it's much simpler just to keep lapparenti and walkeri in their own genera.
References- Taquet, 1984. Une curieuse spécialisation du crane de certains Dinosaures carnivores du Crétacé: le museau long et etroit des Spinosauridés [A curious specialization of the skull of some Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaurs: The long and narrow snout of spinosaurids]. Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Série 2. 299(5), 217-222.
Charig and Milner, 1997. Baryonyx walkeri, a fish-eating dinosaur from the Wealden of Surrey. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London (Geology). 53, 11-70.
Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of the spinosaurids. Science. 282(5392), 1298-1302.
Taquet and Russell, 1998. New data on spinosaurid dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Sahara. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences à Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes. 327, 347-353.
Naish, Hutt and Martill, 2001. Saurischian dinosaurs 2: Theropods. In Martill and Naish (eds.). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association, London. 242-309.
Buffetaut and Ouaja, 2002. A new specimen of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia, with remarks on the evolutionary history of the Spinosauridae. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France. 173(5), 415-421.
Sues, Frey, Martill and Scott, 2002. Irritator challengeri, a spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 535-547.
Hutt and Newbery, 2004. A new look at Baryonyx walkeri (Charig and Milner, 1986) based upon a recent fossil find from the Wealden. SVPCA 2004. 18.
Lipkin, Sereno and Horner, 2007. The furcula in Suchomimus tenerensis and Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Tetanurae). Journal of Paleontology. 81(6), 1523-1527.
Ibrahim and Sereno, 2011. New data on spinosaurids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 130.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

undescribed baryonychine (Congleton, 1990)
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Gres de Gaba Member of the Koum Formation, Cameroon
Material
- (CAM 320) tooth
(CAM 322) tooth
(CAM 349) tooth
(CAM 350) tooth
(CAM 351) tooth
(CAM 352) tooth
(CAM 353) tooth
(CAM 354) tooth
(CAM 355) tooth
(CAM 356) tooth
(CAM 357) tooth
(CAM 358) tooth
(CAM 360) tooth
(SMU 72033) tooth
Comments- These were assigned to cf. Spinosauridae by Congleton (1990) and to Baryonychinae by Bertin (2010) due to their serrations.
References- Congleton, 1990. Vertebrate paleontology of the Koum Basin, northern Cameroon, and archosaurian paleobiogeography in the Early Cretaceous. MS thesis. Southern Methodist University. 245 pp.
Bertin, 2010. A catalogue of the material and review of the Spinosauridae. PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 7(4), 1-39.

unnamed Baryonychinae (Le Loeuff, Métais, Dutheil, Rubinos, Buffetaut, Ois Lafont, Cavin, Moreau, Tong, Blanpied and Sbeta, 2010)
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Cabao Formation, Libya
Material
- (UT-JAW2) tooth (27 mm)
(UT-JAW coll.) tooth
References- Le Loeuff, Métais, Dutheil, Rubinos, Buffetaut, Ois Lafont, Cavin, Moreau, Tong, Blanpied and Sbeta, 2010. An Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from the Cabao Formation of NW Libya. Geological Magazine. 147(5), 750-759.

unnamed Baryonychinae (Candeiro, Abranches, Abrantes, Avilla, Martins, Moreira, Torres and Bergqvist, 2004)
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Adamantina Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil
Material
- (UFRJ-DG 354-Rd) tooth (8.6x5.6x? mm)
(UFRJ-DG 372-Rd) tooth (18.9x10.6x? mm)
Comments- These were assigned to Spinosauridae by Candeiro et al. (2004), but reassigned to Theropoda indet. by Candeiro et al. (2006) because other theropods also have serrationless teeth. However, their round cross section, lack of recurvature and present but tiny serrations (contra Candeiro et al., 2006) indicates they are baryonychine spinosaurids.
References- Candeiro, Abranches, Abrantes, Avilla, Martins, Moreira, Torres and Bergqvist, 2004. Dinosaur remains from western Sao Paulo State, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Late Cretaceous). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 18, 1-10.
Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: A reappraisal. Cretaceous Research. 27, 923-946.

Spinosaurinae Stromer, 1915 vide Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998
Definition- (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Baryonyx walkeri) (Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Sereno et al., 1998)
Diagnosis- (after Sues et al., 2002) tooth crowns with distinct but non-serrated carinae; fluted enamel on both the labial and lingual surfaces.
References- Stromer. 1915. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-Reste der Baharîje-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 3. Das Original des Theropoden Spinosaurus aegyptiacus nov. gen., nov. spec. Abhandlungen der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse Abhandlung. 28(3), 1-31.
Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of the spinosaurids. Science. 282(5392), 1298-1302.
Sues, Frey, Martill and Scott, 2002. Irritator challengeri, a spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 535-547.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.

Oxalaia Kellner, Azevedo, Machado, Carvalho and Henriques, 2011
O. quilombensis Kellner, Azevedo, Machado, Carvalho and Henriques, 2011
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Alcantara Formation of the Itapecuru Group, Brazil
Holotype- (MN 6117-V) (skull ~1.35 m) incomplete premaxillae
Paratype- ?(MN 6119-V) maxillary fragment
Referred- ?(UFMA 1.20.070; morphotype 1) tooth (80 mm) (Medeiros, 2006)
?(UFMA 1.20.443; morphotype 2) tooth (~101 mm) (Medeiros, 2006)
?(UFMA 1.20.444 SL; 25 morphotype 1, 95 morphotype 2 and 153 intermediates) 273 complete to fragmentary teeth (13-98 mm) (Medeiros, 2006)
Diagnosis- (after Kellner et al., 2011) maximum expansion of the distal end of the premaxillae between the 3rd and 4th alveoli; anterior projection of the maxillae between the premaxillae in the palatal region very thin; presence of two replacement teeth associated with the 3rd functional tooth; diastema between the 5th and 6th premaxillary teeth present but shorter than in Spinosaurus; ventral portion of the premaxillae very sculptured.
Other diagnoses- Kellner et al. (2011) also listed the lack of serrations in their diagnosis, but this is true of all spinosaurines.
Comments- Oxalaia's holotype was first mentioned in an abstract (Machado and Kellner, 2008) before being described as a new taxon by Kellner et al. (2011).
The isolated teeth are all unserrated and thus referred to Spinosaurinae. However, they vary morphologically with two extremes and numerous intermediates. Morphotype 1 is nearly straight with labial and lingual fluting, rounded in section and lacks enamel wrinkles at its base. Morphotype 2 is straight to gently curved, lacks fluting, is round to labiolingually compressed in section and sometimes has basal enamel wrinkles. While Medeiros considered morphotype 2 to be a different, otherwise unknown theropod taxon, I find it more likely that the numerous intermediates and similar size ranges indicate positional variation within the jaw. Kellner et al. noted morphotype 1 resembled Oxalaia from the same formation, so all of the teeth are tentatively referred to that taxon here.
References- Medeiros and Vilas Boas, 1999. Ocorrência de uma paleocomunidade continental do Cenomaniano (Cretáceo Superior) do Nordeste do Brasil. In: Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontologia de Vertebrados. Resúmenes, La Plata, UNLP. 15, 18.
Medeiros and Schultz, 2001. Uma paleocomunidade de vertebrados do Cretáceo médio, bacia de São Luís. In Rossetti, Góes Truckenbrodt (eds.). O Cretáceo na bacia de São Luís - Grajaú, Museu Emílio Goeldi. 209-221.
Medeiros and Schultz, 2002. A fauna dinossauriana da Laje do Coringa, Cretáceo médio do Nordeste do Brasil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional. 60(3), 155-162.
Medeiros, 2005. Spinosaurid teeth variation in mid-Cretaceous Alcântara Formation, Maranhão state, Brazil. Resumos do XIX Congresso Brasileiro de Paleontologia e VI Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia. [pp unknown]
Medeiros, 2006. Large theropod teeth from the Eocenomanian of northeastern Brazil and the occurrence of Spinosauridae. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 9(3), 333-338.
Machado and Kellner, 2008. An overview of the Spinosauridae (Dinosaurida, Theropoda) with comments on the Brasilian material. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 109A.
Machado, Azvedo, Carvalho, Henriques and Kellner, 2009. A new spinosaurid from the Cretaceous Alcantara Formation (Maranhao), Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 138A.
Kellner, Azevedo, Machado, Carvalho and Henriques, 2011. A new dinosaur (Theropoda, Spinosauridae) from the Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Cajual Island, Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 83(1), 99-108.

Irritator Martill, Cruikshank, Frey, Small and Clarke, 1996
= “Angaturama” Anonymous, 1995
= Angaturama Kellner and Campos, 1996
I. challengeri Martill, Cruikshank, Frey, Small and Clarke, 1996
= Angaturama limai Kellner and Campos, 1996
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Romualdo Member of Santana Formation, Brazil

Holotype- (SMNS 58022) incomplete skull (~840 mm), teeth, partial mandibles
Referred- (GP/2T-5; holotype of Angaturama limai) premaxillae, anterior maxilla, anterior nasal
Diagnosis- (after Sues et al., 2002) nasals with prominent median bony crest that terminates posteriorly in knob-like, somewhat dorsoventrally flattened projection; dorsal surface of parietals facing posterodorsally and vertical axis of braincase inclined anteroventrally; posterior surface of basisphenoid with deep, dorsoventrally oval median recess; surangular with broad lateral shelf (also in Baryonyx).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) midline ridge on dorsal surface of conjoined premaxillae extending further anteriorly than in Baryonyx and Cristatusaurus.
Comments- Angaturama was originally printed on a Brazilian postage stamp in 1995.
References- Martill, Cruickshank, Frey, Small and Clarke, 1996. A new crested maniraptoran dinosaur from the Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil. Journal of the Geological Society of London. 153, 5-8.
Kellner and Campos, 1996. First Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur from Brazil with comments on Spinosauridae. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie Abhandlungen. 199(2), 151-166.
Sues, Frey, Martill and Scott, 2002. Irritator challengeri, a spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 535-547.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Siamosaurus Buffetaut and Ingavat, 1986
S. suteethorni Buffetaut and Ingavat, 1986
Berriasian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

Holotype- (DMR TF 2043a) tooth (47.7x16.6x12.5 mm)
Paratypes- (DMR TF 2043b) tooth (24.3 mm)
(DMR TF 2043c) tooth
(DMR TF 2043d) tooth
(DMR TF 2043e) tooth
(DMR TF 2043f) tooth
(DMR TF 2043g) tooth
(DMR TF 2043h) tooth
(DMR TF 2043i) tooth
Referred- tooth (Kobayashi et al., 1964)
teeth (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998)
Comments- Buffetaut et al. (2008) noted Kobayashi et al. (1964) had described a Siamosaurus tooth as that of an ichthyosaur. Buffetaut is preparing a redescription of the taxon (pers. comm. to Bertin, 2010).
References- Kobayashi, Takai and Hayami, 1964. On some Mesozoic fossils from the Khorat Series of East Thailand and a note on the Khorat Series. Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography. 34, 181-192.
Buffetaut and Ingavat. 1986. Unusual theropod dinosaur teeth from the Upper Jurassic of Phu Wiang, northeastern Thailand. Revue de Paléobiologie. 5, 217-220.
Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from Thailand and their bearing on the early evolution and biogeographical history of some groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs. In Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 14, 205-210.
Buffetaut, Suteethorn, Tong and Amiot, 2008. An Early Cretaceous spinosaurid theropod from southern China. Geological Magazine. 145(5), 745-748.
Bertin, 2010. A catalogue of the material and review of the Spinosauridae. PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 7(4), 1-39.
S. sp. (Buffetaut and Suteethorn 1998)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Khok Kruat Formation, Thailand

Material- tooth, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, ribs, metapodial (Buffetaut et al., 2004)
teeth (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998)
Description- The cervical vertebrae resemble those of Baryonyx walkeri in many respects (elongation of centrum, articular faces of centrum not offset, large epipophyses, prominent ligament scars). The dorsal vertebrae are similar to those of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, with neural spines which are much taller than in Baryonyx (although not as tall as in S. aegyptiacus). A tooth found with the bones belongs to Siamosaurus, but whether it is from the same individual or is evidence of scavenging remains uncertain.
References- Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from Thailand and their bearing on the early evolution and biogeographical history of some groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs. In Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.).New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 14, 205-210.
Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 2004. Asian spinosaur confirmed. SVPCA 2004 Abstracts. [pp unknown]
Buffetaut, Suteethorn, Le Loeuff, Khansubha, Tong and Wongko, 2005. The dinosaur fauna from the Khok Kruat Formation (Early Cretaceous) of Thailand. In Wannakao, Youngme, Srisuk and Lertsirivorakul (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Geology, Geotechnology and Mineral Resources of Indochina. 575-581.
Milner, Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2007. A tall-spined spinosaurid theropod from Thailand and the biogeography of spinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 118A.
S? fusuiensis (Hou, Yeh and Zhao, 1975) new comb.
= Sinopliosaurus fusuiensis Hou, Yeh and Zhao, 1975
Hauterivian-Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Napai Formation, Guangxi, China

Holotype- (IVPP V4793) five teeth (one lost) (69x16.5x13 mm)
Referred- ? teeth (Dong, 1992)
Diagnosis- provisionally indeterminate relative to Siamosaurus suteethorni.
Comments- These teeth were originally described by Hou et al. (1975) as a new species of the pliosaur genus Sinopliosaurus. The type of that genus, S. weiyuanensis, preserves only teleosaurid teeth in addition to crocodilian vertebrae and a pliosaurid ischium and femur (the type specimen) (Young, 1948). Buffetaut et al. (2008) later redescribed the S. fusuiensis teeth and discovered they were spinosaurid. In particular, they resemble spinosaurines in a lack of serrations, but baryonychines in the presence of ribbing. They are identical with those of Siamosaurus suteethorni and both differ from Baryonyx in having stronger ribbing. They suggested the teeth belong to a taxon "closely related to, if not identical with Siamosaurus suteethorni", which I have formalized here by placing fusuiensis in Siamosaurus.
Dong (1992) mentioned spinosaurine teeth from the Napai Formation, but whether these refer to the S? fusuiensis material is uncertain.
References- Young, 1948. Fossil crocodiles in China, with notes on dinosaurian remains associated with the Kansu crocodiles. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China. 28, 235-288.
Hou, Yeh and Zhao, 1975. Fossil reptiles from Fusui, Kwangshi. Vertebrata Palasiatica. 13, 23-33.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Fauna's of China. Ocean Press/Springer-Verlag, Beijing/Berlin. 188 pp.
Buffetaut, Suteethorn, Tong and Amiot, 2008. An Early Cretaceous spinosaurid theropod from southern China. Geological Magazine. 145(5), 745-748.
S? sp. (Hasegawa, Buffetaut, Manabe and Takakuwa, 2003)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Lower Member of the Sebeyashi Formation, Japan

Material- (GMNH-PV-999) tooth (51x20x14 mm)
Comments- This is almost identical to Siamosaurus according to Hasegawa et al. (2003) and Buffetaut et al. (2008).
References- Hasegawa, Buffetaut, Manabe and Takakuwa, 2003. A possible spinosaurid tooth from the Sebayashi Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Gunma, Japan. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History. 7, 1-5.
Buffetaut, Suteethorn, Tong and Amiot, 2008. An Early Cretaceous spinosaurid theropod from southern China. Geological Magazine. 145(5), 745-748.

unnamed spinosaurine (Lu et al., 2009)
Cenomanian?, Late Cretaceous
Mangchuan Formation, Henan, China
Material
- (41HIII-00012) tooth (10x5x? mm)
Reference- Lü, Xu, Jiang, Jia, Li., Yuan, Zhang and Ji, 2009. A preliminary report on the new dinosaurian fauna from the Cretaceous of the Ruyang Basin, Henan Province of central China. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 25, 43-56.

Spinosaurus Stromer, 1915
S. aegyptiacus Stromer, 1915
= Spinosaurus marocannus Russell, 1996
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

Holotype- (IPHG 1912 VIII 19, destroyed) (~14 m, ~6.7 tons, subadult) (skull ~1.45 m) maxillary fragment, incomplete dentary (mandible ~1.34 m), splenial, angular, nineteen teeth (62, 126 mm), axial neural arch, middle cervical vertebra (185 mm), four dorsal vertebrae (195, 170, ~190, ~210 mm), three dorsal neural arches, anterior dorsal rib, two middle dorsal ribs, posterior dorsal rib, gastralium, six gastralia fragments, incomplete first sacral vertebra (155 mm), second sacral centrum, partial third sacral centrum, proximal caudal vertebra (90 mm)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gara Samani, Algeria

(MNHN SAM 124) (~14 m, ~6.7 tons, adult) (skull ~1.42 m) partial premaxillae, partial maxillae, dentary fragment (Taquet and Russell, 1998)
(MNHN SAM 125) premaxillary fragment (Taquet and Russell, 1998)
(MNHN SAM 126) cervical centrum (Taquet and Russell, 1998)
(MNHN SAM 127) cervical centrum (Taquet and Russell, 1998)
(MNHN SAM 128) dorsal neural arch (Taquet and Russell, 1998)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Djoua, Algeria

(Univ. Paris 6; lost) two partial teeth (Haug, 1905)
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Turkana Grits, Kenya

? material (Weishampel, 1990)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Kiklah Formation, Libya

tooth (Le Loeuff and Metais, 2010)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem Formation, Morocco

(BMNH R16420) premaxillae, partial maxillae (Milner, 2003)
(BMNH R16421) partial dentary (Milner, 2003)
(CMN 41768) mid cervical vertebra (183 mm) (Russell, 1996)
(CMN 50790) mid cervical vertebra, two cervical ribs (Russell, 1996)
(CMN 50791, holotype of Spinosaurus maroccanus) mid cervical vertebra (195 mm) (Russell, 1996)
(CMN 50813) anterior dorsal neural arch (Russell, 1996)
(CMN 50832) anterior dentary, tooth (Russell, 1996)
(CMN 50833) mid dentary (Russell, 1996)
(GMNH-FV 2400) tooth (50x33x30 mm) (Hasegawa et al., 2010)
(IMGP 969-1) maxillary fragment (Buffetaut, 1989)
(IMGP 969-2) ?dentary fragment (Buffetaut, 1989)
(IMGP 969-3) tooth (22 mm) (Buffetaut, 1989)
(MSNM V4047) (~17 m, ~8 tons) (skull ~1.75 m) premaxillae, partial maxillae, partial nasals (Dal Sasso et al., 2005)
(UCPC-2) nasal fragment (Dal Sasso et al., 2005)
jaw fragments, teeth (Sereno et al., 1996)
teeth (Sidleir, 1998)
vertebrae (Ibrahim and Sereno, 2011)
(private coll.) (multiple individuals) partial skull (1.05 m), partial mandibles (Hendrickx, online)
(private coll.) (~8 m; multiple individuals) partial skull, partial skeleton (Hendrickx, online)
(private coll.) (multiple individuals) premaxillae, quadrate, posterior mandible, cervical vertebrae, caudal vertebrae (Hendrickx, pers. comm.)
(private coll.) premaxillae, dentary (Hendrickx, pers. comm.)
(private coll.) anterior dentary (Hendrickx, pers. comm.)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early-Late Cretaceous
Tegana Formation?, Morocco
(MUZ PIG 1647.II.1) tooth (126x34x29 mm) (Niedzwiedzki and Gierlinski, 2002)
(MUZ PIG 1647.II.2) tooth (114x44x30 mm) (Niedzwiedzki and Gierlinski, 2002)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early-Late Cretaceous
Morocco
five teeth (Heckeberg, 2009)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early-Late Cretaceous
Ksar es Souk, Morocco

(LINMH 001) tooth (69x22x17 mm) (Kellner and Mader, 1997)
(LINHM 002) tooth (60x17x13 mm) (Kellner and Mader, 1997)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Echkar Formation, Niger

teeth (Brusatte and Sereno, 2007)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Chenini Formation, Tunisia

(Office National des Mines BM231) anterior dentary (Buffetaut and Ouaja, 2002)
teeth (Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978)
several teeth (Bouaziz et al., 1988)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) no midline crest on conjoined premaxillae; premaxilla entirely excluded from borders of external naris; extremely elongate dorsal neural spines.
Comments- The first Spinosaurus material was discovered in 1898, consisting of teeth described by Haug (1905) as the ichthyodectid fish ?Saurocephalus. Schluter and Schwarzhans (1978) mistakenly referred Spinosaurus teeth to Plesiosaurus sp.. Weishampel (1990) lists cf. Spinosaurus sp. from the Turkana Grits of Kenya, but this is based on an unpublished manuscript by Harris and Russell and has not been confirmed in the literature.
Several undescribed specimens held in private collections are of note. One is a chimaerical skull auctioned in 2005 and refused by the BMNH and MNHN. Another is a partial skeleton reconstructed from isolated bones and auctioned in 2009 without a sale.
Spinosaurus marocannus- Russell (1996) described dentrary fragments, cervical vertebrae and a dorsal neural arch from the Albian of Morocco as Spinosaurus marocannus. He distinguished this from S. aegyptiacus by the longer mid cervical vertebrae (centrum, not including anterior ball, ~1.5 times height of posterior articular surface). Sereno et al. (1998) rejected its validity because the only character given in the diagnosis to distinguish it from S. aegyptiacus was the longer cervical centra, and they thought this varied within the vertebral column. S. aegyptiacus preserves two cervicals, one of which is possibly the axis, and the other from the middle of the neck. The latter's centrum has a length to posterior height ratio of 1.05. The two relatively complete cervicals of S. marocannus have ratios of 1.39 and 1.60. Ratios in Baryonyx's holotype range from 1.25-1.81, which is the same amount of variation supposedly separating the Spinosaurus species. Neural spines are comparable in height between Spinosaurus species, and anteroposterior length of the spine varies with centrum elongation as seen in Baryonyx. The latter shows similar differences between cervicals 6 and 8 as seen between S. aegyptiacus and S. marocannus. Russell states besides the elongation noted above and of the neural peduncle (also seen in Baryonyx), the cervicals of the two Spinosaurus species are very similar. The dentaries are also "essentially indistinguishable". Thus, I must agree with Sereno et al. that S. marocannus is a junior synonym of S. aegyptiacus.
References- Haug, 1905. Paleontologie. In Foureau (ed.). Documents scientifiques de la Mission saharienne, Volume 2. Masson, Paris. 751-832.
Stromer, 1915. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-Reste der Baharîje-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 3. Das Original des Theropoden Spinosaurus aegyptiacus nov. gen., nov. spec. Abhandlungen der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse Abhandlung. 28(3), 1-31.
Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978. Eine Bonebed-Lagerstatte aus dem Wealden Sud-Tunesiens (Umgebung Ksar Krerachfa). Berliner geowissenchaftliche Abhandlungen A. 8, 53-65.
Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Ghanmi, Jaeger, Martin, Mazin, and Tong, 1988. Nouvelle découvertes de vertébrés fossiles dans l'Albien du Sud tunisien. [New finds of fossil vertebrates in the Albian of southern Tunisia.] [in French, with English summ.]. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 4, 335-339.
Buffetaut, 1989. New remains of the enigmatic dinosaur Spinosaurus from the Cretaceous of Morocco and the affinities between Spinosaurus and Baryonyx. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 1989, 79-87.
Weishampel, 1990. Dinosaurian distribution. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley. 63-139.
Buffetaut, 1992. Remarks on the Cretaceous theropod dinosaurs Spinosaurus and Baryonyx. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 1992, 88-96.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle. 18, 349-402.
Kellner and Mader, 1997. Archosaur teeth from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Journal of Paleontology. 71(3), 525-527.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous faunal differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of the spinosaurids. Science. 282(5392), 1298-1302.
Sidleir, 1998. Theropod teeth from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 74A.
Taquet and Russell, 1998. New data on spinosaurid dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Sahara. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences à Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes. 327, 347-353.
Buffetaut and Ouaja, 2002. A new specimen of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia, with remarks on the evolutionary history of the Spinosauridae. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France. 173(5), 415-421.
Niedzwiedzki and Gierlinski, 2002. Isolated theropod teeth from the Cretaceous strata of Khouribga, Morocco. Geological Quarterly. 46(1), 97-100.
Milner, 2003. Fish-eating theropods: A short review of the systematics, biology and palaeobiogeography of spinosaurs. In Huerta Hurtado and Torcida Fernandez-Baldor (eds.). Actas de las II Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontologýa de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. 129-138.
Dal Sasso, Maganuco and Buffetaut, 2005. New information on the skull of the enigmatic theropod Spinosaurus, with remarks on its size and affinities. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(4), 888-896.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
Hendrickx, online 2008-2010. http://spinosauridae.fr.gd/Les-Spinosaurus-chim-e2-riques-de-Drouot.htm
Dal Sasso Maganuco and Cioffi, 2009. A neurovascular cavity within the snout of the predatory dinosaur Spinosaurus. First International Congress on North African Vertebrate Palaeontology, 25-27 May 2009 Marrakech (Morocco). 22-23.
Heckeberg, 2009. About the lifetime of a spinosaur tooth - new histologic investigation of tooth formation rates. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 112A.
Buffetaut, 2010. Spinosaurs before Stromer: Early finds of spinosaurid dinosaurs and their interpretations. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 343, 175-188.
Hasegawa, Tanaka, Takakuwa and Koike, 2010. Fine sculptures on a tooth of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History. 14, 11-20.
Le Loeuff and Métais, 2010. New stratigraphical data on North African spinosaurs. Abstract Volume of the 8th EAVP Meeting, Aix-en-Provence 2010, 52-53.
Ibrahim and Sereno, 2011. New data on spinosaurids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 130.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Harris and Russell, MS. Preliminary notes on occurence of dinosaurs in the Turkana grits of northern Kenya.