Ceratosauria Marsh, 1884
Definition- (Ceratosaurus nasicornis <- Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press; modified from Rowe, 1989)
Other definitions- (Liliensternus liliensterni + Coelophysis bauri + "Syntarsus" rhodesiensis + "Syntarsus" kayentakatae + Segisaurus halli + Sarcosaurus woodi + Dilophosaurus wetherilli + Ceratosaurus nasicornis) (Rowe and Gauthier, 1990)
(Coelophysis bauri <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
Comments- Marsh (1884) erected this as a suborder including Ceratosaurus only, though he later (1895) added Ornithomimidae. This taxon was resurrected in 1984 (published in 1986) by Gauthier to contain coelophysoids, Dilophosaurus and ceratosaurs sensu stricto. This was followed by most phylogenies in the 1990's (e.g. Rowe and Gauthier, 1990; Holtz, 1994; Sereno, 1999; Holtz, 2000). Some non-cladistic phylogenies at the time (Bakker, 1986; Paul, 1984, 1988) advocated ceratosaurs sensu stricto as being closer to birds than coelophysoids and Dilophosaurus, which was suggested in some more recent unpublished analyses (Currie, 1995; Rauhut, 1998; Carrano and Sampson, 1999) and has become the current consensus (Carrano et al., 2002; Rauhut, 2003; Wilson et al., 2003; Carrano et al., 2005; Ezcurra and Novas, 2007; Smith et al., 2007; Ezcurra, 2012). However, a few recent studies (Tykoski and Rowe, 2004; Tykoski, 2005) have again recovered coelophysoid ceratosaurs. Tykoski (2005) found excluding ontogenetically variable characters (mostly bone fusions) generated trees excluding Coelophysoidea from Ceratosauria. According to Tykoski, excluding these characters and miscoding many others have led to the current concensus. It should be noted that only four more steps are needed to place ceratosaurs closer to tetanurines than to coelophysoids in his trees. Thus, either topology should be considered possible.
References- Marsh, 1884. The classification and affinities of dinosaurian reptiles. Nature. 31, 68-69.
Marsh, 1895. On the affinities and classification of the dinosaurian reptiles. American Journal of Science. 50, 483-498.
Gauthier, 1984. A cladistic analysis of the higher systematic categories of the Diapsida. PhD thesis. University of California, Berkeley. 564 pp.
Paul, 1984. The archosaurs: A phylogenetic study. Third Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Short Papers. 175-180.
Bakker, 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies. Kensington, New York. 481 pp.
Gauthier, 1986. Saurischian Monophyly and the Origin of Birds. Memoires of the California Academy of Sciences. 8, 1-55.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Rowe, 1989. A new species of the theropod dinosaur Syntarsus from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 9(2), 125-136.
Bonaparte, Novas and Coria, 1990. Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, the horned, lightly built carnosaur from the Middle Cretaceous of Patagonia. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science. 416, 1-42.
Rowe and Gauthier, 1990. Ceratosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford. 151-168.
Novas, 1992. La evolucion de los dinosaurios carnivoros [The evolution of carnivorous dinosaurs]. In Sanz and Buscalioni (eds.). Los Dinosaurios y Su Entorno Biotico: Actas del Segundo Curso de Paleontologia in Cuenca. Instituto "Juan Valdez", Cuenca, Argentina. 126-163.
Holtz, 1994. The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: Implications for theropod systematics. Journal of Paleontology. 68(5), 1100-1117.
Currie, 1995. Phylogeny and systematics of theropods (Dinosauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15(3, 25A.
Rauhut, 1998. Elaphrosaurus bambergi and the early evolution of theropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 71A.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Carrano and Sampson, 1999. Evidence for a paraphyletic 'Ceratosauria' and it’s implications for theropod dinosaur evolution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(3), 36A.
Padian, Hutchinson and Holtz, 1999. Phylogenetic definitions and nomenclature of the major taxonomic categories of the carnivorous Dinosauria (Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(1), 69-80.
Sereno, 1999. The evolution of dinosaurs. Science. 284, 2137-2147.
Holtz, 2000. A new phylogeny of the carnivorous dinosaurs. Gaia. 15, 5-61.
Carrano, Sampson and Forster, 2002. The osteology of Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small abelisauroid (Dinosauria:Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 22(3), 510–534.
Rauhut, 2003. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69, 1-213.
Wilson, Sereno, Srivastava, Bhatt, Khosla and Sahni, 2003. A new abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lameta Formation (Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of India. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology. The University of Michigan. 31, 1-42.
Tykoski and Rowe, 2004. Ceratosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 47-70.
Carrano, Hutchinson and Sampson, 2005. New information on Segisaurus halli, a small theropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(4), 835–849.
Tykoski, 2005. Anatomy, ontogeny and phylogeny of coelophysoid theropods. PhD thesis. University of Texas at Austin. 553 pp.
Ezcurra and Novas, 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of the Triassic theropod Zupaysaurus rougieri from NW Argentina. Historical Biology. 19(1), 35-72.
Smith, Makovicky, Hammer and Currie, 2007. Osteology of Cryolophosaurus ellioti (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Jurassic of Antarctica and implications for early theropod evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 151, 377-421.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The Phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.
Ezcurra, 2012. Phylogenetic analysis of Late Triassic - Early Jurassic neotheropod dinosaurs: Implications for the early theropod radiation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 91.

= Bahariasauridae Huene, 1948
Bahariasaurus
Stromer, 1934
B. ingens Stromer, 1934
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

Holotype- (HM 1922 X 47) (~11.9 m; ~2.5 tons) dorsal vertebra (200 mm), dorsal vertebra (~180 mm), neural arch, rib fragment, sacral vertebra (~135 mm), sacral vertebra (~120 mm), sacral vertebra (~120 mm), pubes (1.03 m), proximal ischium
Paratypes- ?(HM 1911) caudal vertebrae, ischium
?(HM 1912 VIII 62b) dorsal vertebra
(HM 1912 X 47) proximal ischium
Referred- ?(HM 1912 VIII 82) ischia (Stromer, 1934)
Albian Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Niger

Referred- ?(MNHN coll.) proximal caudal vertebra (65 mm), five mid caudal vertebrae (60, 60, 55, 55, 50 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- Bahariasaurus is considered a nomen dubium by Chure (2000), but can be distinguished from all comparable theropods except Deltadromeus, with which it is probably synonymous. Sereno et al. (1996) distinguished the taxa with three characters, two of which were due to his misidentification of Deltadromeus' distal pubis as an ischium. The other is the narrower ilial peduncle of Bahariasaurus' ischium. The holotype of Tyrannosaurus has a narrower ilial peduncle on the ischium than referred specimens AMNH 5027 and RTMP 81.61, so I find this character to fall within individual variation. I'd say Deltadromeus and Bahariasaurus are quite possibly synonymous, but this is unverifiable given the published data. There were at least three taxa of large theropod in the Baharija Formation, so it cannot be assumed the referred material belongs to Bahariasaurus. This leaves us able to compare only the proximal ischium, which is illustrated too poorly in Deltadromeus to do such. Some material from the Baharija may be referrable to Deltadromeus (notably the fibula 1912 VIII 70), and some to Bahariasaurus (the proximal ischium 1912 X 47), but neither can be compared to the other taxon. The complete ischia 1912 VIII 82 compare well to Deltadromeus distally and differ in small ways from Bahariasaurus proximally, but I don't think a referral to the former is warranted given the meager comparison possible, and the fact we don't know how closely they resembled Bahariasaurus distally.
The referred pubis 1912 VIII 81 (Stromer, 1934) does not seem to be Bahariasaurus. The two differ in several ways. Bahariasaurus has a less conspicuous and more proximally placed lateral flaring (15% down the shaft, compared to 21%). The distal end is not flared laterally. There is an extensive separation of the pubic shafts distally, and the interpubic foramen is more distally placed (80% down the shaft, vs. 71%).
Referred pubes 1922 X 48 and 1912 VIII 62 (proximal only) are only shown in lateral view, so cannot be compared to Bahariasaurus. They compare well to each other, and are possibly conspecific, though 1922 X 48 in particular is more robust than 1912 VIII 81 and has a fainter sigmoid curvature that is positioned differently along the shaft. This could easily be ontogenetic or individual variation however. 1922 X 48 and 1912 VIII 62 may be Bahariasaurus or the same taxon as 1912 VIII 81 (which may be Deltadromeus for all I know). Sereno et al. referred 1912 VIII 62 to Deltadromeus, presumedly based on association between it and the coracoid and hindlimb material of 1912 VIII. But of the latter material, the pectoral girdle appears to be spinosaurid, and the femur and tibia are not from the same individual (the tibia's much smaller) and are not referrable to Deltadromeus either. Only the fibula may be, so Sereno et al.'s referral of 1912 VIII 62 to the latter taxon is unsupported at present.
Relationships- Rauhut (1995) referred Bahariasaurus to the Allosauroidea based on the distally reduced pubic symphysis (also in Pycnonemosaurus), obturator notch (plesiomorphic for neotheropods), quadrangular obturator process (not present in Bahariasaurus), and "shape and height" of the anterior trochanter (plesiomorphic for tetanurines, also in Deltadromeus, not preserved in holotypic material). He placed it in the Carcharodontosauridae based on the presence of caudal pleurocoels, but this based on a referred specimen (HM 1912 VIII 62b) whose relationship to Bahariasaurus is uncertain. It may be Carcharodontosaurus instead. I therefore reject Rauhut's hypothesis Bahariasaurus is a carcharodontosaurid or an allosauroid.
Chure finds this taxon to be closely related to tyrannosaurids based on- nearly perpendicular expansion of glenoid margin of scapula from blade; amphicoelous (non-opisthocoelous) anterior dorsal centra; subtriangular obturator process; cranial tubercle on fibula; extremely narrow scapular blade; longitudinal ridge on lateral surface of ischium. I disagree.
First, the scapula (HM 1912 VIII 60) is not part of the holotype, which lacks pectoral material. Also, tyrannosaurids do not have an expanded glenoid margin (Carpenter and Smith, 2001) and their blade is much narrower proximally, but expands distally (the opposite of this scapula). The expanded glenoid margin is present in such widely ranging theropods as Compsognathus, Sinraptor and Baryonyx. The last taxon resembles this scapula very closely, differing only in that the glenoid is more ventrally projected, the blade is a bit narrower distally and the glenoid expansion is slightly stronger. Oddly, that of Suchomimus differs from these two in having a more prominant acromion, distally expanded blade, and virtually no glenoid expansion, if the skeletal reconstruction of Sereno et al. (1998) is accurate. Perhaps the drawing is inaccurate, or perhaps it belongs to Spinosaurus. In any case, I refer this scapula to the Spinosauridae.
The anterior dorsal vertebra (HM 1912 VIII 62b) is also a referred specimen and non-opisthocoelous dorsals are also found in ceratosaurs, "Szechuanoraptor" zigongensis and almost all coelurosaurs. Tyrannosaurid dorsals differ in being very short, with less wasted centra, wider neural spines, narrower hyposphenes and taller neural canals. The elongate centrum resembles some basal coelurosaurs (Compsognathus, Mirischia) and Elaphrosaurus, so this vertebra may belong to Deltadromeus or Bahariasaurus.
The triangular obturator process is not discernable in the holotype, but is present in the complete juvenile(?) ischium HM 1912 VIII 82 that was misidentified as a pubis by Stromer (1934). Though much smaller than the Bahariasaurus holotype, the morphology is nearly identical, differing only in the less expanded anteroventral corner of the pubic peduncle. I thus feel it is properly referred to Bahariasaurus, and it is interesting that it differs from the distal ischium of Deltadromeus (pubis in Sereno et al. 1996) only in that the boot is less extensive posteriorly, a probable juvenile trait. The obturator process is indeed triangular, but this is known in nearly all coelurosaurs (except Sinosauropteryx and Mirischia), not just tyrannosaurids. Though the morphology of the boot resembles abelisauroids more than any coelurosaur, the obturator morphology would suggest it is in the latter clade. It differs from tyrannosauroids in lacking a proximolateral scar or proximodorsal process, and having a distal boot and more prominent ilial peduncle. The lateral ridge on Bahariasaurus is caused by distortion, as Chure himself says earlier in the thesis.
The fibula is another referred specimen (HM 1912 VIII 70), this one later referred to Deltadromeus by Sereno et al.. I agree as it is nearly identical. The anteriorly placed iliofibularis tubercle is primitive for theropods, so does not indicate tyrannosauroid affinities in Deltadromeus either.
As for the holotype of Bahariasaurus, Tyrannosaurus' pubis differs from it in having a narrower pubic apron, narrower and much more proximally placed interpubic foramen, and no distal interpubic notch. Tyrannosaurus' ischium differs from the holotype in having a less posteriorly projected ilial peduncle, a proximodorsal process, narrower obturator notch, less extensive obturator process, and thinner shaft that is more posteriorly directed.
References- Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 22, 1-79.
Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Rauhut, 1995. Zur systematischen Stellung der afrikanischen Theropoden Carcharodontosaurus Stromer 1931 und Bahariasaurus Stromer 1934. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen E16 (Gundolf-Ernst-Festschrift). 357-375.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.

“Merosaurus” Welles, Powell and Pickering vide Pickering, 1995
“M. newmani” Welles, Powell and Pickering vide Pickering, 1995
Hettangian-Early Sinemurian, Early Jurassic
Blue Lias Formation, England

Material- (GSM 109560) partial femur (~380 mm), partial tibia (lost)
Other diagnoses- Pickering (1995b) considered "Merosaurus" to be "very similar to Sarcosaurus" but distinguished it based on several characters. The absent trochanteric shelf is known to vary dimorphically in ceratosaur and coelophysoid taxa. The remaining ventral portion of the femoral head is not angled more medially, the fourth trochanter is not medially concave, and is more medially placed not less so. Lateromedial placement of the fourth trochanter is highly variable within theropod taxa, so cannot be used to diagnose "Merosaurus" in any case.
Comments- Owen received the partial hindlimbs BMNH 39496 and GSM 109560 in 1858 and used them as the basis for his dinosaur genus Scelidosaurus in an encyclopedia entry the following year. While this is often claimed to be an nomen nudum (e.g. Newman, 1968), genus names published before 1931 do not require species names or illustrations to be valid (ICZN Article 12). Owen later (1861) gave his taxon the species name harrisonii and described it in detail, referring the ungual GSM 109561, a partial postcranium in the Lyme Regis Museum, and the skull of BMNH R1111. Lydekker (1888) made BMNH 39496 the type specimen, though the basal thyreophoran BMNH R1111 (whose postcranium was soon found and described in 1862) formed the basis for peoples' ideas of Scelidosaurus. Newman (1968) believed BMNH 39496 and GSM 109560 to be megalosaurids. However, they were only compared to Megalosaurus among theropods, making this familial assignment in need of verification. As the name Scelidosaurus had been associated with the thyreophoran, Charig and Newman (1994) petitioned the ICZN to recognize BMNH R1111 as the lectotype, which was accepted in 1994 as Opinion 1788. Welles and Powell studied the theropod material in 1974 for their unpublished European theropod paper, intending to name it Merosaurus newmani. This was first found in publically available print in 1995 when Pickering credited the name to Welles, Powell and Pickering in an unpublished bibliographic manuscript. In that same year, Pickering printed a packet with a full description of the taxon, which he credited to only Welles and Powell (though its osteology was also credited to himself). This is a nomen nudum however, as he didn't follow ICZN Article 8.1.3- it must have been produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures numerous identical and durable copies. Pickering intends GSM 109560 to be the type, and referred BMNH 39496 and GSM 109561. He considered it a probable ceratosaur sensu lato metataxon. Pickering will describe it in his in progress work Mutanda Dinosaurologica. Naish and Martill (2007) referred all three specimens to Tetanurae without comment. Most recently, Benson (2009, 2010) redescribed BMNH 39496 and GSM 109560. He considered GSM 109560 to be an indeterminate theropod.
GSM 109560 is based on a femur lacking the head and distal end, and a tibial shaft which was not illustrated by Owen and has been lost. Contra Owen and Pickering, there is no reason to refer this to the same taxon as BMNH 39496 as they share only a short area of distal shaft, and the GSM specimen is only ~60% as large. Also contra Pickering, the anterior trochanter is not conical but is lateromedially narrower than anteroposteriorly, making it alariform. The specimen is not a robust coelophysoid or ceratosaur individual based on the absence of a ridge-like trochanteric shelf. It is most similar to Liliensternus, Dilophosaurus, Ceratosaurus and tetanurines in having a straight shaft in anterior view. The anteroposterior width of the anterior trochanter seems less than in tetanurines, but greater than basal coelophysoids. It may be a gracile morph of ceratosaur.
References- Owen, 1859. Palaeontology. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Edition 8. 17, 91-176.
Owen, 1861. Monograph of the fossil Reptilia of the Liassic formations. Part I. A monograph of the fossil dinosaur (Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen) of the Lower Lias. Palaeontolographical Society Monographs. 13, 1-14.
Owen, 1862. Monographs on the British Fossil Reptilia from the Oolitic Formations. Part second, containing Scelidosaurus harrisonii and Pliosaurus grandis. Palaeontolographical Society Monographs. 1-16.
Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Newman, 1968. The Jurassic dinosaur Scelidosaurus harrisoni Owen. Palaeontology. 11, 40-43.
Charig and Newman, 1992. Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen, 1861 (Reptilia, Ornithischia): Proposed replacement in inappropriate lectotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 49, 280-283.
ICZN, 1994. Opinion 1788. Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen, 1861 (Reptilia, Ornithischia): Lectotype replaced. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 51(3), 288.
Pickering, 1995a. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Pickering, 1995b. An extract from: Archosauromorpha: Cladistics and osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 11 pp.
Olshevsky, DML 1999. http://dml.cmnh.org/1999Dec/msg00193.html
Naish and Martill, 2007. Dinosaurs of Great Britain and the role of the Geological Society of London in their discovery: Basal Dinosauria and Saurischia. Journal of the Geological Society. 164, 493-510.
Benson, 2009. The taxonomy, systematics and evolution of the British theropod dinosaur Megalosaurus. PhD thesis. University of Cambridge. [? pp]
Benson, 2010. The osteology of Magnosaurus nethercombensis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of the United Kingdom and a re-examination of the oldest records of tetanurans. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 8(1), 131-146.
Pickering, in prep. Mutanda Dinosaurologica.

"Ngexisaurus" Zhao, 1983
"N. dapukaensis" Zhao, 1985
= "Ngexisaurus changduensis" Zhao and Cheng, 1985
= "Ngexisaurus dapukanensis" Weishampel, Barrett, Coria, Le Loeuff, Xu, Zhao, Sahni, Gomani and Noto, 2004
Middle Jurassic
Middle Dapuka Group, Tibet, China

Comments- This specimen was first reported by Zhao (1983) who while discussing the evolution of dinosaurs in China noted "coelurosaurs (Ngexisaurus Chao)" in the Middle Jurassic. Lacking a description, illustration or species name, it was a nomen nudum. Zhao seems to place all Jurassic coelurosaurs in Coeluridae and states in Middle Jurassic coelurosaurs the tooth "crown becomes thinner with serrated anterior edge only". This may indicate the "Ngexisaurus" material includes teeth with this morphology. Zhao used a classic concept of Coelurosauria, which only tells us "Ngexisaurus" is probably a small theropod. As with other new Tibetan taxa listed by Zhao (1983), it was probably supposed to be described by Zhao in the published version of his doctoral dissertation "The Mesozoic vertebrate remains of Xizang (Tibet), China", in the second Palaeontology of Xizang volume. Yet this volume is only referenced by Zhao (1983; which was submitted in September 1981) and seems never to have been printed, though the previous volume was published by the IVPP in 1980 and the third by the NIGP in 1981. Olshevsky (DML, 1999) notes the IVPP rejected the paper as unpublishable. Zhao (1985) lists the new species Ngexisaurus dapukaensis as a coelurosaur from the Middle Jurassic Dabuka Group of Tibet, but again with no description or illustration. In the same volume, Zhao and Cheng (1985) list the species as Ngexisaurus changduensis instead. Zhang and Li (1997) also list it as Ngexisaurus changduensis, from the Middle Dabuka Formation of Dabuka, Qamdo County, Xizang. Weishampel et al. (2004) list it as Ngexisaurus dapukanensis from the Dapuka Group of Xinjiang, Uygur Zizhiqu and refer it to Ceratosauria (sensu lato). Its assignment to Ceratosauria by Weishampel et al. (note Zhao is a coauthor) may indicate it is a ceratosaur sensu stricto (since coelophysoids were extinct by the Middle Jurassic). Perhaps it is similar to small early ceratosaurs like Limusaurus and Berberosaurus, but this is only conjecture. It is listed as Ngexisaurus changduensis Zhao gen. et sp. nov. (MS) in Fang et al. (2006), suggesting that Zhao's monograph was indeed never published and is still a manuscript. They refer it to Procompsognathidae (or perhaps basal Compsognathidae). Which species name will be used for it when it is published is uncertain.
References- Zhao, "1983" [unpublished]. The Mesozoic vertebrate remains of Xizang (Tibet), China. The Series of the Scientific Expeditions to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Palaeontology of Xizang. 2, 1-200.
Zhao, 1983. Phylogeny and evolutionary stages of Dinosauria. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 28(1-2), 295-306.
Zhao, 1985. The Jurassic Reptilia. In Wang, Cheng and Wang (eds.). The Jurassic System of China. Stratigraphy of China. 11, 286-289, 347, plates 10 and 11.
Zhao and Cheng, 1985. The Qamdo-Simao Subregion. In Wang, Cheng and Wang (eds.). The Jurassic System of China. Stratigraphy of China. 11, 174-179.
Zhang and Li, 1997. Mesozoic Dinosaur Localities in China and Their Stratigraphy. In Wolberg, Sump and Rosenberg (eds.). Dinofest International, Proceedings of a Symposium sponsered by Arizona State University. A Publication of The Academy of Natural Sciences. 265-273.
Olshevsky, DML 1999. http://dml.cmnh.org/1999Nov/msg00507.html
Weishampel, Barrett, Coria, Le Loeuff, Xu, Zhao, Sahni, Gomani and Noto, 2004. Dinosaur Distribution. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria: Second Edition. 517-606.
Fang, Zhang, Lu, Han, Zhao and Li, 2006. Collision between the Indian Plate and the paleo-Asian late and the appearance of Asian dinosaurs. Geological Bulletin of China. 25(7), 862-873.

Xenotarsosaurus Martinez, Gimenez, Rodriguez and Bochatey, 1987
X. bonapartei Martinez, Gimenez, Rodriguez and Bochatey, 1987
Cenomanian?, Late Cretaceous
Bajo Barreal Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Syntypes- (PVL 612) (4.8 m) femur (611 mm), tibia (592 mm), fibula, astragalocalcaneum (134 mm wide, 96 mm tall)
....(UNPSJB PV 184) two anterior dorsal vertebrae
References- Martínez, Gimenez, Rodríguez and Bochatey, 1986. Xenotarsosaurus bonapartei nov. gen. et sp. (Carnosauria, Abelisauridae), a new theropod from the Bajo Barreal Formation, Chubut, Argentina. Actas del Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigrafía. 4, 3-31.
Coria and Rodríguez, 1993. Sobre Xenotarsosaurus bonapartei Martínez, Giménez, Rodríguez, y Bochatey, 1986; un problematico Neoceratosauria (Novas, 1989) del Cretacico de Chubut. Ameghiniana. 30(3), 326-327.

Berberosaurus Allain, Tykoski, Aquesbi, Jalil, Monbaron, Russell and Taquet, 2007
B. liassicus Allain, Tykoski, Aquesbi, Jalil, Monbaron, Russell and Taquet, 2007
Pliensbachian-Toarcian, Early Jurassic
Upper bone-bed of the Toundoute continental series, Morocco
Holotype
- (MHNM-Pt9) (subadult) cervical vertebra (~53 mm)
....(MHNM-Pt16) distal tibia
....(MHNM-Pt19) incomplete femur (~505 mm)
....(MHNM-Pt20) fibula (447 mm)
....(MHNM-Pt21) proximal tibia
....(MHNM-Pt22) metacarpal II (78 mm)
....(MHNM-Pt23) partial third sacral centrum, fourth sacral centrum (64 mm), incomplete fifth sacral vertebra (70 mm)
Paratype- (MHNM-Tol-218) proximal femur (~408 mm)
Diagnosis- (from Allain et al., 2007) differs from Elaphrosaurus in: short cervical centra; pneumatic foramina on the cervical neural arch.
from Ceratosaurus in: camerate structure of cervical vertebra; low and short neural spine of the cervical vertebra; femoral anterior trochanter reaches proximally to mid-point of femoral head.
from Spinostropheus in: absence of the epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina on the cervical neural arches; short cervical neural spine.
from Abelisauria in: distal end of metacarpal with deep extensor pits; pronounced femoral trochanteric shelf.
Comments- Originally identified as a basal abelisauroid by Allain et al. (2007), Carrano and Sampson (2008) found it to be a basal ceratosaur outside Neoceratosauria instead.
References- Allain, Tykoski, Aquesbi, Jalil, Monbaron, Russell and Taquet, 2007. An abelisauroid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Jurassic of the High Atlas Mountains, Morocco, and the radiation of ceratosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 610-624.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The Phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.

"Camarillasaurus" Sanchez-Hernandez and Benton, in press
"C. cirugedae" Sanchez-Hernandez and Benton, in press
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Camarillas Formation, Aragon, Spain
Holotype
- (MPG-KPC1-46) (adult) partial lateral tooth, possible partial anterior cervical centrum, partial posterior cervical vertebra, posterior cervical or anterior dorsal neural arch fragment, partial anterior-mid dorsal centrum, partial ~fifth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), partial posterior dorsal centrum, incomplete dorsal neural arch, three ?dorsal neural spine fragments, incomplete first or second dorsal rib, dorsal rib fragments, fused second-fourth sacral centra, two partial sacral centra, four partial proximal caudal centra, proximal caudal central fragment, mid caudal vertebra, incomplete mid caudal vertebra, two incomplete distal caudal vertebra, incomplete proximal chevron, partial proximal chevron, partial scapulocoracoid, incomplete sterna (~230, 228 mm), proximal tibia, fragments
Diagnosis- (after Sanchez-Hernandez and Benton, in press) extremely long tibia proximal end, with ratio of anteroposterior/mediolateral axis of 2.8; tibia with a narrow and deep longitudinal groove placed anterior to the crista fibularis on the medial surface; caudal vertebrae with articular surfaces that have well developed edges and are unusually broad; chevron with a deep broad longitudinal groove along the length of the shaft arising from a fossa placed below the haemal canal on the anterior and posterior side; articular surface on the distal end of the chevron blade.
Comments- The name has not been officially published as of 3-31-14. Sanchez-Hernandez and Benton (in press) found this to be a basal ceratosaur more derived than Limusaurus, but less than Elaphrosaurus, Spinostropheus and neoceratosaurs.
Reference- Sanchez-Hernandez and Benton, in press. Filling the ceratosaur gap: A new ceratosaurian theropod from the Early Cretaceous of Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0144

unnamed Ceratosauria (Galton, 1982)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US

Material- (DMNH 36284) proximal tibia (Chure, 2001)
?(USNM 8414) metatarsal III, metatarsal IV (Pickering, 1995)
(USNM 8415) humerus (201 mm) (Galton, 1982)
Middle Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

? material (Turner and Peterson, 1999)
Comments- The humerus USNM 8415 was discovered in 1883 and initially referred to Dryosaurus, though Galton (1982) described it and referred it to Elaphrosaurus sp. based on the straight shaft and low deltopectoral crest. Pickering (1995b) referred it to his new taxon ?Elaphrosaurus "philtippettensis" without justification. Neither listed any characters to differentiate it from E. bambergi. Carrano and Sampson (2008) thought the specimen was ceratosaurian, but could find no characters shared specifically with Elaphrosaurus. Indeed, the straight shaft is present in all ceratosaurs, while the low deltopectoral crest is present in Limusaurus and abelisaurians as well. The proximal articular surface is wider than Limusaurus, but less so than abelisaurians. The flattened distal condyles are also more derived than Limusaurus, while Spinostropheus is intermediate. The internal tuberosity is well developed as in Ceratosaurus and abelisaurids, but unlike Limusaurus, Elaphrosaurus, Spinostropheus and Masiakasaurus. The deltopectoral crest apex is placed more distally (42%) than Elaphrosaurus, Limusaurus and especially Ceratosaurus and Masiakasaurus, but is more proximal than abelisaurids. Based on these comparisons, I agree the humerus cannot be assigned to Elaphrosaurus.
USNM 8414 was discovered in 1883 and is assigned to Elaphrosaurus sp. on the USNM collections website, though it has not been mentioned in the literature to my knowledge. Pickering (1995b) referred it to his species Elaphrosaurus "philtippettensis" without comment. Until these are illustrated or described, their affinities remain unknown.
DMNH 36284 is a proximal tibia that was collected in 1992 and first published in a faunal list by Carpenter (1998) as Elaphrosaurus sp.. Chure (2001) later described it as Elaphrosaurus, though Carrano and Sampson (2008) believed it resembled Tendaguru abelisauroid tibiae more.
Turner and Peterson (1999) listed Elaphrosaurus sp. from the Poison Creek Quarry of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming (either from Erickson pers. comm. 1994 or Foster pers. comm. 1997), but this has yet to be described.
References- Galton, 1982. Elaphrosaurus, an ornithomimid dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 56, 265-275.
Pickering, 1995a. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Pickering, 1995b. An extract from: Archosauromorpha: Cladistics and osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 2 pp.
Carpenter, 1998. Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Morrison Formation near Canon City, Colorado. Modern Geology. 23, 407-426.
Turner and Peterson, 1999. Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A. In Gillette (ed.). Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication. 99-1, 77-114.
Chure, 2001. The second record of the African theropod Elaphrosaurus (Dinosauria, Ceratosauria) from the Western Hemisphere. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte. 2001(9), 565-576.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.

unnamed ceratosaur (Raath and McIntosh, 1987)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Kadze Formation, Zimbabwe

Material- (QG 65) two femora
Comments- Raath and McIntosh (1987) identified these femora as ?allosaurid, but Rauhut and Lopez-Arbarello (2008) considered them to be ceratosaurian due to the low, aliform anterior trochanter and well-developed
trochanteric shelf. They are under study by Roberts, O’Connor and Carrano.
Reference- Raath and McIntosh, 1987. Sauropod dinosaurs from the central Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, and the age of the Kadzi Formation. South African Journal of Geology. 90(2), 107-119.
Rauhut and López-Arbarello, 2008. Archosaur evolution during the Jurassic: A southern perspective. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina. 63(4), 557-585.

Deltadromeus Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996
D. agilis Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

Holotype- (SGM-Din 2) (~8.1 m) partial cervical rib, two anterior dorsal neural arches, two partial dorsal ribs, two gastralia, partial caudal vertebrae 3-17 (130 mm), caudal vertebrae 20-27 (130 mm), eight chevrons, proximal scapula, incomplete coracoid, incomplete humerus (~328 mm), proximal radius, proximal ulna, partial ilium, pubic fragments?, partial ischia, femur (740 mm), icomplete tibia (~700 mm), incomplete fibula, partial astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II (417 mm), phalanx II-1 (140 mm), pedal ungual II (80 mm), metatarsal III (450 mm), phalanx III-1 (140 mm), metatarsal IV (400 mm), phalanx IV-1 (98 mm), phalanx IV-3 (52 mm), phalanx IV-4 (37 mm), metatarsal V (100 mm)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem Beds, Morocco

Paratype- (IPHG 1912 VIII) (~13.3 m; ~3.5 tons) coracoid, pubes, femur (1.22 m), proximal tibia, fibula (Stromer, 1934)
Comments- Stromer (1934) referred IPHG 1912 VIII to his new taxon Bahariasaurus, which may end up being synonymous with Deltadromeus. Sereno et al. (1996) described Deltadromeus as a basal coelurosaur, but Rauhut (2003) found it to be an ornithomimosaur. Most recently, Wilson et al. (2003) found it to be a noasaurid and Carrano and Sampson (2008) recovered it as a basal ceratosaur outside of Neoceratosauria.
There have been online suggestions that Deltadromeus is closely related to Dryptosaurus. However, Deltadromeus is turning out to be ceratosaurian, and Dryptosaurus is probably a tyrannosauroid. Both have somewhat similar deltopectoral crests, but Dryptosaurus' humerus has a larger ventral tubercle and seems more sigmoid. Deltadromeus has an oddly anteroposteriorly narrow femoral head and an anterior trochantor that starts further distally. Deltadromeus' lateral tibial condyle has an odd posterior process, the cnemial crest is narrower and the incisura tibialis is more excavated in proximal view. Deltadromeus has a better developed proximomedial fibular fossa, but it is not as extensive proximoposteriorly. Dryptosaurus' ascending process is much higher and more pointed and it lacks the plesiomorphic transverse groove across the astragalar condyles found in Deltadromeus. Metatarsal IV is much narrower in Deltadromeus and it's proximal end is less triangular than Dryptosaurus and tyrannosaurids, and lacks the notch found in those taxa. Deltadromeus' humerus is 6% longer compared to femoral length, but its tibia is 6% shorter. It is apparent the taxa are rather different, although a better description of Deltadromeus would make it easier to compare them.
The "pubis" of Deltadromeus' holotype seems to be an ischium (Longrich, DML 2000). The shape of the distal boot is almost identical to 1912 VIII 82, except that it's a bit shorter in the latter (possibly ontogenetic, as seen in Nedcolbertia). The cross section is posteriorly convex in the center, unlike pubes, which are concave anteriorly. The conjoined shafts are narrow transversely instead of having a pubic apron. The lack of an interpubic foramen in Deltadromeus' "pubis" (again similar to 1912 VIII 82) is also consistant with an identification as an ischium, though plenty of taxa lack interpubic foramina. Finally, Longrich identified what appeared to be pubic fragments in the Deltadromeus holotype.
References- Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 22, 1-79.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous faunal differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
http://www.cmnh.org/dinoarch/2000Nov/msg00067.html
Rauhut, 2003. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69, 1-213.
Wilson, Sereno, Srivastava, Bhatt, Khosla and Sahni, 2003. A new abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lameta Formation (Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of India. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology. The University of Michigan. 31, 1-42.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.

Austrocheirus Ezcurra, Agnolin and Novas, 2010
A. isasii Ezcurra, Agnolin and Novas, 2010
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Pari Aike Formation, Santa Cruz, Argentina
Holotype
- (MPM-PV 10003) (~7-8 m; young adult) incomplete mid caudal centra, three partial mid caudal neural arches, incomplete metacarpal III (?), incomplete phalanx III-1(?), distal tibia, metatarsal II fragment, distal metatarsal III, three distal pedal phalanges
Diagnosis- (after Ezcurra et al., 2010) metacarpal III with dorsoventrally tapering shaft towards proximal end; posteriorly displaced collateral tendon fossae located at same level of the proximal end of distal condyles on metacarpal III; pedal phalanges with conspicuous longitudinal crest delimitating dorsal margin of distal collateral tendon fossae.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 2002 and described in 2010 as an abelisauroid outside the Rugops+Abelisauridae clade by Ezcurra et al.. Rauhut (2012) later doubted its ceratosaurian identity as no megaraptorians or coelurosaurs were included in Ezcurra et al.'s analysis, and several supposedly ceratosaurian characters have a wider distribution within those clades. Further, he doubted the identification of metacarpal III and suggested the manual phalanx may be pedal. Rauhut thus placed Austrocheirus as Theropoda indet., but it is here tentatively retained as a valid abelisauroid as Cau's (online, 2010) larger unpublished analysis including megaraptorans and coelurosaurs still recovered it as an abelisauroid.
References- Cau, online 2010. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2010/05/austrocheirus-ezcurra-et-al-2010-una.html
Ezcurra, Agnolin and Novas, 2010. An abelisauroid dinosaur with a non-atrophied manus from the Late Cretaceous Pari Aike Formation of southern Patagonia. Zootaxa. 2450, 1-25.
Rauhut, 2012. A reappraisal of a putative record of abelisauroid theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 123(5), 779-786.

Ligabueino Bonaparte, 1996
= "Ligabueino" Bonaparte, 1995
L. andesi Bonaparte, 1996
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Puesto Antigual Member of La Amarga Formation, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MACN-N 42) (.74 m) posterior cervical neural arch, dorsal centrum, two posterior dorsal neural arches, caudal vertebra, two manual phalanges III-?, ilium, incomplete pubes, femur (62 mm)
References- Bonaparte, 1995. Dinosaurios de America del Sur. Buenos Aires. 174 pp.
Bonaparte, 1996. Cretaceous tetrapods of Argentina. Muenchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. 30A, 73-130.
Agnolin and Chiarelli, 2010. The position of the claws in Noasauridae (Dinosauria: Abelisauroidea) and its implications for abelisauroid manus evolution. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 84, 293-300.

Spinostropheus Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004
S. gautieri (Lapparent, 1960) Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004
= Elaphrosaurus gautieri Lapparent, 1960
Bathonian-Oxfordian, Middle-Late Jurassic
Tiouraren Formation of the Irhazer Group, Niger

Holotype- (MNHN 1961-28) cervical vertebra (80 mm), two anterior dorsal vertebrae (70, 80 mm), posterior dorsal vertebra (50 mm), four dorsal fragments, three sacral fragments, three caudal vertebrae (80-85 mm), two caudal fragments, partial humerus (200 mm), distal pubis, distal femur, incomplete tibia, incomplete fibula, proximal metatarsal, four metatarsal fragments, partial pedal phalanx
Paratypes- ?(MNHN coll.) ulna (300 mm)
?(MNHN coll.) proximal metatarsal
?(MNHN coll.) cervical neural arch, two dorsal vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae (140 mm), partial caudal vertebra, three manual unguals (40, 45, 60 mm), tibiae (700 mm), distal fibula, proximal metatarsal, four pedal phalangeal fragments
Referred- (MNN TIG6) posterior third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, cervical rib, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, partial ninth dorsal vertebra, partial tenth dorsal vertebra, partial eleventh dorsal vertebra, partial twelfth dorsal vertebra, partial thirteenth dorsal vertebra, fragmentary dorsal ribs, first sacral neural arch, second sacral neural arch, third sacral neural arch, ossified tendons (Sereno et al., 2004)
Diagnosis- (after Sereno et al., 2004) strongly canted anterior articular face on mid cervical centra (30 degree angle to posterior articular face); partitioned anterior pleurocoels in mid-cervical centra; dorsoventrally flattened epipophyseal processes on mid cervical vertebrae; broad subrectangular neural spines on mid cervical vertebrae.
Description- The holotype has some odd characters, as described by Lapparent. These include very large dorsal neural canals (though the photographed dorsal has a very unusual neural arch morphology for a theropod, so may be incorrectly referred), procoelous caudal centra with a ventral median keel, and a very stout humerus. The latter lacks its shaft, judging by the photograph, so Lapparent's basis for describing it as so robust is unknown. Lapparent describes the referred partial skeleton as having a sacrum composed of two opisthocoelous vertebrae with enlarged neural canals. These characters may indicate some remains are referrable to another taxon (such as an alvarezsaurid, and/or non-theropod), or Spinostropheus may be an exceptionally autapomorphic ceratosaur.
Comments- Though originally identified as Early Cretaceous (Lapparent, 1960), the Tiouraren Formation has been reinterpreted as Bathonian-Oxfordian (Rauhut and Lopez-Arbarello, 2009)
Lapparent referred this species to Elaphrosaurus without reason, distinguishing it from his Elaphrosaurus iguidiensis by its larger size. New remains were discovered in 1997 or 2000 and presented at SVP 2002. Sereno et al. (2004) list only unspecified vertebrae, the partial humerus and incomplete tibia as the holotype. The other remains described by Lapparent with this material may have been discovered isolated, and therefore not definitely referrable to this taxon. The second set of remains described by Lapparent was referred to Spinostropheus (Elaphrosaurus gautieri of Lapparent) based on similarly broad sacral centra. The validity of this referral has yet to be determined, though if true it would allow positive referral of several other elements supposedly in the holotype to the taxon. The ulna has no justification for being referred to this taxon. Sereno et al. do not include any remains except MNN TIG6 in their codings for Spinostropheus, and find it to be the sister taxon to Abelisauria. Carrano and Sampson (2008) found it to be a basal ceratosaur outside Neoceratosauria
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Sereno, Conrad and Wilson, 2002. Abelisaurid theropods from Africa: Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 106A.
Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 271(1546), 1325-1330.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.
Rauhut and Lopez-Arbarello, 2009. Considerations on the age of the Tiouaren Formation (Iullemmeden Basin, Niger, Africa): Implications for Gondwanan Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 271, 259-267.

Elaphrosaurus Janensch, 1920
Not Elaphrosaurus- Galton (1982) referred a humerus (USNM 8415) from the Morrison Formation of Colorado to Elaphrosaurus sp., but I agree with Carrano and Sampson (2008) that it is not more similar to that taxon than to other ceratosaurs. Pickering (1995a, b) created the nomina nuda ?Elaphrosaurus "philtippettensis" and E. "philtippettorum" with the intended holotype as distal pubes USNM 5737 (also from the Morrison Formation of Colorado), but I agree with Carpenter et al. (2005) that these are more probably referrable to Tanycolagreus. He referred metatarsals II and IV (USNM 8414) from the same locality as USNM 8415 to his species, but these have yet to be described. Similarly, Turner and Peterson (1999) listed Elaphrosaurus sp. from the Poison Creek Quarry of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming, but this material remains undescribed. Chure (2001) described a proximal tibia (DMNH 36284) from the Morrison of Colorado as Elaphrosaurus, but Carrano and Sampson (2008) considered it to resemble unnamed Tendaguru abelisauroid tibiae more. Pol and Rauhut (2012) consider the humerus and tibia to be ceratosaurs more basal than Elaphrosaurus.
References- Galton, 1982. Elaphrosaurus, an ornithomimid dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 56, 265-275.
Pickering, 1995a. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Pickering, 1995b. An extract from: Archosauromorpha: Cladistics and osteologies. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 2 pp.
Turner and Peterson, 1999. Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A. In Gillette (ed.). Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication. 99-1, 77-114.
Chure, 2001. The second record of the African theropod Elaphrosaurus (Dinosauria, Ceratosauria) from the Western Hemisphere. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte. 2001(9), 565-576.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.
Pol and Rauhut, 2012. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 279(1741), 3170-3175.
E. bambergi Janensch, 1920
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Holotype- (HMN Gr.S. 38-44) (6.2 m, 210 kg) third cervical vertebra (~77 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (~114 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (~120 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (119 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (115 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (112 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (99 mm), first dorsal vertebra (82 mm), second dorsal vertebra (~85 mm), third dorsal vertebra (83 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (84 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (88 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra (~108 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (103 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (96 mm), two partial dorsal ribs, sacrum (88, 76, 50, 42, 49, 64 mm), first caudal vertebra (77 mm), second caudal vertebra (78 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (80 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (76 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (70 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (73 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (73 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (71 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (70 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (71 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (82 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (84 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (83 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (80 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (77 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (83 mm), thirty-fifth caudal vertebra, partial chevron, partial scapula, partial coracoid, humerus (262 mm), metacarpal I (31 mm), metacarpal IV (39 mm), ilia (~380 mm), proximal pubis, ischia (354 mm), femur (520 mm), tibia (608 mm), incomplete fibula, astragalus (56 mm wide), metatarsal II (378 mm), phalanx II-1 (100 mm), phalanx II-2 (60 mm), metatarsal III (390 mm), proximal metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-4 (36 mm)
Referred- ?(HMN M.B.R. 1762) manual phalanx II-2 (55 mm) (Janensch, 1925)
(HMN coll.) ninth dorsal vertebra (70 mm) (Janensch, 1925)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Referred- ?(HMN M.B.R. 1755) radius (198 mm) (Janensch, 1929)
?(HMN M.B.R. 1766) distal ischium (Carrano and Sampson, 2008)
Diagnosis- (modified after Rauhut, 2000) cervical vertebrae with thin latero-ventral laminae, bordering the posterior pleurocoel ventrally; cervical vertebrae strongly concave ventrally, the ventral margin arching above the mid-height of the anterior articular facet at its highest point; brevis fossa of ilium extremely widened, so that the brevis shelf forms an almost horizontal lateral flange; distal end of ischium strongly expanded into a triangular boot.
Comments- This species is being redescribed by Rauhut and Carrano (in prep.).
References- Janensch, 1920. Ueber Elaphrosaurus bambergi und die Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. 1920, 225-235.
Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. (Supp. 7)1, 1-99.
Janensch, 1929. Ein aufgestelltes und rekonstruiertes Skelett von Elaphrosaurus bambergi mit einem Nachtrag zur Osteologie dieses Coeluro-sauriers. Palaeontographic.a (Supp. 7)1, 279-286.
Galton, 1982. Elaphrosaurus, an ornithomimid dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 56, 265-275.
Rauhut, 1998. Elaphrosaurus bambergi and the early evolution of theropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 71A.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.
Rauhut and Carrano, in prep..

unnamed elaphrosaur (He, 1984)
Bathonian-Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Xiashaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Material- (CCG 20011; paratype of Chuandongocoelurus primitivus) (~4.3-4.9 meters; ~70-100 kg; subadult) third cervical vertebra (61 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (69 mm), third dorsal centrum (65 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (58 mm), incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (60 mm), four distal caudal vertebrae, partial distal caudal vertebra, partial scapula (282 mm)
Diagnosis- lateral depression of third cervical centrum extends over 60% of central length; scapula less than 5.5 times longer than wide.
Description- He (1984) based Chuandongocoelurus on two specimens, one much larger than the other. While both include dorsal and caudal vertebrae, only those of the paratype were illustrated. Thus whether the paratype belongs to Chuandongocoelurus is unknown. The paratype can be estimated to be ~4.3-4.9 meters long, based on comparing presacral lengths with Elaphrosaurus. The resulting weight estimate is ~70-100 kilograms. The unfused neurocentral sutures in the dorsal vertebrae show this was a subadult, so this was not its maximum size.
Of the two cervical vertebrae preserved in the paratype, one is clearly from a very anterior position due to its slender centrum (ventral length 2.9 times posterior height). Glut (1997) refers to an axis, but the strong parapophyses suggest it was a third cervical instead, as basal theropods have very reduced axial parapophyses. The centrum is platycoelous or amphiplatyan, with an anterior face 38% wider than tall. There is a deep lateral fossa extending from near the posterior border of the centrum to beneath the diapophyses, though whether this contained foramina is uncertain. The diapophyses extend ventrolaterally to almost contact the parapophyses, thus the ribs were not fused to the vertebra. A dorsal fossa on the diapophyses as is present in basal ceratosaurs seems to be present. A posterodorsally projecting posterior infradiapophyseal lamina is present, and there may be a low angled bump on the posterior neural arch edge. The latter may also be due to breakage though. The prezygopophyses are broken off, but thir bases show they were massive. The posyzygopophyses were more slender, and are broken so that epipophyseal morphology is unknown. The neural spine is not well preserved, but was low and rounded.
The other cervical is from the posterior portion of the series as seen by the postzygopophyses extending past the centrum and the craniocaudally short neural spine. Comparison with Elaphrosaurus suggests it is the tenth. The centrum is again elongate (2.6 times posterior height), with a slight lateral depression. The anterior face is perhaps slightly convex and 38% wider than tall, while the posterior face is flat or concave. The parapophyses are massive and positioned on the anteroventral corners. There is a circular neural canal, a bit less than 40% as tall as the central face. The prezygopophyses are quite massive compared to Elaphrosaurus, though broken at their tips. The ventrolaterally projecting diapophyses end much further from the parapophyses than in the third cervical. The cervical ribs were apparently unfused to the vertebrae. The neural spine is low and short craniocaudally, although only its base remains. There is a large postzygopophyseal-central choana again, but no step this time. There is no evidence of epipophyses.
A centrum is probably from the third dorsal, as the parapophyses are partially on the centrum and partially on the neural arch, as seen in the third dorsals of Elaphrosaurus and Dilophosaurus. There is a slight lateral depression, the anterior face is 14% wider than tall and it looks slightly opisthocoelous.
The other dorsal has a parapophysis placed on the neural arch, but not at the dorsal edge of the prezygopophysis. This is seen in the fourth dorsal of Elaphrosaurus. The centrum is again rather elongate, with a small lateral depression and indeterminate face convexity. The ventral edge is more strongly concave than Elaphrosaurus. The diapophyses project laterally and appear backswept. The prezygopophyses are very short, but still more massive than Elaphrosaurus. A large postzygopophyseal-central choana is still present, with a step like the third cervical. There are large postzygopophyses and a moderate sized rectangular neural spine, with ventral margins sloping towards the zygopophyses, especially the postzygopophyses.
The caudal vertebra is probably from around the fifth position, judging by elongation. The centrum has no lateral depression and a moderately concave ventral surface. The anterior face is perhaps concave while the posterior is slightly convex. There are prominent transverse processes and the bases of large prezygopophyses. The neural spine is craniocaudally expansive and there looks to be a small anterior spine medial to the prezygopophyses. Postzygopophyses are broken off.
The scapula is very broad for a theropod (~5.1 times longer than broad), which is more than even abelisaurs and megalosaurs (~5.9 times). However, it lacks the expanded distal end of coelophysoids, Dilophosaurus and basal non-theropod dinosaurs and is thus still strap-like. Most of the anterior edge is lacking, but it is generally similar to Carnotaurus, differing in the slightly concave posterior margin. An extensive posteriorly facing glenoid is present.
Relationships- Norman (1990) referred Chuandongocoelurus to Theropoda indet., while noting the primitively broad scapula. As noted above, although broad, the scapula is still strap-like. Additionally, it is much broader than any other theropod or basal dinosaur and is thus an autapomorphy of the genus. In 2001, I noted the resemblence between the Chuandongocoelurus material and Elaphrosaurus, though I was unaware of the fact it belonged to two individuals. My saurischian supermatrix suggests the paratype is indeed sister to Elaphrosaurus, though the holotype seems to be a basal tetanurine.
Compared to Ceratosaurus and Carnotaurus, Elaphrosaurus and CCG 20011 share the following synapomorphies- elongate anterior dorsal centra (posterior central face height <65% of central length); anterior cervicals with low rounded neural spines; proximal caudal neural spines elongate anteroposteriorly, extending over ~2/3 of central length.
Coelophysids developed elongate anterior dorsal centra and very low rounded cervical neural spines in parallel, as they are absent in Herrerasaurus, Dilophosaurus and basal tetanurines. Herrerasaurids also developed long proximal caudal neural spines. The last two characters are also developed in tetanurines. Masiakasaurus has low rounded anterior cervical neural spines and elongate anterior dorsal centra.
CCG 20011 differs from Elaphrosaurus in several ways- large postzygopophyseal-central choana in presacral vertebrae; step in postzygopophyseal-central choana of anterior cervicals and anterior dorsals; lateral depression of third cervical extends over 60% of central length; posteroventral border of anterior cervical centra not convex; larger prezygopophyses on posterior cervicals to proximal caudals; small anterodorsally projecting process anterior to proximal caudal neural spines.
Many of these are plesiomorphic or found in other theropods, but several are unique to the specimen and are listed above in the diagnosis.
References- He, 1984. The vertebrate fossils of Sichuan. Sichuan Scientific and Technological Publishing House. 168 pp.
Norman, 1990. Problematic Theropoda: "Coelurosaurs". in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press. 280-305.
Glut, 1997. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 1076 pp.
Mortimer, DML 2001. http://dml.cmnh.org/2001Jun/msg00957.html

Limusaurus Xu, Clark, Mo, Choiniere, Forster, Erickson, Hone, Sullivan, Eberth, Nesbitt, Zhao, Hernandez, Jia, Han and Guo, 2009
L. inextricabilis Xu, Clark, Mo, Choiniere, Forster, Erickson, Hone, Sullivan, Eberth, Nesbitt, Zhao, Hernandez, Jia, Han and Guo, 2009
Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Shishugou Formation, Xinjiang, China
Holotype
- (IVPP V15923) (~1.7 m; <5 year old subadult) skull, sclerotic ring, mandible (105 mm), hyoid, seven cervical vertebrae (seventh cervical vertebra 45 mm), cervical ribs, fourth dorsal vertebra (26 mm), dorsal ribs, two sacral vertebrae, eleven caudal vertebrae (second 27 mm, twelfth 26 mm), eleven chevrons, scapulocoracoid (scapula ~95 mm), furcula, sternum, humeri (80 mm), radii (40 mm), ulnae, metacarpal II (12 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, proximal manual ungual II, metacarpal III (13 mm), phalanx III-2, manual ungual III, metacarpal IV, ilia (140 mm), distal pubis, ischium (133 mm), femur (208 mm), tibiae (249 mm), astragalocalcaneum, distal tarsals, metatarsals I, phalanges I-1, pedal unguals I, metatarsals II, phalanges II-1, phalanges II-2, pedal unguals II, metatarsals III (155 mm), phalanges III-1 (36 mm), phalanges III-2 (26 mm), phalanges III-3 (20 mm), pedal unguals III (21 mm), metatarsals IV, phalanges IV-1, phalanges IV-2, phalanges IV-3, phalanges IV-4, pedal unguals IV, metatarsal V, gastroliths
Paratypes- (IVPP V15924) (~2 m; 5 year old subadult) postcranial skeleton including metacarpal I, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, metacarpal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, manual ungual III, distal metacarpal IV, tibiotarsus (286 mm), fibula
(IVPP V16134) (~1.7 m) specimen including radius, ulna, metacarpal I, metacarpal II, metacarpal III
Referred- (IVPP coll.) caudal vertebrae, chevrons (Clark et al., 2002)
(IVPP coll.) caudal vertebrae, chevrons, hindlimbs (Clark et al., 2002)
(IVPP coll.) four specimens (Xu and Clark, 2006)
(IVPP coll.) six specimens (Clark pers. comm., 2009)
Diagnosis- (after Xu et al., 2009) skull half as long as the femur; premaxilla toothless; premaxilla with a convex ventral edge; maxilla toothless; nasal with a lateral shelf dorsal to antorbital fossa; short and wide nasal less than one-third of skull roof length and only twice as long as wide; ventral process of lacrimal strongly inclined anteriorly; slender jugal with rod-like suborbital and subtemporal rami; dentary toothless; large external mandibular fenestra about 40% of mandibular length; flange on anterior margin of scapular blade; radius tightly adhering to ulna; radius longer than ulna; olecranon process absent; metacarpal I highly reduced and carrying no phalanges; phalanx II-1 with distinct lateral process proximodorsally; metacarpal II much more robust than other metacarpals; metacarpal III with sub-triangular proximal articular surface; metacarpal III with non-ginglymoidal distal end; pubis with laterally ridged, prominent posterior boot; pedal digit I small, only 17% as long as metatarsal III; metatarsus forming a strong transverse arch; robust ventral process at medial margin of proximal end of metatarsal III; metatarsal IV nearly straight, appressed against lateral surface of metatarsal III for nearly its whole length.
Comments- This taxon was first presented as a possible ornithomimosaur by Clark et al. (2002), known from four specimens at the time. While IVPP V16134 was not mentioned in the referred material or main paper, is is in the supplementary information. Xu and Clark (2006) mentioned two new Shishugou ceratosaur taxa represented by four specimens, but all specimens are now thought to be referrable to Limusaurus (Clark pers. comm., 2009).
Is metacarpal I is tetanurines actually metacarpal II? Xu et al. (2009) hypothesized Limusaurus may indicate metacarpals I-II-III-IV of tetanurines are homologous to metacarpals II-III-IV-V in other amniotes, based on several characters. Digit I in Limusaurus and Aucasaurus are highly reduced, with no phalanges. Yet Ceratosaurus shows an articular surface for phalanx I-1, showing the condition in Limusaurus may be derived within ceratosaurs as opposed to a basal ceratosauroid (ceratosaur+tetanurine) state. Metacarpal II is medially twisted in Limusaurus, Dilophosaurus and some Coelophysis bauri specimens, similar to metacarpal I in other saurischians. Unfortunately, this is not easily determinable from most figures, so the condition in basal tetanurines is unknown. While Xu et al. note metacarpal III lies ventral to metacarpal II in tetanurines, as metacarpal IV does to III in Limusaurus and coelophysoids, this is also true of metacarpal IV in tetanurines (e.g. Guanlong, as seen in its supplementary information; Tanycolagreus). Similarly, while metacarpal I does not overlap II in non-tetanurines, this is seemingly also true in Xuanhanosaurus and Acrocanthosaurus (overlap is present in "Szechuanoraptor", Megaraptor, Torvosaurus, Allosaurus and Guanlong however). There is a dorsolateral flange on metacarpal II of Dilophosaurus and Limusaurus which is similar to one on metacarpal I of some tetanurines (e.g. "Szechuanoraptor", Allosaurus, Guanlong). But Xuanhanosaurus and Megaraptor also have such a flange on metacarpal II, but not I, like basal theropods. Both flanges seem to exist in Acrocanthosaurus, while none exist in Aucasaurus and Torvosaurus. Xu et al. state metacarpal II is more robust than I in non-tetanurine theropods, homologizing it to the robust metacarpal I in tetanurines, but the situation is more complex. It's clearly the size of the base which is important, since even Coelophysis and Dilophosaurus have metacarpal I shafts more robust than those of II. Yet basal tetanurines (e.g. Xuanhanasaurus, "Szechuanoraptor", Torvosaurus, Megaraptor, Acrocanthosaurus, Allosaurus) have metacarpal II more robust than I, while Aucasaurus and Herrerasaurus have the opposite condition. This is true in Xu et al.'s tetanurine example of Guanlong too, while even their example of Deinonychus has more proximal area and depth on metacarpal II, just less width. Phalanx I-1 in tetanurines is said to be longer than phalanx I-1 in Herrerasaurus, Dilophosaurus and ceratosaurs, but phalanx I-1 is not preserved in any ceratosaur except for two questionably identified elements in Masiakasaurus. Furthermore, it is not as if any phalanx on digit II in Dilophosaurus or Herrerasaurus is notably more elongate than their phalanx I-1, and some basal tetanurines like Torvosaurus actually have an extremely short phalanx I-1. Metacarpal II is longest in tetanurines, while III is longest in more basal theropods. Yet Limusaurus and Ceratosaurus resemble tetanurines in this (contra Xu et al.'s statements and measurements about the former), and Dilophosaurus and Coelophysis rhodesiensis are polymorphic (e.g. II longer in the paratype of Dilophosaurus, III longer in the holotype). There is a proximal dorsolateral process on metacarpal III in coelophysoids and Limusaurus, similar to one on metacarpal II in some basal tetanurines like Guanlong. Yet Guanlong also has a process on metacarpal III, which partly covers metacarpal IV, even though the latter is not illustrated in Xu et al.'s paper. Acrocanthosaurus and Allosaurus also have a processes on metacarpal III, while "Szechuanoraptor" lacks processes on metacarpals II or III. This process on metacarpal III of tetanurines could be homologous to the process on III in basal theropods as easily as it could the process on II. Finally, Xu et al. state metacarpal III in tetanurines is short, slender and proximally triangular like metacarpal IV in basal theropods. Of course, metacarpal IV in tetanurines is also short and slender (moreso than III), with those of Xuanhanosaurus and "Szechuanoraptor" resembling metacarpal IV in basal theropods more than their metacarpal III. This is a case where the more reduced metacarpal III in derived tetanurines like Guanlong and Deinonychus (illustrated by Xu et al.) resembles basal theropod metacarpal IV more than metacarpal III in basal tetanurines (e.g. Xuanhanosaurus, "Szechuanoraptor", Torvosaurus, carnosaurs) do, with the thicker shaft and robust distal articulation in the latter taxa. As for their triangular proximal outline, metacarpal IV in Dilophosaurus and Limusaurus are more round than triangular, but "Szechuanoraptor" shows basal tetanurines have triangular metacarpal IV too in any case. Xu et al. ran a phylogenetic analysis which determined that when characters states are ordered, the resulting tree assuming tetanurines have digits II-III-IV-V is six steps longer than if they are assumed to have digits I-II-III-IV. The length of the unordered trees is equal, but leaving characters unordered potentially leads to ridiculous "intermediate synapomorphies" like coelophysoids and Herrerasaurus being diagnosed by having a single phalanx on digit IV (not more or less) or taxon being diagnosed by having an intermediate ratio, as opposed to relatives with low and high ratios. Furthermore, neither Xuanhanosaurus, "Szechuanoraptor" or Megaraptor were included in their matrix, though these taxa show high homoplasy if II-III-IV-V is assumed, as noted above. I conclude that there is little evidence tetanurine hands lacked digit I.
Limusaurus was found by Xu et al. to be the sister taxon of Elaphrosaurus within Ceratosauria, though it also shares some characters with neoceratosaurs, abelisauroids, noasaurids and tetanurines.
References- Clark, Xu, Forster, Wang and Andres, 2002. New small dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation at Wucaiwan, Xinjiang, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 44A.
Xu and Clark, 2006. New ceratosaurs from the Jurassic Shishugou Formation of Western China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 142A.
Xu and Clark, 2008. Homologies in the hand of theropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 163A.
Xu, Clark, Mo, Choiniere, Forster, Erickson, Hone, Sullivan, Eberth, Nesbitt, Zhao, Hernandez, Jia, Han and Guo, 2009. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies. Nature. 459, 940-944.
Stiegler, Wang, Xu and Clark, 2013. Coding individual specimens as taxa: Test cases aid in resolving the relationships of basal Neotheropoda, gauge topological sensitivity to taxon sampling, and produce novel taxonomic hypotheses. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 219-220.

Neoceratosauria Novas, 1991
Definition- (Ceratosaurus nasicornis + Abelisaurus comahuensis) (modified from Holtz, 1994)
Other definitions- (Ceratosaurus nasicornis <- Coelophysis bauri) (modified from Padian et al., 1999)
= "Neoceratosauria" Novas, 1989
= Ceratosauroidea Marsh, 1884 sensu Bonaparte, Novas and Coria, 1990
= Abelisauridae sensu Rowe et al., 1997
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Elaphrosaurus bambergi) (modified)
Comments- This clade was first proposed by Novas (1989) in his unpublished thesis, and later published by him in 1991. It included ceratosaurids, noasaurids and abelisaurids in both, distinguishing them from coelophysoid ceratosaurs. It has been used since in a similar manner, though lately it also serves to separate the former taxa from basal ceratosaurs such as Elaphrosaurus. Bonaparte et al. (1990) named Ceratosauroidea for the same clade, though distinguished from allosauroid carnosaurs this time. Ceratosauroidea has been used much less often and has only been given definitions congruent with ceratosaurian coelophysoids, so Neoceratosauria is preferred here.
A supposed neoceratosaur distal femur from the Sinpetru Beds of Romania described by Csiki and Grigorescu (1998) is a probably hadrosaurid distal metatarsal based on a matching complete specimen (MAFI Ob.3120a) (Kessler et al., 2005).
References- Novas, 1989. Los dinosaurios carnivoros de la Argentina. PhD thesis. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. 510 pp.
Novas, 1991. Phylogenetic relationships of ceratosaurian theropod dinosaurs. Ameghiniana. 28, 401.
Csiki and Grigorescu, 1998. Small theropods from the Late Cretaceous of the Hateg Basin (Western Romania) - an unexpected diversity at the top of the food chain. Oryctos. 1, 87-104.
Kessler, Grigorescu and Csiki, 2005. Elopteryx revisited - a new bird-like specimen from the Maastrichtian of the Hateg Basin. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae. 5, 249-258.

unnamed possible neoceratosaur (Young, 1958)
Early Cretaceous
Tsanmakou, Shanxi, China

Material- (IVPP V969) caudal vertebra, distal scapula, distal ischia, proximal tibia, proximal fibula, metatarsal II (~300 mm), pedal phalanx III-1? (95 mm)
Comments- This was referred to Allosauridae indet. by Young (1958). Carrano et al. (2012) noted the oblique proximal margin to the proximomedial fibular fossa is unlike carnosaurs, and that the fossa's depth is unlike megalosauroids. They referred it to Neotheropoda (their Averostra) indet., but noted the large m. iliofibularis tubercle was like neoceratosaurs.
Reference- Young, 1958. The first record of dinosaurian remains from Shansi. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 2(4), 231-236.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed probable neoceratosaur (Maganuco et al., 2005)
Bathonian, Middle Jurassic
Isalo Formation IIIb, Madagascar

Material- (MSNM V5778) anterior tooth (25.2 mm)
(MSNM V5779) lateral tooth (24.4 mm)
(MSNM V5780) lateral tooth (10.2 mm)
(MSNM V5781) lateral tooth (9.1 mm)
(MSNM V5782) lateral tooth (14.9 mm)
(MSNM V5783) lateral tooth (12.3 mm)
(MSNM V5784) lateral tooth (14.1 mm)
(MSNM V5788) lateral tooth (11.2 mm)
(MSNM V5790) lateral tooth (8.5 mm)
(MSNM V5794) lateral tooth (10.2 mm)
(MSNM V5798) lateral tooth (10.4 mm)
(MSNM V5799) lateral tooth (11.8 mm)
(MSNM V5806) lateral tooth (>9.7 mm)
(MSNM V5807) anterior tooth (28 mm)
(MSNM V5809) lateral tooth (>17.3 mm)
(MSNM V5810) lateral tooth (21.6 mm)
(MSNM V5814) lateral tooth (16.1 mm)
(MSNM V5817) lateral tooth (13.7 mm)
(MSNM V5818) lateral tooth (>14.6 mm)
(MSNM V5820) anterior tooth (16.4 mm)
(MSNM V5821) lateral tooth (9.7 mm)
(MSNM V5957) lateral tooth (>14 mm)
(MSNM V5962) lateral tooth (>19.1 mm)
Comments- These teeth resemble ceratosaurids in being extremely labiolingually compressed, and having the mesial carina vary in basal extent. The premaxillary teeth lack mesial fluting, unlike ceratosaurids. They are similar to abelisaurids' in having well developed basally angled blood grooves, short crowns, a fairly high DSDI (mean of 1.24). In addition to possessing the ceratosaurid similarities noted above, they differ from abelisaurids in having more serrations and lacking a drop-shaped cross section.
Reference- Maganuco, Cau, and Pasini, 2005. First description of theropod remains from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Madagascar. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. 146(2), 165-202.

Ceratosauridae Marsh, 1884
Definition- (Ceratosaurus nasicornis <- Abelisaurus comahuensis) (modified from Rauhut, 2004)
= Neoceratosauroidea Marsh, 1884 sensu Madsen and Welles, 2000
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) extremely labiolingually compressed maxillary teeth; longest maxillary tooth exceeds minimum dentary height.
(after Chure, 2000) lingually fluted premaxillary teeth
Comments- Marsh (1884) named this family to include only Ceratosaurus, and it has been used infrequently since to include taxa like Proceratosaurus, Sarcosaurus and Genyodectes.
References- Marsh, 1884. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VIII. The order Theropoda. The American Journal of Science. 27, 329-340.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2004. Provenance and anatomy of Genyodectes serus, a large-toothed ceratosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(4), 894-902.

Ceratosaurus? roechlingi Janensch, 1925
Late Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Lectotype- (MB R 2162; = MW 4) partial mid caudal centrum
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2011) Provisionally indeterminate relative to Ceratosaurus spp..
Comments- Janensch (1925) based this species on a partial quadrate (MB R 2160), three partial caudal vertebrae (MB R 1934, 1935, 2162) and a proximal fibula (MB R 3627), thought to belong to a single individual, as well as two caudals from earlier sediments (MB R 1938, 2166). Additionally, he labeled an astragalus and calcaneum (MB R 1926) as belonging to this taxon in the museum collections, though the specimen is not mentioned in the literature until Carrano and Sampson (2008). Madsen and Welles (2000) attempted to make the distal quadrate MB R 2160 the holotype of Ceratosaurus roechlingi, but as pointed out by Rauhut (2011) this is not valid as they only used the word 'type' (ICZN 74.7.1). Rauhut instead made the partial caudal MB R 2162 the lectotype because it shows ceratosaurian characters unlike the other material. He also found that while the other two associated vertebrae are of the right size to belong to the lectotype (though they are only referrable to Neotheropoda indet.), the quadrate (also Neotheropoda indet.) and hindlimb elements (Megalosauroidea indet.) are from a larger individual. The earlier caudals were made the type of his new carcharodontosaurid Veterupristisaurus. Rauhut found roechlingi to be indeterminate, but a ceratosaur based on the central cavity and possibly ceratosaurid based on the wide and deep ventral median groove (the latter also present in some basal tetanurines).
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

Genyodectes Woodward, 1901
G. serus Woodward, 1901
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Cerro Castano Member(?) of Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (MLP 26-39) premaxillae, anteroventral maxillae, anterior dentaries, partial supradentaries, splenial fragment, teeth
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2004) ceratosaurid synapomorphies (extremely labiolingually compressed maxillary teeth; longest maxillary tooth exceeds minimum dentary height) combined with plesiomorphic presence of four premaxillary teeth.
References- Woodward, 1901. On some extinct reptiles from Patagonia, of the genera Miolania, Dinilysia, and Genyodectes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1901, 169-184.
Rauhut, 2004. Provenance and anatomy of Genyodectes serus, a large-toothed ceratosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(4), 894-902.

Ostafrikasaurus
Buffetaut, 2011
O. crassiserratus Buffetaut, 2011
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Holotype- (MB R 1084; type a of Janensch; paralectotype of Labrosaurus stechowi) premaxillary tooth (46 mm)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Referred- (MB R 1091; type d of Janensch; paralectotype of Labrosaurus stechowi) premaxillary tooth
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2011) differs from stechowi in having more lingual ridges (11 vs. 2-3); lingual ridges well developed apically; labial ridges present.
Comments- Though referred to Labrosaurus stechowi by Janensch (1925; as type a), Rauhut (2011) noted differences that suggest it may be a different taxon. Another possibility is positional variation. Buffetaut (2008) suggested this (and possibly MR B 1091) could be a basal spinosaurid, but Rauhut found the shape, cross section and serration morphology was the same as stechowi, that it lacks spinosaurid-style granulated enamel and that unlike baryonychines the distal crown is least ridged. Buffetaut (2011) later described it as a new species of spinosaurid- Ostafrikasaurus crassiserratus. It is retained in Ceratosauridae here pending further comparison.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Buffetaut, 2008. Spinosaurid teeth from the Late Jurassic of Tengaduru, Tanzania, with remarks on the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the Spinosauridae. In Mazin, Pouch, Hantzpergue and Lacombe (eds.). Mid-Mesozoic life and environments. Documents des Laboratoires de Geologie Lyon, 164. 26-28.
Buffetaut, 2011. An early spinosaurid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania) and the evolution of the spinosaurid dentition. Oryctos. 10, 1-8.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
O? stechowi (Janensch, 1920) new combination
= Labrosaurus stechowi Janensch, 1920
= Allosaurus stechowi (Janensch, 1920) Glut, 1997
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Lectotype- (MB R 1083; type b of Janensch; ) premaxillary tooth (45 mm)
Paralectotypes- (MB R 1086-1090, 1092) three premaxillary teeth, two lateral teeth (36-38 mm)
Referred- (MB R 1093) tooth (Rauhut, 2011)
Diagnosis- (after Chure, 2000) differs from Ceratosaurus in having mesial serrations on probable anterior premaxillary teeth; lower, less laterally compressed lateral teeth; lingual ridges on lateral teeth.
Comments- Janensch (1920) originally described this taxon based on ten syntype teeth and only illustrated MB R 1083. He later (1925) stated "The teeth that I already designated as type-teeth of the species (1920, p. 233, Fig. 7-8) comes from the Middle Saurian Bed in Mahimbwi Valley at Tendaguru", referencing the illustration of MB R 1083. Rauhut (2011) listed that tooth as the holotype, but this cannot be true as Janensch never chose a holotype in 1920 and one can not be subsequently designated. Janensch's 1925 statement is provisionally considered a lectotype designation for MB R 1083, based on ICZN Article 74.6.1.1- "The inference that the specimen is a "holotype" or "the type" may be by reference to an illustration or description of a specimen [Art. 74.4]."
Chure (2000) noted this resembles Ceratosaurus in the lingual fluting of premaxillary teeth.
References- Janensch, 1920. Uber Elaphrosaurus bambergi und die Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafricas. Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde Berlin. 8, 225-235.
Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Glut, 1997. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 1076 pp.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

Ceratosaurus Marsh, 1884
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) narrow rounded horn core centrally placed on the fused nasals; median oval groove on nasals behind horn core; premaxilla with three teeth; premaxillary teeth with reduced extent of mesial serrations; chevrons extremely long; pubis with large, rounded notch underneath the obturator foramen; small epaxial osteoderms.
Ex-Ceratosaurus- Janensch (1920) tentatively referred three dorsals from the Tendaguru Formation (MB R 1936, 2163 and a lost one previously called TL 8) to Ceratosaurus, but Rauhut (2011) subsequently identified them as tetanurine. Similarly, Janensch stated a femur (MB R 3621) and two tibiae (MB R 3625, 3626) from that formation were very similar to Ceratosaurus, but Rauhut found these to be more similar to abelisaurids. Paul (1988) referred Megalosaurus ingens to Ceratosaurus, but Rauhut (2011) showed that these teeth are more like derived carcharodontosaurids.
References- Janensch, 1920. Uber Elaphrosaurus bambergi und die Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafricas. Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde Berlin. 8, 225-235.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
C. dentisulcatus Madsen and Welles, 2000
= Ceratosaurus "dentisulcatus" Anonymous, 1995
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Utah, US

Holotype- (UMNH 5278) (6.7 m) premaxillae, maxilla, jugal, quadratojugal, quadrate, pterygoid, incomplete dentaries, incomplete angular, incomplete splenials, teeth (to 93x30x15 mm), atlas, axis (89 mm), third cervical vertebra (65 mm), fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra (90 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (75 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (64 mm), eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra (66 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (50 mm), two incomplete cervical ribs, sixth dorsal vertebra (63 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (94 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (99 mm), three incompete dorsal ribs, eight proximal caudal vertebrae (102 mm), three mid caudal vertebrae (90 mm), eleven distal caudal vertebrae (72 mm), two proximal chevrons (276 mm), three mid chevrons, six distal chevrons, scapulocoracoid (405 mm), humerus (333 mm), metacarpal II, manual phalanx, femur (759 mm), tibiae (594 mm), fibulae (564 mm), astragalocalcaneum (165 mm wide), distal tarsal IV, metatarsal IV, pedal phalanx, fifteen dermal ossicles
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Praia da Amoreira of Lourinha Formation, Portugal

(ML 342) tooth (Mateus et al., 2006)
(ML 352) femur (647 mm), tibia (Antunes and Mateus, 2003)
(ML 737) tooth (Mateus et al., 2006)
(ML 809) tooth (Mateus et al., 2006)
Diagnosis- (after Madsen and Welles, 2000) compared to C. nasicornis- premaxilla ventrally arched and horizontal; nasal process of premaxilla lower; premaxilla longer; premaxilla with several large foramina; ventral edge of maxilla more concave; maxillary recess more pronounced; posterior edge of dorsal maxillary process rises more steeply; dentary upturned anteriorly; odontoid more prominent; axis shorter; axial neural spine higher; no axial prezygopophysis; axial and third cervical epipophysis larger; third cervical vertebra shorter; third cervical neural spine shorter and straight; astragalar overhang of tibia more horizontal; distal end of fibula evenly rounded; weak horizontal groove across anterior surface of astragalus.
References- Anonymous, 1995. Price list of specimens available from Dinolab, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
Mateus and Antunes, 2000. Late Jurassic dinosaurs of Portugal. Abstracts of the First Symposium of European Dinosaurs. [pp?]
Antunes and Mateus, 2003. Dinosaurs of Portugal. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2(1), 77-95.
Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006. The large theropod fauna of the Lourinha Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosaurus. In Foster and Lucas (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36, 1-7.
C. magnicornis Madsen and Welles, 2000
= Ceratosaurus “willisobrienorum” Welles, Powell and Pickering vide Pickering, 1995
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US

Holotype- (MWC 1) (subadult) (5.6 m) skull (600 mm), teeth (to 80x29x11 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (65 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (80 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (75 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (60 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (68 mm), tenth cervical vertebra, cervical rib, first dorsal vertebra (170 mm), second dorsal vertebra (75 mm), third dorsal vertebra (65 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (65 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (100 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (85 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (95 mm), posterior dorsal vertebra (98 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (70 mm), mid caudal vertebra, four distal caudal vertebrae, mid chevron, humerus (292 mm), manual ungual, incomplete femora (630 mm), tibiae (520 mm), astragalocalcaneum (127 mm wide), metatarsal II, metatarsal III (234 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx IV-1, five dermal ossicles
Diagnosis- (after Madsen and Welles, 2000) lower skull than C. nasicornis (H:L ratio 40 versus 47); anterior border of premaxilla straighter; anterior edge of maxilla nearly vertical; ventral border of maxilla more convex; nasal process of maxilla with deep maxillary fossa; ventral edge of antorbital fenestra more horizontal; nasal horncore longer and lower; teeth longer and stouter; lacrimal more massive with longer horncore and larger fenestra; quadratojugal more massive ventrally; quadrate with larger lower articular surface; quadrate more concave posteriorly; cnemial crest more poorly developed; ascending process completely fills facet; calcaneum broader anteriorly.
References- Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Welles and Pickering, 1999. An Extract From: Archosauromorpha: Cladistics and Osteologies. 70 pp.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
Sanders and Smith, 2005. The endocranium of the theropod dinosaur Ceratosaurus studied with computed tomography. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 50 (3), 601–616.
C. meriani (Greppin, 1870) new comb.
= Megalosaurus meriani Greppin, 1870
= Labrosaurus meriani (Greppin, 1870) Janensch, 1920
= Antrodemus meriani (Greppin, 1870) Steel, 1970
= Allosaurus meriani (Greppin, 1870) Olshevsky, 1978
Early Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Reuchenette Formation, Switzerland

Holotype- (MH 350) premaxillary tooth (39 mm)
Diagnosis- Provisionally indeterminate relative to Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus.
Comments- Meyer and Thuring (2003) note this is probably not from the Virgulla Beds as reported by Janensch and others.
Originally Megalosaurus meriani was described as including more teeth, two caudals (MH 276, 280), a femur (MH 372) and an (?)osteoderm, though the postcrania were later removed as the holotype of Ornithopsis greppini once Janensch realized it was sauropod in 1920/1921 (Huene, 1922).
Olshevsky refers this to Ceratosaurus based on resemblance to Labrosaurus sulcatus. The tooth is nearly identical to the first premaxillary tooth of Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus, and differs from other theropods in having ligual ridges. Chure (2000) is cautious in only saying it probably has affinities with Ceratosaurus. As it is of identical size and found in temporally equivalent beds, I believe it should be called Ceratosaurus meriani, though the species is indeterminate within the genus Ceratosaurus.
References- Greppin, 1870. Description geologique du Jura bernois et de quelques districts adjacents. Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz. 8, 1-357.
Janensch, 1920. Uber Elaphrosaurus bambergi und die Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafricas. Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde Berlin. 8, 225-235.
Huene, 1922. Ueber einen Sauropoden im obern Malm des Berner Jura. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 17, 80-94.
Steel, 1970. Part 14. Saurischia. Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie/Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. 1-87.
Olshevsky, 1978. The archosaurian taxa (excluding the Crocodylia). Mesozoic Meanderings. 1, 1-50.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Meyer and Thüring, 2003. Dinosaurs of Switzerland. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2, 103-117.
C. nasicornis Marsh, 1884
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US

Holotype- (USNM 4735) (5.46 m, 524 kg, adult) skull (625 mm), atlas (37 mm), axial intercentrum (22 mm), axis (66 mm), third cervical vertebra (60 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (60 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (64 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (68 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (68 mm), partial eighth cervical vertebra, partial ninth cervical neural spine, second dorsal vertebra (62 mm), third dorsal vertebra (~73 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (~83 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (~80 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (~93 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (88 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (81 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (80 mm), first sacral vertebra (85 mm), second sacral vertebra (82 mm), third sacral vertebra (84 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (73 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (71 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (72 mm), seventh sacral vertebra (80 mm), first caudal vertebra (79 mm), second caudal vertebra (80 mm), third caudal vertebra (80 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (79 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (78 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (76 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (81 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (79 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (78 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (78 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (77 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (76 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (74 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra, fifteenth caudal vertebra, sixteenth caudal vertebra, seventeenth caudal vertebra, eighteenth caudal vertebra (62 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (58 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra, twenty-first caudal vertebra, twenty-second caudal vertebra (59 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (62 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (58 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (58 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (56 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra, twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (55 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (51 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra (48 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (49 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (48 mm), thirty-third caudal vertebra (50 mm), thirty-fourth caudal vertebra (47 mm), thirty-fifth caudal vertebra (47 mm), thirty-sixth caudal vertebra (43 mm), thirty-seventh caudal vertebra (41 mm), thirty-eighth caudal vertebra (40 mm), thirty-ninth caudal vertebra (39 mm), fourtieth caudal vertebra (39 mm), fourty-first caudal vertebra (36 mm), fourty-second caudal vertebra (35 mm), fourty-third caudal vertebra (30 mm), fourty-fourth caudal vertebra (29 mm), fourty-fifth caudal vertebra (32 mm), fourty-sixth caudal vertebra (28 mm), fourty-seventh caudal vertebra (26 mm), fourty-eighth caudal vertebra (24 mm), fourty-ninth caudal vertebra (20 mm), fifthieth caudal vertebra (18 mm), fifty-first caudal vertebra (18 mm), third chevron (258 mm), sixth chevron (221 mm), fifteenth(?) chevron (132 mm), thirtieth chevron (53 mm), thirty-first chevron (49 mm), thirty-third chevron (43 mm), thirty-fifth chevron (34 mm), thirty-ninth chevron (24 mm), fourtieth chevron (23 mm), eleventh dorsal rib, proximal scapulocoracoid, radius (150 mm), ulna (177 mm), metacarpal I (41 mm), metacarpal II (70 mm), phalanx II-1 (28 mm), metacarpal III (66 mm), phalanx III-1 (27 mm), metacarpal IV (49 mm), phalanx IV-1 (17 mm), ilia (~650 mm), pubes (~670 mm), ischia (~505 mm), femur (620 mm), tibia (555 mm), astragalocalcaneum (astragalus 90 mm wide), distal tarsal III, astragalocalcaneum (130 mm wide, 82 mm tall), metatarsal II (230 mm), metatarsal III (254 mm), metatarsal IV (220 mm), axial osteoderms, skin impression
Referred- (CM 21706) incomplete dentary (McIntosh, 1981)
References- Dollo, 1884. Les métatarsiens du Ceratosaurus. Revue des questions scientifiques. 16, 646-648.
Marsh, 1884. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VIII. The order Theropoda. The American Journal of Science, series 3. 27, 329-340.
Marsh, 1884. On the united metatarsal bones of Ceratosaurus. The American Journal of Science, series 3. 28, 161-162.
Marsh, 1892. Restorations of Claosaurus and Ceratosaurus. The American Journal of Science, series 3. 44, 343-350.
Marsh, 1893. Restorations of Anchisaurus, Ceratosaurus, and Claosaurus. Geological Magazine, series 3. 10, 150-157.
Hay, 1908. On certain genera and species of carnivorous dinosaurs, with special reference to Ceratosaurus nasicornis Marsh. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 35, 351-366.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 110, 1-154.
McIntosh, 1981. Annotated catalogue of the dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria) in the collections of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 18, 1-67.
C. sulcatus (Marsh, 1896) new comb.
= Labrosaurus sulcatus Marsh, 1896
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Holotype- (YPM 1936) anterior dentary tooth (30 x 15 x 12 mm)
Diagnosis- Provisionally indeterminate realative to Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus, due to the high variability of fluting within Judith River coelurosaurian taxa.
Comments- Madsen and Welles (2000) refer this specimen to Ceratosaurus sp.. Chure (2000) notes it is identical to the first premaxillary tooth of C. dentisulcatus except for weak ridges at the labial apex. Rauhut (2011) notes that based on ICZN Article 12, Labrosaurus sulcatus may not be validly named by Marsh, as it was only a labeled illustration. Whether this is true or (e.g.) Hay should be credited with authorship requires further study.
References- Marsh, 1896. The dinosaurs of North America. U.S. Geological Survey, 16th Annual Report. 1894-95, 133-244.
Hay, 1908. On certain genera of carnivorous dinosaurs, with special reference to Ceratosaurus nasicornis (Marsh). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 35, 351-366.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
C. sp. (Britt, 1991)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US

Material- (BYUVP 4838) caudal vertebra (80 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4853) anterior caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4908) caudal vertebra (95 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4951) posterior dorsal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 4952) posterior dorsal vertebra (96 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5092) caudal vertebra (94 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5103) middle caudal vertebra (62 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5254) caudal vertebra (84 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 8907) dorsal vertebra (88 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 8910) middle caudal vertebra, (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 8937) caudal vertebra (92 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 8938) caudal vertebra (76 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 8974) posterior caudal vertebra (91 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 8982) caudal vertebra (70 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9108) caudal vertebra (83 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9136) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9141) caudal vertebra (90 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9142) middle or posterior dorsal vertebra (83 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9143) middle or posterior dorsal vertebra (85 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9144) middle or posterior dorsal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9152) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9161) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9162) caudal vertebra (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 9163) posterior caudal vertebra (36 mm) (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5010) metatarsal III (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 5008) metatarsal III (Britt, 1991)
(BYUVP 13024) scapulocoracoid (Madsen and Welles, 2000)
teeth (Kirkland pers. comm. to Madsen and Welles, 2000)
Comments- BYUVP 5103 was initially assigned by Britt (1991) to Stokesosaurus, but later to Ceratosaurus (Britt in Curtice and Wilhite, 1996).
References- Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 37, 1-72.
Curtice and Wilhite, 1996. A re-evaluation of the Dry Mesa Dinosaur Quarry sauropod fauna with a description of juvenile sauropod elements. In Huffman, Lund and Godwin (eds.). Geology and Resources of the Paradox Basin. Utah Geological Association Guidebook 25, 325-338.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
C. sp. (Madsen and Welles, 2000)
Late Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Utah, US

Material- (BYUVP 12893) (subadult) (7.1 m) skull (~810 mm), seven fragmentary dorsal vertebrae, incomplete pelvic elements including pubis and ischium (Britt, Chure, Holtz, Miles and Stadtman, 2000; Britt, Stadtman, Chure and Madsen in prep.)
(DNM 972) premaxilla (154 mm) (Madsen and Welles, 2000)
References- Britt, Chure, Holtz, Miles and Stadtman, 2000. A reanalysis of the phylogenetic affinities of Ceratosaurus (Theropoda, Dinosauria) based on new specimens from Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 32A.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
C. sp. (Britt et al., 1999)
Kimmeridigian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Material- (juvenile) (3.6 m) complete skull (413 mm), 30% complete skeleton including vertebrae and pelvis
References- Britt, Cloward, Miles and Madsen, 1999. A juvenile Ceratosaurus (Theropoda, Dinosauria) from Bone Cabin Quarry West (Upper Jurassic, Morrison Formation), Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(3), 33A.
Britt, Chure, Holtz, Miles and Stadtman, 2000. A reanalysis of the phylogenetic affinities of Ceratosaurus (Theropoda, Dinosauria) based on new specimens from Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 32A.
C. sp. (Madsen and Welles, 2000)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Material- scapulocoracoid
Reference- Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
C? sp. (Rauhut, 2000)
Early Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Alcobaca Formation, Portugal

Material- several teeth
Reference- Rauhut, 2000. The dinosaur fauna from the Guimarota mine. In Martin and Krebs (eds). Guimarota - A Jurassic Ecosystem. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen. 75-82.

unnamed ceratosaurid (Soto and Perea, 2008)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Lower member of Tacuarembo Formation, Uruguay
Material
- (FC-DPV 1950) premaxillary tooth (15.2 x 6.5 x 5.3 mm)
(FC-DPV 2150) posterior premaxillary tooth (10 x 5.9 x 4.1 mm)
(FC-DPV coll.) lateral teeth
Reference- Soto and Perea, 2008. A ceratosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Uruguay. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(2), 439-444.

Abelisauroidea Bonaparte and Novas, 1985 sensu Bonaparte, 1991
Definition- (Abelisaurus comahuensis <- Ceratosaurus nasicornis) (modified from Holtz, 1994)
Other definitions- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Ceratosaurus nasicornis) (Tykoski and Rowe, 2004; modified from Padian et al., 1999)
(Carnotaurus sastrei + Noasaurus leali) (Wilson et al., 2003)
= "Abelisauroidea" Novas, 1989
= Abelisauroidea sensu Padian et al., 1999
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Ceratosaurus nasicornis)
References- Novas, 1989. Los dinosaurios carnivoros de la Argentina. PhD thesis. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. 510 pp.
Ezcurra and Agnolin, 2012. An abelisauroid dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Laurasia and its implications on theropod palaeobiogeography and evolution. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 123(3), 500-507.

Eoabelisaurus Pol and Rauhut, 2012
E. mefi Pol and Rauhut, 2012
Aalenian-Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Canadon Asfalto Formation, Chubut, Argentina
Holotype
- (MPEF PV 3990) (adult) maxillary fragment, posterior skull, five cervical vertebrae, nine dorsal vertebrae, four dorsal ribs, sacrum (520 mm), twenty-seven caudal vertebrae, twenty-sex chevrons, scapulocoracoids (~720 mm), humeri (335 mm), radii (165 mm), ulnae (215 mm), distal carpals II, metacarpals I, phalanx I-1, manual unguals I, metacarpals II (74 mm), phalanges II-1, metacarpals III, phalanges III-1, phalanx III-2(?), metacarpals IV, phalanx, fused pelves, femora (640 mm), tibiotarsi (550 mm), fibulae, metatarsals I, phalanx I-1, metatarsals II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, metatarsals III (317 mm), phalanges III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanges III-3, pedal unguals III, metatarsals IV, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, seven pedal phalanges, pedal ungual, metatarsals V
Diagnosis- (after Pol and Rauhut, 2012) quadrate with thickened medial distal articular end and subparallel articular condyles; mid dorsal vertebrae with double, V-shaped lamina extending from the parapophysis to the prezygodiapophyseal lamina; ulna with hypertrophied olecranon process, accounting for more than 30% of its length; pubic foramen elongate, more than twice as long as high; ambiens process of pubis developed as a large, anterolaterally directed, convex expansion.
Comments- This specimen was discovered in 2009. Pol and Rauhut (2012) found it to be less derived than Kryptops, Rugops and abelisaurids, but more closely related to those than noasaurids. However, only one extra step was needed to place it as a non-abelisauroid abelisaurian.
Reference- Pol and Rauhut, 2012. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 279(1741), 3170-3175.

Abelisauria Novas, 1992
Definition- (Abelisaurus comahuensis + Noasaurus leali) (modified from Novas, 1997)
= Abelisauroidea sensu Wilson et al. 2003
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei + Noasaurus leali)
= Vitakrisauria Malkani, 2010
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2002) enlarged external mandibular fenestra; anterior end of external mandibular fenestra ventral to last dentary tooth; large socket in surangular for articulation with dentary; posteroventral dentary process extends posteriorly subequally to posterodorsal process; cervical neural spines anteroposteriorly short; humeral head globular; hypertrophied and flange-like femoral medial epicondyle; fibula fused to astragalar ascending process; double vascular grooves in pedal unguals; pedal ungual II asymmetrical.
Comments- Malkani (2010) proposed the theropod taxon Vitakrisauria for his new genus Vitakrisaurus (and presumably other taxa he referred to Vitakrisauridae- Vitakridrinda and Rajasaurus), but never states its diagnosis or relation to established theropod taxa like Abelisauria or Ceratosauria. It is probable he intended it as an inapprioriate replacement name for Abelisauria, similar to his use of Pakisauridae and Balochisauridae for Titanosauridae and Saltasauridae respectively. Until Vitakrisauria is given a justified usage, it is here synonymized with Abelisauria, which seems to include all three genera.
References- Malkani, 2010. Stratigraphy and mineral potential of Sulaiman (Middle Indus) basin, Pakistan. Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series). 42(2), 39-66.

Rahiolisaurus Novas, Chaterjee, Rudra and Datta, 2010
= "Rahiolisaurus" Novas, Chaterjee, Rudra and Datta vide Mendez, Novas and Chatterjee, online 2010
R. gujaratensis Novas, Chaterjee, Rudra and Datta, 2010
= "Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis" Novas, Chaterjee, Rudra and Datta vide Mendez, Novas and Chatterjee, online 2010
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Holotype- (ISIR 550) (~8 m adult) ilium fused to proximal pubis
....(ISIR 554) incomplete pubis (~750-800 mm)
....(ISIR 557) femur (770 mm)
Paratypes- (ISIR 401) premaxilla
(ISIR 402-403)
(ISIR 404-407b) fused first to fifth sacral vertebrae
(ISIR 408-409) two mid and distal caudal vertebrae
(ISIR 410) proximal caudal vertebra
(ISIR 411-414) four mid and distal caudal vertebrae
(ISIR 415) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 416-429) fourteen mid and distal caudal vertebrae
(ISIR 430-431)
(ISIR 432) incomplete scapula
(ISIR 433)
(ISIR 435)
(ISIR 436) ilium (800 mm) fused to proximal pubis
(ISIR 437) ilium fused to proximal pubis
(ISIR 438) tibia (430 mm)
(ISIR 439) fused distal ischia
(ISIR 440) femur
(ISIR 441) femur
(ISIR 442) femur
(ISIR 443) femur
(ISIR 444) femur
(ISIR 445) tibia (600 mm)
(ISIR 446) tibia
(ISIR 447) tibiotarsus
(ISIR 449) tibia
(ISIR 450) metatarsal
(ISIR 451-454)
(ISIR 457) tibia
(ISIR 458) tibia
(ISIR 464) pubis
(ISIR 465) incomplete scapulocoracoid
(ISIR 474)
(ISIR 475) metatarsal IV
(ISIR 486-503)
(ISIR 504) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 505) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 506) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 506-507) fused first and second sacral vertebrae
(ISIR 508) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 509) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 510) posterior dorsal centrum
(ISIR 511-514) fused first to fifth sacral vertebrae
(ISIR 515) sixth cervical vertebra
(ISIR 516-517) fused fifth and sixth sacral vertebrae
(ISIR 518-545) twenty-eight mid and distal caudal vertebrae
(ISIR 546) chevron
(ISIR 547) proximal scapula
(ISIR 549) metatarsal
(ISIR 551) ilium fused to proximal pubis
(ISIR 552) pubis
(ISIR 553) pubis
(ISIR 555) fibula
(ISIR 556) femur
(ISIR 558) femur
(ISIR 559) femur
(ISIR 560) femur
(ISIR 561) femur
(ISIR 562) tibia
(ISIR 563) tibia
(ISIR 564) tibia
(ISIR 565) tibia
(ISIR 566-568)
(ISIR 569) metatarsal II
(ISIR 570) tibiotarsus
(ISIR 571) tibiotarsus
(ISIR 572)
(ISIR 573) metatarsal I(?), fused metatarsals II and III
(ISIR 574)
(ISIR 575) metatarsal
(ISIR 576) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 577) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 578) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 579) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 580)
(ISIR 581) metatarsal
(ISIR 582) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 583-584)
(ISIR 585) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 586) metatarsal
(ISIR 587) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 588) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 589) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 590) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 591) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 592) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 593) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 594) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 595) pedal phalanx
(ISIR 596-602)
(ISIR 634) ilium fused to proximal pubis
(ISIR 645) proximal scapula
(ISIR 649)
(ISIR 657) proximal humerus (~250 mm) (Mendez, Novas and Chatterjee, 2010)
(ISIR 658) axis
....(ISIR 659) third cervical vertebra
....(ISIR 660) fourth cervical vertebra
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2010) premaxillary interdental plates fused and lacking vertical ridges; dental foramina absent; premaxillary teeth with teardrop-shaped cross section; a faint mesial keel but a rounded distal edge; iliac blade with deep caudal notch on postacetabular process; metatarsal I rod-like; metatarsal II strongly narrow proximally.
Comments- Chatterjee and Rudra (1996) mentioned and schematically illustrated new abelisaurid material discovered in 1995 and 1997 which they referred to Indosuchus. Though they described it as having an unreduced forelimb, the humerus (ISIR 434) has been reassigned to Titanosauria by Novas et al. Similarly, the supposed radius (ISIR 549) is a broken metatarsal of Rahiolisaurus. Mendez et al. (2010) described a proximal humerus belonging to the taxon which is reduced as in other abelisaurs.
The name "Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis" was first listed in the bibliography of Mendez et al. (2010), which was published online before (February 3) the official description was published (June 28). However, Mendez et al.'s paper was not published on paper until the September issue, making the nomen nudum online only.
References- Chatterjee and Rudra, 1996. KT events in India: Impact, rifting, volcanism and dinosaur extinction. In Novas and Molnar (eds.). Proceedings of the Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium: Memiors of the Queensland Museum. 39(3), 489-532.
Mendez, Novas and Chatterjee, 2010. An abelisaurid humerus from the Upper Cretaceous of India. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 84(3), 421-425.
Novas, Chaterjee, Rudra and Datta, 2010. Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis, n. gen. n. sp., a new abelisaurid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of India. In Bandyopadhyay (ed). New aspects of Mesozoic Biodiversity. Heidelberg:
Springer. Lecture Notes in Earth Science. 132, 185 pp.

Abelisauria incertae sedis

"Bayosaurus" Coria, Currie and Carabajal, 2006
"B. pubica" Gasparini, Salgado and Coria, 2007
Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Lisandro Formation of the Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Material- (MCF-PVPH-237) eleventh dorsal vertebra (63 mm), anterior sacrum (91, 110, 62 mm), incomplete ilium, proximal pubes, proximal ischia
Comments- Coria et al. (2006) do not officially name this specimen, but the name "Bayosaurus" can be found in large font in their cladogram (figure 6), while the specimen number MCF-PVPH-237 is lacking. Thus, one can infer they intended to name the specimen "Bayosaurus", but the name was left in the figure accidentally. This is confirmed by Coria (pers. comm. to Auditore, 2007). Gasparini et al. (2007) reference "Bayosaurus pubica", citing Coria's chapter in the same volume, yet Coria never uses that name. This is apparently another prepublication mistake.
References- Coria, Currie and Carabajal, 2006. A new abelisauroid theropod from Northwestern Patagonia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43, 1283-1289.
Gasparini, Salgado and Coria, 2007. Reptilian faunal succession in the Mesozoic of Patagonia: An updated overview. In Gasparini, Salgado and Coria (eds.). Patagonian Mesozoic Reptiles. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. 335-358.

Betasuchus Huene, 1932
B. bredai (Seeley, 1883) Huene, 1932
= Megalosaurus bredai Seeley, 1883
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Maastricht Beds, Netherlands

Holotype- (BMNH 42997) incomplete femur (312 mm)
Comments- The term Ornithomimidorum is not a generic name, but rather the latinized form of ornithomimid. Ornithomimidorum gen. B refers to Huene transfering Megalosaurus bredai to the Ornithomimidae.
References- Seeley, 1883. On the dinosaurs from the Maastricht beds. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 39, 246-253.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.

"Nototyrannus" Anonymous, online 2011
"N. violantei" Anonymous, online 2011
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Huincul Formation of the Rio Limay Subgroup, Rio Negro, Argentina
Material
- (Museo Patagonica coll.) (~4.3 m) seven vertebrae, forelimb, femur, pes
Comments- The material was discovered in 2007 and partially excavated by Apesteguia, Gallina, Gonzalez, Makovicky, Osi, Otero and Smith, but a team from the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales and Museum of Sao Paulo improperly collected it in 2009. In 2011, Museo Patagonico announced the find to the media (Anonymous online, 2011), thougth whether the name made it into any paper media is unknown. While the specimen remains at the Museo Patagonica, at least two of the prospective authors have renounced their participation in its description once Apesteguia brought the situation to light (online, 2011a and b). Whether and when the remains will be properly described is unknown.
Though announced to the media as a tyrannosauroid, the specimen is an abelisauroid according to Apesteguia.
References- Anonymous, online 2011. Presentan al "primo" del Tyrannosaurus. RioNegro.com.ar. 8-12-2011.
Apesteguia, online 2011a. http://dml.cmnh.org/2011Aug/msg00348.html
Apesteguia, online 2011b. http://dml.cmnh.org/2011Sep/msg00020.html

Tarascosaurus Le Loeuff and Buffetaut, 1991
T. salluvicus Le Loeuff and Buffetaut, 1991
Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Lambeau de Beausset, France

Holotype- (FSL 330201) proximal femur (~350 mm)
Paratype- ....(FSL 330202) partial sixth dorsal vertebra, fragment of seventh dorsal vertebra
Referred- ?(FSL 330203) caudal centrum
Reference- Le Loeuff and Buffetaut, 1991. Tarascosaurus salluvicus nov. gen., nov. sp., theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of southern France. Géobios - Paléontologie, Stratigraphie, Paléoécologie. 24, 585-594.

undescribed abelisaurian (Gemmellaro, 1921)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Egypt

Material- teeth, two unguals
Comments- These were referred to Megalosaurus crenatissimus, but probably would not belong to that Malagasy taxon (now Majungasaurus).
References- Gemmellaro, 1921. Rettili maëstrichtiani d'Egitto: Giornale di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche. 32, 339-351.
Stromer and Weiler, 1930. Beschreibung von Wirbeltier-Resten aus den nubischen Sandsteinen Oberägyptens und aus ägyptischen Phosphaten: nebst Bemerkungen über die Geologie der Umgegend von Mahamîd in Oberägypten. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Abteilung. 7, 1-42.

undescribed abelisaurian (Gemmellaro, 1921)
Cretaceous(?)
India

Material- tooth
Comments- This was referred to Megalosaurus crenatissimus, but probably would not belong to that Malagasy taxon (now Majungasaurus).
References- Lydekker, 1879. Fossil Reptilia and Batrachia. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Palaeontologia Indica, Series IV. Indian Pretertiary Vertebrata. 1(3), 1-36.
Gemmellaro, 1921. Rettili maëstrichtiani d'Egitto: Giornale di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche. 32, 339-351.

unnamed probable Abelisauria (Huene and Matley, 1933)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Material- (GSI 296) proximal femur (Novas et al., 2004)
(GSI K19/574) mid caudal vertebra (70 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/336A) distal metatarsal III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/336B) distal metatarsal III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/337 A) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/362) mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/396) unknown element (previously identified as calcaneum) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/399) pedal ungual (~140 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/612 in part) distal caudal vertebra (35 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/615; syntype of Dryptosauroides grandis) proximal dorsal rib (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/620) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/625) pedal ungual (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/670) two teeth
(GSI K27/476) basioccipital
(GSI K27/524) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/527) articular (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/530) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/533) four sacral centra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/534) pedal phalanx IV-? (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/535) jugal fragment (lost) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/536) caudal vertebra (115 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/537) pedal ungual IV
(GSI K27/540) partial fibula (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/542) distal caudal vertebra (25 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/543) pedal ungual (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/545) mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/546) proximal ischium (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/547; syntype of Dryptosauroides grandis) dorsal rib
(GSI K27/551) pedal ungual (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/552; lost) tibia (430 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/554) four sacral centra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/555; syntype of Dryptosauroides grandis) incomplete anterior cervical vertebra (120 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/556; lost) tibia (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/557) distal metatarsal III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/559) unknown element (originally identified as ilial fragment) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/560; lost) femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/561) distal caudal vertebra (65 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/563; lost) femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/564; lost) femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/566) mid chevron (120 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/567) ectopterygoid (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/569; lost) femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/572; lost) cervical vertebra (75 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/573) dentary (lost) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/576) basioccipital (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/579) tooth (34 x 20 x 9 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/581) partial jugal (lost) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/582) tooth (35 x 17 x 6.5 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/583) five teeth including premaxillary tooth (37 x 13.7 x 20 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/584) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/585) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/590) partial anterior dorsal vertebra (~90 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/591) axial centrum (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/592) vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/593) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/598) first sacral centrum (~120 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/603) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/605) distal caudal vertebra (38 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/606) distal caudal vertebra (60 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/607) distal caudal vertebra (70 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/608) distal caudal vertebra (40 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/609) distal caudal vertebra (45 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/610) distal caudal vertebra (45 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/611) distal caudal vertebra (55 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/612) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/613) vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/615) vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/616) mid caudal vertebhra (80 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/617) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/620) incomplete fibula (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/621; lost) distal femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/623; syntype of Dryptosauroides grandis) proximal dorsal rib (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/624; syntype of Dryptosauroides grandis) proximal dorsal rib (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/625; syntype of Dryptosauroides grandis) proximal dorsal rib (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/626) limb bone (lost) (originally identified as tibia)
(GSI K27/627; lost; caudal vertebra in Huene and Matley, 1933) proximal femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/628) basioccipital
(GSI K27/630) pedal ungual (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/631) pedal ungual (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/633; manual ungual in Huene and Matley, 1933) pedal ungual II (60 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/634) pedal ungual III
(GSI K27/635) pedal ungual II
(GSI K27/636) pedal ungual (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/639) pedfal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSi K27/640) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/641) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/642) pedal phalanx IV-I (31 mm) (manual in Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/643) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/645) unknown element (originally identified as manual phalanx) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/649) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/650) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/651) pedal phalanx I-1 (70 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/652) pedal phalanx I-1 (70 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/655) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/656) distal metatarsal IV (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/657) distal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/660) metatarsal IV (240 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/661) metatarsal IV (180 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/662; lost) tibia (200 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/663) metatarsal IV (220 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/664) metatarsal IV (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K/27/668) carpal or tarsal (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/669) distal limb bone (originally identified as tibia) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/670) tibia (lost)
(GSI K27/672) incomplete proximal chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/673) distal chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/674) distal chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/675) mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/675A) mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/676) mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/677) distal chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/678) incomplete mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/679) mid chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/680) distal chevron (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/683) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/686) proximal ischium (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/687) basioccipital (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/688) unknown element (originally identified as ectopterygoid) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/689) ectopterygoid (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/691) distal quadrate (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/692) partial medial gastralium (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/693) surangular (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/694) pedal phalanx (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/698) ectopterygoid (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/699) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/700) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/701) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/702) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/703) tooth (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/707) partial lateral gastralium (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/708) unknown element (originally identified as partial lacrimal) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/711) angular fragment (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/712) distal caudal vertebra (55 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
Comments- Basioccipital GSI K27/687 shows the exoccipitals floored the foramen magnum, and has an elongate occipital condyle neck, unlike GSI K27/628. Cervical vertebra GSI K27/572 differs from abelisauroids in its axially elongate and transversely narrow neural spine and and poorly developed epipophyses. Sacral vertebrae GSI K27/533 and 554 resemble Masiakasaurus, Rajasaurus and material referred to Lametasaurus in their transverse width and clear contact between successive centra. At least one chevron has open haemal canals, like Aucasaurus, but unlike Carnotaurus and Ilokelesia. Femora GSI K/560, 563, 564, 569, 621 and 627 are slender, unlike the robust femora assigned to Abelisauridae. They may belong to Noasauridae. Much of the material above is probably indeterminate at levels higher than Abelisauroidea, but is retained in this section for simplicity and because all diagnostic Lameta Formation theropod material appears to belong to this clade.
References- Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.

undescribed possible abelisaurian (Bonaparte and Powell, 1980)
Late Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lecho Formation, Salta, Argentina

Material- teeth
Comments- Said to be similar to Genyodectes and Majungasaurus.
Reference- Bonaparte and Powell, 1980. A continental assemblage of tetrapods from the upper Cretaceous beds of El Brete, northwestern Argentina (Sauropoda-Coelurosauria-Carnosauria-Aves). Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France. Nouvelle Série 59, 19-28.

unnamed abelisaurian (Astibia et al., 1990)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Unit S3U1, Spain

Material- femur, proximal femur
Description- More robust than Tarascosaurus, with a less anteriorly oriented femoral head.
Comments- Referred to as cf. Tarascosaurus by Le Loeuff and Buffetaut (1991).
References- Astibia, Buffetaut, Buscalioni, Cappetta, Corral, Estes, Garcia-Garmilla, Jaeger, Jimenez-Fuentes, Le Loeuff, Mazin, Orue-Extebarria, Pereda-Superbiola, Powell, Rage, Rordriguez-Lazaro, Sanz and Tong, 1990. The fossil vertebrates from Laño (Basque Country, Spain); New evidence on the composition and affinities of the Late Cretaceous continental faunas of Europe. Terra Research. 2, 460-466.
Le Loeuff and Buffetaut, 1991. Tarascosaurus salluvicus nov. gen., nov. sp., theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of southern France. Géobios - Paléontologie, Stratigraphie, Paléoécologie. 24, 585-594.

unnamed abelisaurian (Bonaparte, 1996)
Late Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Rayoso Formation, Neuquen, Argentina

Material- (private coll.) (large) distal metatarsal III
Reference- Bonaparte, 1996. Cretaceous tetrapods of Argentina. Muncher Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlung A. 30, 73-130.

unnamed abelisaurian (Russell, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gres Rouges Infracenomaniens, Morocco

Material- (CMN 41869) (1 ton) proximal femur
(CMN 50382) (3.78 kg, juvenile) femur (118 mm)
Comments- The distally placed anterior trochanter indicates this is not tetanurine.
Reference- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.) 18, 349-402.

undescribed abelisaurian (Gonzalez Riga and Calvo, 1999)
Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Anacleto Formation of Rio Colorado Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Reference- Gonzalez Riga and Calvo, 1999. Unusual caudal series of Titanosauridae of the Late Cretaceous in the Rio Colorado Formation, Neuquen and Mendoza Provinces, Argentina. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 29-30.

undescribed abelisaurian (Smith, Lamanna, Dodson, Attia and Lacovara, 2001)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

Material- teeth (FABL 7.5 mm)
Reference- Smith, Lamanna, Dodson, Attia and Lacovara, 2001. Evidence of a new theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 102A.

unnamed Abelisauria (Candeiro, 2002)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Marilia Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil
Material
- (CPP 002, 020-021, 121, 123, 129b, 129c, 131, 132, 134-136, 144, 150, 154, 158, 161/1, 198, 205-207, 211, 242, 372, 375/2, 446, 451/1, 452/1, 463, 476-478) thirty-two teeth
References- Candeiro, 2002. Dentes de Theropoda da Formacao Marylia (Santoniano-Maastrichtiano), Bacia Bauru, Regiao de Peiropolis, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Masters thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. 136 pp.
Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: A reappraisal. Cretaceous Research. 27(6), 923-946.
Candeiro, Currie and Bergqvist, 2012. Theropod teeth from the Marília Formation (Late Maastrichtian) at the paleontological site of Peirópolis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Geociências. 42(2), 323-330.

unnamed abelisaurian (Rauhut, 2005)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Material- (MB.R 1750) tibia
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

(MB.R 1751) tibia (255 mm)
?(MB.R 1756) distal ischium
Comments- Originally described as 'coelurosaurier B and C', Rauhut (2005) has identified the tibiae as abelisauroids. MB.R 1750 differs from 1751 in having a sharp ridge extend proximally from the latera malleolus, slightly broader facet for the astragalar ascending process, and narrower lateral fibular facet. They may be from different taxa, especially as MB.R 1750 comes from earlier sediments. The ceratosaurian distal ischium comes from the same locality as MB.R 1751 and is of similar size and preservation, so may be the same taxon.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. Supplement VII, 1-99.
Rauhut, 2005. Post-cranial remains of 'coelurosaurs' (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Tanzania. Geological Magazine. 142(1), 97-107.

unnamed Abelisauria (Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006)
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Adamantina Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil
Material
- (MMR/UFU-PV 0006) tooth
(UFRJ-DG 371-Rd) tooth
(UFRJ-DG 374-Rd) tooth
(UFRJ-DG 378-Rd) tooth
Reference- Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: A reappraisal. Cretaceous Research. 27(6), 923-946.

undescribed Abelisauria (Coria, Currie, Koppelhus, Braun and Cerda, 2010)
Late Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Mulichinco Formation, Neuquen, Argentina

Reference- Coria, Currie, Koppelhus, Braun and Cerda, 2010. First record of a Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) dinosaur association from South America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 75A.

unnamed abelisaurian (Azevedo, Simbras, Furtado, Candeiro and Bergqvist, 2012)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Presidente Prudente Formation, Brazil
Material
- (UFRJ-DG 254-R) ilial fragment
Reference- Azevedo, Simbras, Furtado, Candeiro and Bergqvist, 2012. First Brazilian carcharodontosaurid and other new theropod dinosaur fossils from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Presidente Prudente Formation, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Cretaceous Research. 40, 131-142.

Noasauridae Bonaparte and Powell, 1980
Definition- (Noasaurus leali <- Carnotaurus sastrei) (Wilson et al., 2003)
Other definitions- (Noasaurus leali <- Coelophysis bauri, Carnotaurus sastrei, Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
= Noasaurinae Bonaparte and Powell, 1980 sensu Paul, 1988
= Velocisauridae Bonaparte, 1991
= Velocisaurinae Bonaparte, 1991 sensu Agnolin, Novas and Apesteguia, 2003
= "Vitakrisauridae" Malkani, 2010a
= "Vitakrisaurinae" Malkani, 2010a
= Vitakrisauridae Malkani, 2010c
= Vitakrisaurinae Malkani, 2010c
= Noasauridae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Noasaurus leali <- Coelophysis bauri, Carnotaurus sastrei, Passer domesticus)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2002; Sereno et al., 2004) palatal process of maxilla simple; anteroventral border of antorbital fenestra demarcated by a raised ridge; interdental plates obscured medially; presacral vertebrae without posterior pleurocoels; cervical neural spines located in the anterior half of centra; distal condyle of metatarsal IV <50% width of metatarsal II distal condyle.
Comments- Neither Coelophysis nor Passer seem particularily useful as external specifiers in Sereno's (in press) redefinition, as noasaurids have been universally considered abelisaurians since Paul (1988) and Bonaparte et al. (1990), and were never placed anywhere else besides the polyphyletic pre-cladistic Coelurosauria.
Malkani (2010a) first proposed Vitakrisauridae for Vitakridrinda, Rajasaurus "and its close relative" within abelisaurs. As he did not name Vitakrisaurus itself until six months later, this was a nomen nudum (ICZN Article 13.2). It is further invalid in lacking a diagnosis (13.1.1; Malkani merely says it's due to "complex characters of Vitakridrinda sulaimani", "very far locations from South America", and "an endemic character of its associated Balochisauridae and Pakisauridae"). The same issues invalidate his proposed subfamily Vitakrisaurinae, for Vitakridrinda only. Malkani (2010b) later used Vitakrisauridae in the title of a paper on Vitakridrinda, but Vitakrisaurus was still unnamed. In 2010c, Malkani officially named Vitakrisaurus and used both Vitakrisauridae and Vitakrisaurinae. These again lack diagnoses, but since Vitakrisaurus itself was given one, are valid. Vitakrisaurus and Vitakridrinda do not share any preserved elements, and contra Malkani, cannot be assumed to be related due to geography alone. Indeed, Vitakrisaurus seems to be a noasaurid while Vitakridrinda was described as having abelisaurid characters (e.g. rugose maxilla). Rajasaurus does not share any obvious characters with either, and has a robust metatarsal II unlike Vitakrisaurus and other noasaurids. Both Virakrisauridae and Vitakrisaurinae are thus made synonyms of Noasauridae.
References- Malkani, 2010a. New Pakisaurus (Pakisauridae, Titanosauria, Sauropoda) remains, and Cretaceous Tertiary (K-T) boundary from Pakistan. Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series). 42(1), 39-64.
Malkani, 2010b. Vitakridrinda (Vitakrisauridae, Theropoda) from the Latest Cretaceous of Pakistan. Journal of Earth Science. 21(Special Issue 3), 204-212.
Malkani, 2010c. Stratigraphy and mineral potential of Sulaiman (Middle Indus) basin, Pakistan. Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series). 42(2), 39-66.
Malkani, 2011. Vitakridrinda and Vitakrisaurus of Vitakrisauridae Theropoda from Pakistan. Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of IGCP 507 on Paleoclimates of the Cretaceous in Asia and their global correlation. Beijing, China. 59-66.

unnamed Noasauridae (Huene and Matley, 1933)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Material- (GSI K20/337B) pedal phalanx IV-2 (24 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/337C) distal metatarsal IV (metatarsal I of Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/619) incomplete premaxilla (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K20/626B) pedal phalanx IV-1 (48 mm) (manual in Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/524) pedal phalanx II-1 (56 mm), pedal ungual IV (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/525) pedal phalanx III-1 (76 mm)
(GSI K27/526) tibia (330 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/587) mid caudal vertebra (80 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/589) mid caudal vertebra (90 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/599) mid caudal vertebra (85 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/629) pedal ungual III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/632) pedal ungual II or IV (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/637) pedal phalanx IV-4 (28 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/638) pedal phalanx IV-3 (38 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/644) pedal phalanx III-1 (46 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/646) pedal phalanx III-2 or 3 (36 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/647) pedal phalanx IV-4 (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/648) pedal phalanx IV-I (26 mm) (manual in Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/659) metatarsal IV (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/665) distal metatarsal III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/666) distal metatarsal IV (metacarpal in Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/667) distal metatarsal II (manual in Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/671) distal metatarsal II (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/681) metatarsal III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
....(GSI K27/697) metatarsal III (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/684; identified as an astragalus by Huene and Matley, 1933) quadrate (Huene and Matley, 1933)
material including dentary (Wilson, 2012)
Comments- The premaxilla GSI K20/619 is excluded from Abelisauridae due to the lack of external texturing. The quadrate GSI K27/684 is excluded due to the lack of fusion with the quadratojugal. These are provisionally assumed to be noasaurid based on the apparent presence of only abelisaurians in the Lameta Forrmation. The pedal elements closely resemble Velocisaurus, so maybe from a noasaurid more derived than Deltadromeus. Carrano et al. (2011) noted they were more robust than Masiakasaurus. Carrano et al. reidentified GSI K27/648 as IV-1 (not IV-3), 646 as III-2 or 3 (not 1), 644 as III-1 (not III-3) and 629 as pedal ungual III (not IV). Wilson (2012)m noted new noasaurid remains including a dentary with procumbant anterior teeth as in Masiakasaurus. The above material may be referrable to Laevisuchus, Jubbulpuria, Ornithomimoides and/or Coeluroides.
References- Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.
Wilson, 2012. Small theropod dinosaurs from the Latest Cretaceous of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 194.

undescribed possible noasaurid (Novas, Cladera and Puerta, 1996)
Cenomanian-Early Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Rio Neuquen Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina
Material
- proximal humerus
Comments- Novas et al. (1996) mentioned this as an ornithomimid based on the ball-shaped articular head and shallow deltopectoral crest. However, these character are also found in abelisauroids, which are common in Late Cretaceous South America, unlike ornithomimosaurs.
Reference- Novas, Cladera and Puerta, 1996. New theropods from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(3), 56A.

unnamed possible noasaurid (Russell, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gres Rouges Infracenomaniens, Morocco

Material- (CMN 50807) (adult) frontals (50 mm), parietals
(CMN 50808) (adult) frontals (65 mm)
Comments- The specimens are small (frontal lengths of 50 mm and 65 mm), but firmly coossified. There is a sagittal crest on the parietals, which is otherwise only known in abelisaurids, "Alashansaurus", tyrannosaurids and some more derived coelurosaurs. Comparing it to Troodon indicates the cerebral hemispheres are much smaller, suggesting this is not a coelurosaur. Although rather small and elongate for an abelisaurid, the fact noasaurids are closely related (and have unknown frontals), of similar size and are also known from Africa (Deltadromeus) makes me hypothesize a noasaurid affinity for these specimens. The humerus NMC 41873 also resembles Masiakasaurus in general proportions and may derive from the same taxon.
Reference- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.

unnamed probable noasaurid (Russell, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gres Rouges Infracenomaniens, Morocco

Material- (CMN 41873) distal humerus (48 mm wide)
Comments- Very similar to Masiakasaurus.
Reference- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.

Coeluroides Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Coeluroides" Huene, 1932
C. largus Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Coeluroides largus" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Syntypes- (GSI K27/562) proximal caudal vertebra (92 mm)
(GSI K27/574) proximal caudal vertebra
Referred- (AMNH 1957) caudal vertebra (Chatterjee, 1978)
?(GSI K27/695) partial vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2004) wide, almost horizontally oriented and well separated mid-caudal zygapophyses; expanded and triangular mid caudal transverse processes with deeply excavated dorsal surface; transversely robust and axially elongate mid caudal neural spines.
Comments- Novas et al. (2004) believe the specimens closely resemble AMNH 1957 and Jubbulpuria, so may be synonymous with the latter, Compsosuchus and/or Laevisuchus. However, Wilson (2012) believes this is synonymous with (both species of?) Ornithomimoides as they share autapomorphies and are distinct from Jubbulpuria. He proposed sinking Ornithomimoides into Coeluroides, as the latter has page priority, but this is not acknowledged by the ICZN. As first revisor (Article 24.2.2), his determination would have force under the ICZN once properly published though. The taxa are kept separate here pending publication of Wilson's detailed reasoning.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Wilson, 2012. Small theropod dinosaurs from the Latest Cretaceous of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 194.

Compsosuchus Huene and Matley,1933
= "Compsosuchus" Huene, 1932
C. solus Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Compsosuchus solus" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Holotype- (GSI K27/578) atlas, axis (40 mm)
Referred- (ISI I91/1) atlas, axis (Chatterjee and Rudra, 1996)
Comments- Novas et al. (2004) concluded that Compsosuchus is an indeterminate abelisaurid, since there are apparently no major differences from an atlas-axis complex referred to Indosaurus by Chatterjee and Rudra (1996). However, the latter is not necessarily Indosaurus, and may be Compsosuchus, making this reason moot. Carrano et al. (2011) described the axis of Masiakasaurus and noted Compsosuchus' was very similar except for a slightly more upturned atlantal intercentrum and a proportionally less projected odontoid, thus placing the taxon in Noasauridae instead.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Chatterjee and Rudra, 1996. KT events in India: Impact, rifting, volcanism and dinosaur extinction. In Novas and Molnar (eds.). Proceedings of the Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium. Memiors of the Queensland Museum. 39(3), 489-532.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.

Jubbulpuria Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Jubbulpuria" Huene, 1932
J. tenuis Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Jubbulpuria tenuis" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Syntypes- (GSI K20/612 in part) mid caudal vertebra (18 mm)
(GSI K27/614; lost) mid caudal vertebra (42 mm)
Referred- (GSI K27/599) distal caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
Diagnosis- (after Wilson, 2012) in prep.
Comments- Novas et al. (2004) determined the vertebrae were distal caudals, not dorsals as suggested by Huene and Matley (1933). Carrano et al. (2011) refined their placement to mid caudals. Jubbulpuria may be synonymous with Coeluroides since both taxa possess large, triangular, dorsally excavated transverse processes. Both may be synonymous with the noasaurid Laevisuchus based on resemblence to Masiakasaurus and Ligabueino. Wilson (2012) proposed Jubbulpuria may be synonymous with Leavisuchus as they are of similar size and differ in features attributable to intracolumnar variation, though they lack overlapping remains. He also stated Jubbulpuria is diagnostic.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.
Wilson, 2012. Small theropod dinosaurs from the Latest Cretaceous of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 194.

Ornithomimoides? barasimlensis Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Ornithomimoides barasimlensis" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Syntypes- (GSI K27/531) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/541) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/604) proximal caudal vertebra (55 mm)
(GSI K27/682) proximal caudal vertebra (50 mm)
Diagnosis- (After Wilson, 2012) Possible junior synonym of Coeluroides largus.
Comments- Novas et al. (2004) determined the vertebrae were proximal caudals, not dorsals as suggested by Huene and Matley (1933). They suggested the material is indistinguishable from Dryptosauroides and Ornithomimoides mobilis. Carrano et al. (2011) retained GSI K/531 and 541 as dorsals, but 604 as a mid caudal. Wilson (2012) synonymized this with Coeluroides (and presumably O. mobilis) based on shared autapomorphies and differences from Jubbulpuria, seemingly as noasaurids. He proposed sinking Ornithomimoides into Coeluroides, as the latter has page priority, but this is not acknowledged by the ICZN. As first revisor (Article 24.2.2), his determination would have force under the ICZN once properly published though. The taxa are kept separate here pending publication of Wilson's detailed reasoning.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.
Wilson, 2012. Small theropod dinosaurs from the Latest Cretaceous of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 194.

Ornithomimoides Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Ornithomimoides" Huene, 1932
O. mobilis Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Ornithomimoides mobilis" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Syntypes- (GSI K20/610) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K20/614B) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/586) proximal caudal vertebra (85 mm)
(GSI K27/597) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/600) proximal caudal vertebra
Diagnosis- (After Wilson, 2012) Possible junior synonym of Coeluroides largus.
Comments- Novas et al. (2004) determined the vertebrae were proximal caudals, not dorsals as suggested by Huene and Matley (1933). They suggested the material is indistinguishable from Dryptosauroides and Ornithomimoides? barasimilis. Wilson (2012) synonymized this with Coeluroides (and presumably O? barasimlensis) based on shared autapomorphies and differences from Jubbulpuria, seemingly as noasaurids. He proposed sinking Ornithomimoides into Coeluroides, as the latter has page priority, but this is not acknowledged by the ICZN. As first revisor (Article 24.2.2), his determination would have force under the ICZN once properly published though. The taxa are kept separate here pending publication of Wilson's detailed reasoning.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Wilson, 2012. Small theropod dinosaurs from the Latest Cretaceous of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 194.

"Sidormimus" Lyon, unpublished
= "Dogosaurus" anonymous, unpublished
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation, Niger

Material- (~1 m) partial skeleton including cervical ribs, dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, uncinate processes, sacral vertebrae, scapula, coracoid, sternal plates, sternal ribs, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, manus including manual digit II, phalanges, manual unguals and manual claw sheath, pelvis including pubis and hindlimb including femur, tibia, metatarsus, pedal pdigit II, pedal digit III, pedal digit IV and pedal unguals
Comments- This specimen was discovered in 2000 and immediately announced on the Project Exploration website with a photograph and the unofficial name "Sidormimus", due to its discovery by Chris Sidor. The same photo of the specimen was labeled "Dogosaurus" on a dispatch from Project Exploration on the National Geographic website (currently offline but preserved by web.archive.org). Sereno et al. (2004) first announced the specimen in print, stating it is an articulated skeleton preserving numerous abelisaur and noasaurid characters (e.g. pneumatized presacral and sacral neural arches; elongate presacral centra). It is also listed in Sereno and Brusatte (2008) as "undescribed noasaurid" in a faunal list, and is noted to have a pubic boot with limited expansion. Sidor (pers. comm. 2005) confirms the "Sidormimus" specimen is the Elrhaz noasaurid. It has yet to be described in detail, however. This has more recently been commented on by Sereno (2010), who notes it has long and robust posterior cervical ribs, dorsal centra more than twice as long as tall, five uncinate processes (unique among non-maniraptoran theropods), posteriorly directed glenoid, an enlarged coracoid, ossified sternal plates and ribs, forelimb 18% of hindlimb length, robust deltopectoral crest and olecranon process, manual digit II longer than III, straight manual unguals, tibia longer than femur, pedal digits II and IV much shorter than III, and short flat pedal unguals.
References- Lyon, 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20121024124915/http://www.projectexploration.org/niger2000/9_15_2000.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20001208070300/http://www.nationalgeographic.com/dinoquest/profile_01_dispatch2b.html
Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B. 271, 1325-1330.
Sereno and Brusatte, 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(1), 15-46.
Keillor, Sereno and Masek, 2010. Range of movement in a noasaurid forelimb: In situ data and joint reconstruction. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 114A.
Sereno, 2010. Noasaurid (Theropoda: Abelisauroidea) skeleton from Africa shows derived skeletal proportions and function. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 162A.

Velocisaurus Bonaparte, 1991
V. unicus Bonaparte, 1991
Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Bajo de la Carpa Formation Rio Colorado Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MUCPv 41) tibia (140 mm), astragalus, partial metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (23 mm), phalanx II-2 (15 mm), metatarsal III (90 mm), phalanx III-1 (23 mm), phalanx III-2 (20 mm), phalanx III-3 (16 mm), partial metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1 (15 mm), phalanx IV-2 (12 mm), phalanx IV-3 (7 mm), phalanx IV-4 (5 mm), pedal ungual IV (15 mm)
References- Bonaparte, 1991. Los vertebrados fósiles de la Formación Rio Colorado, de la Ciudad de Neuquén y Cercanías, Cretácico Superior, Argentina [The vertebrate fossils of the Rio Colorado Formation, from the city of Neuquén and surrounding areas, Upper Cretaceous, Argentina]. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" e Instituto Nacional de Investigación de las Ciencias Naturales: Paleontología. 4(3), 17-123.

Vitakrisaurus Malkani, 2010
V. saraiki Malkani, 2010
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Vitakri Formation, Pakistan

Holotype- (MSM-303-2) distal metatarsal II, phalanx II-1 (~24 mm), phalanx II-2 (~25 mm), pedal ungual II, distal metatarsal III?, pedal digit III, two phalanges IV-? (~21 mm)
Diagnosis- provisionally indeterminate within Noasauridae.
Comments- Malkani proposed the name Vitakrisaurus saraiki in 2010 for a pes he had previously referred to juvenile Vitakridrinda in 2009. As interpreted by Malkani, it would have some unique features (three phalanges on digit I; four phalanges on digit II), but Malkani only explicitly diagnoses it relative to the sauropod Pakisaurus. Thus it is uncertain how Vitakrisaurus is supposed to differ from other theropods, and note it cannot be compared to any of the material referred to Vitakridrinda in any case. The photo differs markedly from the illustration, with the dorsal illustration mislabaling phalanx II-2 a claw and placing a phalanx as it appears in the medial view. The supposed metatarsal I (mislabeled 'metacarpal') is too robust and elongate, but could be a metatarsal II which would match the phalangeal count. The area above that digit (seemingly representing digits II and III) is too blurry to comment on, though the drawing would be perfectly congruent with them being complete digits III and IV. The illustrated isolated 'phalange' below the ungual in medial view may be from digit IV, since most of that digit isn't actually visible in the dorsal view. The illustration also includes a supposed scale, but whether this is supposed to derive from Vitakrisaurus or something else like a fish is never stated. Based on its size, Vitakrisaurus is more comparable to noasaurids than abelisaurids. The large ratio between phalanges II-2 and II-1 and proximally narrow metatarsal II (in dorsal view) also suggest noasaurid affinities. While II-2 is longer than Velocisaurus (compared to II-1), this varies within other species, and further comparison is not possible pending better description of this and other noasaurid pes.
References- Malkani, 2009. New Balochisaurus (Balochisauridae, Titanosauria, Sauropoda) and Vitakridrinda (Theropoda) remains from Pakistan. Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series). 41(2), 65-92.
Malkani, 2010. Stratigraphy and mineral potential of Sulaiman (Middle Indus) basin, Pakistan. Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series). 42(2), 39-66.
Malkani, 2011. Vitakridrinda and Vitakrisaurus of Vitakrisauridae Theropoda from Pakistan. Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of IGCP 507 on Paleoclimates of the Cretaceous in Asia and their global correlation. Beijing, China. 59-66.

Dahalokely Farke and Sertich, 2013
D. tokana Farke and Sertich, 2013
Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Ambolafaltsy Formation, Madagascar
Holotype
- (UA 9855) (~3.5 m subadult) fifth cervical vertebra (64.5 mm), first dorsal vertebra (44 mm), second dorsal vertebra (48.7 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (52.1 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (55.1 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (55.2 mm), incomplete ninth dorsal vertebra, second dorsal rib (339.9 mm), seven dorsal rib fragments
Diagnosis- (after Farke and Sertich, 2013) mid-cervical vertebrae have prezygoepipophyseal lamina with prominent convexity at midpoint nearly equal in length to centrum and prominent notches at either end separating convexity from epipophyses; prezygapophyses and centroprezygapophyseal lamina nearly vertical and linear in lateral view in dorsals 1 and 2, with cranial margin of prezygapophyses and cranial face of centrum nearly co-planar; postzygapophyses on dorsal 2 strongly concave; infraprezygapophyseal fossa divided through dorsal six.
Comments- The specimen was discovered in 2007 and described by Farke and Sertich (2013), who found it to be a basal noasaurid. Only one extra step is needed for it to be a majungasaurine and two more for it to be a non-abelisaurian abelisauroid.
Reference- Farke and Sertich, 2013. An abelisauroid theropod dinosaur from the Turonian of Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 8(4), e62047.

Genusaurus Accarie, Beaudoin, Dejax, Fries, Michard and Taquet, 1995
G. sisteronis Accarie, Beaudoin, Dejax, Fries, Michard and Taquet, 1995
Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
"Bevons Beds", France

Holotype- (MNHN, Bev.1) (3.16 m) seven dorsal centra, sacral centrum, incomplete ilium, proximal pubis, femur (380 mm), proximal tibia, proximal fibula, tarsal
Reference- Accarie, Beaudoin, Dejax, Fries, Michard and Taquet, 1995. Découverte d'un Dinosaure théropode nouveau (Genusaurus sisteronis n. g., n. sp.) dans l'Albien marin de Sisteron (Alpes de Haute-Provence, France) et extension au Crétacé inférieur de la lignée cératosaurienne [Discovery of a new theropod dinosaur (Genusaurus sisteronis n. g., n. sp.) in the marine Albian of Sisteron (Alpes de Haute-Provence, France) and extension of the ceratosaur lineage into the Lower Cretaceous]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences à Paris, série IIa. 320, 327-344.

Laevisuchus
Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Laevisuchus" Huene, 1932
L. indicus Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Laevisuchus indicus" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Syntypes- (GSI K27/588; lost) mid dorsal vertebra (35 mm)
(GSI K20/613; lost) seventh or eighth cervical vertebra (40 mm)
(GSI K20/614; lost) fifth cervical vertebra
(GSI K27/696) sixth cervical vertebra (42 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2004) differs from Noasaurus in- shallower antediapophyseal, diapophyseal and postdiapophyseal fossae in cervical vertebrae; wider and less ventrally directed cervical diapophyses; cervical neural spines less excavated anteriorly and posteriorly; shorter cervical prezygopophyses; postzygapophyses posteriorly rounded in dorsal view. Differs from Masiakasaurus in- less excavated space between postzygapophyses; thinner prezygapophyses; shallower infrapostzygapophyseal and infraprezygapophyseal fossae.
Comments- Carrano et al. (2011) identified the vertebral positions based on comparison to Masiakasaurus.
Wilson (2012) proposed Jubbulpuria may be synonymous with Leavisuchus as they are of similar size and differ in features attributable to intracolumnar variation, though they lack overlapping remains.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.
Wilson, 2012. Small theropod dinosaurs from the Latest Cretaceous of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 194.

Masiakasaurus Sampson, Carrano and Forster, 2001
M. knopfleri Sampson, Carrano and Forster, 2001
Middle Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Anembalemba Member of Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Holotype- (UA 8680) incomplete dentary
Paratypes- (FMNH PR 2108) pubis
(FMNH PR 2109) pubis
(FMNH PR 2110) mid caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2111) ?dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2112) (gracile) tibia (191.3 mm)
(FMNH PR 2113) dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2114) dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2115) (gracile) femur
(FMNH PR 2116) (robust) tibia (189.2 mm), partial fibula, astragalocalcaneum
(FMNH PR 2117) (robust) femur (189.4 mm)
(FMNH PR 2118) (gracile) tibia
(FMNH PR 2119) (robust) tibia
(FMNH PR 2120) (gracile) femur (190.8 mm)
(FMNH PR 2121) (gracile) tibia (171.5 mm)
(FMNH PR 2122) (robust) tibia, partial fibula, astragalocalcaneum
(FMNH PR 2123) (robust) femur (202.5 mm)
(FMNH PR 2124; mistakenly labeled 2183 by Carrano et al., 2002 in fig. 4) splenial
(FMNH PR 2125) mid caudal
(FMNH PR 2126) mid caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2127) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2128) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2129) pedal phalanx II-1
(FMNH PR 2130) pedal phalanx IV-3
(FMNH PR 2131) pedal phalanx IV-3
(FMNH PR 2132) manual phalanx I-1(?)
(FMNH PR 2133) proximal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2134) pedal ungual
(FMNH PR 2135) pedal ungual II/IV
(FMNH PR 2136) manual ungual, pedal phalanx II-2
(FMNH PR 2137) dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2138) dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2139) seventh cervical vertebra
(FMNH PR 2140) tenth cervical vertebra
(FMNH PR 2141) eighth cervical vertebra
(FMNH PR 2142) third-fifth sacral vertebrae
(FMNH PR 2143) incomplete humerus
(FMNH PR 2144) fourth dorsal neural arch
....(FMNH PR 2145) dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2146; mistakenly labeled 2147 by Carrano et al. (2002) in fig. 19) metatarsal III
(FMNH PR 2147) metatarsal II
(FMNH PR 2148) (gracile) femur
(FMNH PR 2149) (robust) femur
(FMNH PR 2150) (gracile) femur
(FMNH PR 2151) metatarsal II
(FMNH PR 2152) (gracile) distal tibia
(FMNH PR 2153) (gracile) femur
(FMNH PR 2154) metatarsal II
(FMNH PR 2155) metatarsal III
(FMNH PR 2156) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2157) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2158) pedal phalanx IV-1
(FMNH PR 2159) pedal phalanx III-1
(FMNH PR 2160) pedal phalanx II-1
(FMNH PR 2161) pedal phalanx II-1
(FMNH PR 2162) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2163) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2164) lateral tooth
(FMNH PR 2165) anterior tooth
(FMNH PR 2167) pedal phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2
(FMNH PR 2168) distal caudal vertebra
(FMNH PR 2169) manual ungual
(FMNH PR 2170) lateral tooth
(FMNH PR 2171) dorsal centrum
(FMNH PR 2172) pedal phalanx IV-1
(FMNH PR 2173) pedal phalanx III-2
(FMNH PR 2174) pedal phalanx IV-3
(FMNH PR 2175) distal metatarsal II
(FMNH PR 2176) pedal phalanx III-2
(FMNH PR 2177) dentary
(FMNH PR 2178) dentary
(FMNH PR 2179) dentary
(FMNH PR 2180) anterior tooth
(FMNH PR 2181) two lateral teeth
(FMNH PR 2182) lateral tooth
(UA 8681) (gracile) femur (202.5 mm)
(UA 8682) pedal phalanx (mistakenly listed as a dentary by Carrano et al., 2002- Caranno et al., 2011)
(UA 8683) distal metatarsal II
(UA 8684) (robust) femur (201.6 mm)
(UA 8685) (robust) tibia (205.4 mm)
(UA 8686) pedal phalanx IV-4
(UA 8687) (gracile) two vertebrae, tibia
(UA 8688) mid caudal vertebra
(UA 8689) distal caudal vertebra
(UA 8690) distal caudal vertebra
(UA 8691) distal caudal vertebra
(UA 8692) mid caudal vertebra
(UA 8693) humeral shaft
(UA 8694) humeral shaft
(UA 8695) distal caudal vertebra
(UA 8696) distal caudal vertebra
Referred- (FMNH PR 2100) lateral tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2101) lateral tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2183) maxilla (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2199) lateral tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2200) anterior tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2201) latreral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2202) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2203) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2205) pedal phalanx (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2206) metatarsal II (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2207) dorsal centrum (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2208) (robust) femur (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2214) (gracile) tibia (151.2 mm), metatarsal IV (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2215) (gracile) femur (180 mm) (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2216) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2217) pedal phalanx II-2 (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2218) pedal phalanx III-1 (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2219) pedal phalanx III-2/3 (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2220) anterior tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2221) lateral tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2222) dentary (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2223) two pedal phalanges (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2224) manual phalanx I-1(?) (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2225) two manual phalanges (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2227) manual phalanx (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2229) dorsal centrum (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2230) proximal caudal centrum (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2234) proximal metatarsal IV (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2235) calcaneum (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2236) pedal ungual (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2453) partial premaxilla (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2454) prearticular (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2455) incomplete angular (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2456) postorbital (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2458) dorsal neural arch, partial fourth dorsal rib, mid caudal vertebra, distal caudal vertebra, scapula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2459) metatarsal IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2460) fused third to sixth sacral centra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2461) proximal pubis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2462) axis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2463) incomplete pubis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2464) cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2465) fifth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2466) axis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2467) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2468) partial ischium (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2469) proximal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2470) fused pubes (one incomplete, one distal) (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2471) dentary (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2472) ilium (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2473) partial lacrimal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2475) frontal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2476) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2477) atlantal intercentrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2478) rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2479) pedal phalanx IV-2/3 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2480) pedal phalanx III-2 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2481) hyoid, atlantal intercentrum (5 mm), ~fifth cervical neural arch, sixth cervical vertebra (32.7 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (29.4 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (26.5 mm), proximal fourth cervical rib, proximal tenth cervical rib, two proximal cervical ribs, fifth dorsal vertebra (26.9 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (28 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (28.7 mm), ~eleventh dorsal vertebra (29 mm), ~twelfth dorsal vertebra (29.6 mm), ~thirteenth dorsal vertebra (29.3 mm), ~fourteenth dorsal vertebra (28.9 mm), three partial dorsal ribs, three rib fragments, fused anterior gastralia, sacrum (148.8 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (29.3 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (29.1 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (29 mm), mid caudal vertebra (28.9 mm), proximal caudal neural arch, mid caudal vertebra (29.8 mm), distal caudal vertebra (30 mm), distal caudal vertebra (31.2 mm), distal caudal vertebra (31.1 mm), distal caudal vertebra, distal caudal vertebra (31 mm), distal caudal vertebra (29.2 mm), three caudals, chevron, scapulae (128.4, 128.2 mm), coracoids (one fragmentary; 38 mm), humerus (94.3 mm), ilia (187.2 mm), pubes (206 mm), femora (one distal; ~193.6 mm), tibiae (195.8, 196.9 mm), fibulae (one incomplete; 189.6 mm), astragali, distal tarsal III, metatarsals II (one distal; 93.2 mm), metatarsal III (112 mm), phalanx III-1 (28.2 mm), phalanx III-2/3 (18.2 mm) (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2482) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2485) fourth cervical vertebra (24.7 mm), ~sixth cervical vertebra (25.4 mm), ~seventh cervical vertebra (23.4 mm), fourth cervical rib, sixth cervical rib, proximal seventh cervical rib, second dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal neural arch, two dorsal neural arches, ~fourth dorsal rib, dorsal rib, five rib fragments, first sacral centrum (22.2 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (28.3 mm), mid caudal vertebra (23.2 mm), distal caudal vertebra (25.4 mm), distal caudal vertebra (27.3 mm), distal caudal vertebra (25.5 mm), two caudals, vertebra, chevron, humerus (80.8 mm), incomplete ilium (146.3 mm), incomplete ischia, femora (160.7, 159.8 mm), tibiae (173.7, 171.7 mm), proximal fibulae, metatarsal III (96.4 mm), distal metatarsal IV, pedal phalanx (14.8 mm), pedal ungual II/IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2486) pedal ungual II/IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2490) caudal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2491) tenth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2492) three distal caudal vertebrae (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2493) pedal phalanx (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2495) ?laterosphenoid (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2496) partial quadrate (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2603) rib fragments (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2604) pedal phalanx II-2 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2605) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2606) scapula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2610) dorsal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2611) pedal phalanx (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2613) pedal phalanx III-? (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2614) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2616) pedal phalanx II-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2617) pedal phalanx III-? (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2618) neural arch (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2628) sixth cervical verterbra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2630) antlantal intercentrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2632) rib fragment (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2634) proximal rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2636) fourth dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2638) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2642) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2667) pedal ungual II/IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2672) tenth cervical or first dorsal rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2673) chevron (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2677) centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2679) distal metatarsal II (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2684) third dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2685) rib fragment (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2686) tibia (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2687) distal tarsal III, proximal metatarsal III (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2696) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2699) caudal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2700) caudal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2709) pedal phalanx II-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2817) tibia (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2818) anterior tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(FMNH PR 2837) first dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(MNHN.MAJ 249) tooth (Smith, 2007)
(MSNM V5378) fourth or fifth dentary tooth (13 mm) (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(UA 8700) pedal phalanx III-1 (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8701) dorsal centrum (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8702) distal caudal (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8703) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8710) (gracile) proximal tibia (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8711) (gracile) tibia (167.6 mm) (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8712) (robust) femur (168.3 mm) (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8713) pedal phalanx (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 8714) pedal phalanx (Carrano et al., 2002)
(UA 9090) postorbital (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9091) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9092) posterior dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9093) centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9094) pedal ungual III (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9095) frontal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9096) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9097) posterior dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9098) partial fifth sacral vertebra, sixth sacral vertebra, incomplete fibula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9099) proximal tibia (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9100) incomplete pubis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9101) metatarsal IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9102) distal tarsal III fused to metatarsal III (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9103) posterior dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9104) proximal ninth cervical rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9105) rib fragments, metatarsal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9106) fourth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9107) second dorsal neural arch (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9108) dorsal transverse process (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9109) neural arch (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9110) caudal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9111) seventh cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9112) proximal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9113) caudal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9115) first sacral vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9116) scapula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9117) pubic shaft (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9118) distal metatarsal ?I (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9119) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9120) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9121) third cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9122) metatarsal II (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9123) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9126) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9127) caudal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9128) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9130) axial neural arch (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9132) partial fibula, pedal phalanx (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9133) proximal ischium (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9134) proximal fibula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9135) distal femur (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9136) pubic shaft (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9137) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9138) distal metatarsal II (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9139) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9140) caudal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9142) distal tibia (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9143) partial fibula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9144) pedal ungual (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9145) dentary (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9146) proximal metacarpal ?IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9147) incomplete angular (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9148) caudal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9149) prearticular (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9150) ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9151) caudal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9152) mid chevron (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9153) proximal pubis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9154) pedal phalanx II-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9155) proximal dorsal rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9156) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9157) pedal ungual III (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9158) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9159) lateral tooth, coracoid (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9160) proximal ~fourth dorsal rib, incomplete scapulocoracoid (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9162) proximal pubis (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9163) distal metatarsal IV (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9164) dorsal neural arch (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9165) proximal humerus (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9166) prearticular, articular (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9167) fibula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9168) ischium (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9169) proximal sixth cervical rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9170) partial ilium, femur (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9171) eighth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9172) ischium, incomplete fibula (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9173) proximal caudal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9174) caudal neural arch (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9175) posterior dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9176) posterior dorsal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9177) dentary (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9178) basioccipital (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9179) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9180) chevron (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9181) eighth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9182) chevron (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9183) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9185) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9186) pedal phalanx III-? (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9187) caudal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9188) pedal phalanx II-1 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9189) fourth cervical vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9190) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9192) pedal phalanx III-? (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9193) femur (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9194) manual phalanx (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9195) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9196) chevron (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9197) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9198) pedal ungual (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9199) pedal phalanx III-2/3 (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9613) distal tibia (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9734) lateral tooth (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9773) distal metatarsal (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9774) distal metatarsal II (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9857) distal caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9858) mid caudal vertebra (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9859) cervical centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9861) proximal rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9862) proximal ~fourth dorsal rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9863) proximal rib (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
Early Maastrichtian(?), Late Cretaceous
Masorobe Member of Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

(FMNH PR 2457) (subadult) posterior braincase (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
(UA 9184) caudal centrum (Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2002) anterior four dentary teeth procumbent, the first inclined at 108 above the horizontal and lying in an alveolus that is slung below the ventral margin of the dentary; first alveolus large and ventrally expanded, lying lateral to an anteroposteriorly long dentary symphysis; lower dentition markedly heterodont: the first four teeth are weakly spoon-shaped, elongate, and terminate in a posteriorly hooked, pointed apex; anterior dentary teeth bear two weakly serrated posterior carinae and have faint posterior ridges; more posterior teeth are transversely compressed, recurved, and have a serrated posterior carina.
Comments- Carrano et al. (2011) reidentified a number of elements from Sampson et al. (2001) and/or Carrano et al. (2002). The possible angular (FMNH PR 2166) is an unknown element from an unknown taxon. FMNH PR 2198, 2226 and 2228 are reidentified as juvenile Majungasaurus teeth, contra Carrano et al. (2002). FMNH PR 2204 is a crocodyliform proximal caudal vertebra. FMNH PR 2136 and 2217 are manual phalanges instead of pedal phalanges.
References- Sampson, Nyit, Forster, Suny, Krause and Suny, 1998. The Late Cretaceous dinosaurs of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 74A.
Sampson, Carrano, and Forster. 2000. A theropod dinosaur with bizarre dentition from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 66A.
Sampson, Carrano and Forster, 2001. A bizarre predatory dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Nature. 409, 504-506.
Carrano, Sampson and Forster, 2002. The osteology of Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small abelisauroid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 510-534.
Fanti and Therrien, 2007. Theropod tooth assemblages from the Late Cretaceous Maevarano Formation and the possible presence of dromaeosaurids in Madagascar. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 52(1), 155-166.
Smith, 2007. Dental morphology and variation in Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8. 103-126.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.
Lee and O'Connor, 2011. Variation in bone histology and growth of the noasaurid theropod Masiakasaurus knopfleri. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 142.

Noasaurus Bonaparte and Powell, 1980
N. leali Bonaparte and Powell, 1980
Late Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lecho Formation, Salta, Argentina

Holotype- (PVL 4061) maxilla (78 mm), quadrate (45 mm), fourth cervical neural arch, fourth cervical rib (48 mm), tenth cervical or first dorsal rib, dorsal centrum, manual phalanx III-? (17 mm), manual ungual ?II (37 mm), metatarsal II (113 mm)
....(MACN 622) (adult) anterior cervical vertebra (34.4 mm) (Frankfurt and Chiappe, 1999)
Referred- manual ungual ?II (Agnolin, Apesteguia and Chiarelli, 2004)
Diagnosis- (after Bonaparte and Powell, 1980) very deep and subtriangular ventral concavity on manual ungual ?II[pedal ungual II in original].
(After Agnolin et al., 2004) both sides of manual ungual ?II sub-parallel in dorsal view.
(after Angnolin and Chiarelli, 2009) median ventral ridge distal to proximoventral concavity on manual ungual ?II.
(after Caranno et al., 2011) compared to Masiakasaurus- narrower antorbital fossa; anterior margin of antorbital fenestra reaches to fifth alveolus; quadrate shaft more strongly curved; medial collateral ligament pit on metatarsal IV internally subdivided; more distinct distal intercondylar sulcus on metatarsal IV.
Comments- The squamosal originally identified is a cervical rib (Bonaparte, 1991), further identified as the tenth (or the first dorsal) rib by Carrano et al. (2011). Carrano et al. also identified the cervical neural arch and rib as the fourth based on comparison to Masiakasaurus. A cervical vertebra (MACN 622) discovered with the holotype was originally identified as an oviraptorosaur (Frankfurt and Chiappe, 1999), but reidentified by Agnolin and Martinelli (2007) as a noasaurid, and probably part of the Noasaurus holotype individual.
Noasaurus was originally described by Bonaparte and Powell (1980) as preserving a hyperextendable pedal phalanx II-2 and enlarged and trenchant pedal ungual II as in deinonychosaurs. However, Agnolin et al. (2004) and Agnolin and Chiarelli (2009) found a series of manual characters and abelisauroid synapomorphies in the phalanx and ungual. Similarly, Carrano et al. (2004; 2011) compared the phalanx favorably to manual phalanges FMNH PR 2136 and 2217 of Masiakasaurus, which has very different unguals on its pes. Agnolin et al. proposed the ungual was from digit II based on the symmetry of the proximal articular facets, but Agnolin and Chiarelli suggested it was from I or II based on its "strong curvature and general morphology", though their figure caption lists it as from II or III. Carrano and Sampson (2008) suggested Bonaparte and Powell had the phalanx upside down, but Agnolin and Chiarelli noted several characters indicating its manual identification and an abelisauroid synapomorphy that work using the original orientation, so that is preferred here. Carrano et al. (2011) suggested the proportions of the phalanx might indicate it was penultimate, but Agnolin and Chiarelli noted the short and broad proportions were like digit III and that contra the original description, it does not articulate well with the ungual.
References- Bonaparte and Powell, 1980. A continental assemblage of tetrapods from the upper Cretaceous beds of El Brete, northwestern Argentina (Sauropoda-Coelurosauria-Carnosauria-Aves). Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France. Nouvelle Série. 19, 19-28.
Bonaparte, 1991. The Gondwanian theropod families Abelisauridae and Noasauridae. Historical Biology. 5, 1-25.
Frankfurt and Chiappe, 1999. A possible oviraptorosaur from the Late Cretaceous of northwestern Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(1), 101-105.
Agnolin, Apesteguia and Chiarelli, 2004. The end of a myth: The mysterious ungual claw of Noasaurus leali. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2004. 301-302.
Carrano, Sampson and Loewen, 2004. New discoveries of Masiakasaurus knopfleri and the morphology of the Noasauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2004. 28.
Agnolin and Martinelli, 2007. Did oviraptorosaurs (Dinosauria; Theropoda) inhabit Argentina? Cretaceous Research. 28(5), 785-790.
Carrano and Sampson, 2008. The phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 183-236.
Agnolin and Chiarelli, 2010. The position of the claws in Noasauridae (Dinosauria: Abelisauroidea) and its implications for abelisauroid manus evolution. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 84, 293-300.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.

Abelisauridae sensu Wilson et al., 2003
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Noasaurus leali)
= Abelisauridae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Coelophysis bauri, Noasaurus leali, Passer domesticus)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2002) sculpturing on craniofacial elements; ventral extent of antorbital fossa absent; pneumatic nasal foramina; suborbital process on postorbital; postorbital contacts lacrimal above orbit; enlarged parietal nuchal crest; broad cervical prespinal fossa; posterior dorsal parapophyses and transverse processes joined by web.

"Carnosaurus" Huene, 1929
Late Cretaceous
east of Colhue Huapi Lake and north of Chico River, Chubut Group(?), Chubut, Argentina
Material-
(MACN coll.) tooth (23 x 12.5 x 6 mm)
Comments- Carnosaurus was listed by Huene (1929) in a faunal list for three specimens- a metapodial (MLP CS 1240) from the Allen Formation, a tooth (MACN coll.) perhaps from the Chubut group, and provisionally ("Cf. Carnosaurus") a tooth (MLP coll.) from the Plottier Formation. As Olshevsky (DML, 1999) noted, the name is probably a typographical error for Carnosauria made when translating the paper from German to Spanish. This is indicated by the fact he never attaches a name to these specimens in the description or plates, and indeed states on of the specimens is taxonomically indistinguishable from another named genus. Since "Carnosaurus" was apparently not meant as a valid name when it was published (ICZN Article 11.5), it is a nomen nudum. The metapodial is here identified as a sauropod or ankylosaur metatarsal, while the Plottier tooth was only questionably referred by Huene, thus leaving the Chubut tooth as the specimen best discussed under "Carnosaurus".
The Chubut tooth is merely described under the heading "tooth of a carnivorous saurischian from the Chico River". The mesial edge is slightly concave and the distal edge slightly convex. It has fine longitudinal ridges, and 30 serrations per 5 mm which are perpendicular to the edge. Huene stated there was no difference between it and teeth he referred to Loncosaurus except for the less curved mesial edge, which he felt could be explained by a different position in the jaw. It compares well with abelisaurids in all variables except the greater serration density, so may be a member of that clade.
References- Huene, 1929. Los saurisquios y ornitisquios del Cretacéo Argentino. Anales del Museo de La Plata (series 3). 3, 1-196.
Olshevsky, DML 1999. http://dml.cmnh.org/1999Nov/msg00507.html

Dryptosauroides Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Dryptosauroides" Huene 1932
D. grandis Huene and Matley, 1933
= "Dryptosauroides grandis" Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Syntypes- (GSI K20/334) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K20/609) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/549) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/601) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/602) proximal caudal vertebra
(GSI K27/626) proximal caudal vertebra
Diagnosis- Provisionally indeterminate at the level of Abelisauridae.
Comments- Novas et al. (2004) determined the vertebrae were proximal caudals, not dorsals as suggested by Huene and Matley (1933). They are indistinguishable from Ornithomimoides mobilis and O? barasimilis.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley. 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.

Kryptops Sereno and Brusatte, 2008
K. palaios Sereno and Brusatte, 2008
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation, Niger
Holotype-
(MNN GAD1; in part) incomplete maxilla (~250 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Sereno and Brusatte, 2008) a deep secondary wall in the anteroventral corner of the antorbital fossa that completely obscures the antorbital fossa and that has a scalloped and fluted dorsal margin; external texture on the maxilla, which is composed of short linear grooves.
Comments- This was mentioned by Sereno et al. (2004) as an undescribed abelisaurid from Gadoufaoua. It was later described in detail and named by Sereno and Brusatte (2008). Carrano et al. (2012) noticed the postcrania (MNN GAD1; in part- three dorsals, two ribs, sacrum and pelves) was incongruous for an abelisaurid, found in situ 15 meters away from the maxilla, and suggested it was carcharodontosaurid instead. While traditionally a basal abelisaurid sensu lato, in Farke and Sertich's (2013) analysis it cannot be placed more exactly than the Rugops+Abelisauridae clade using only the maxilla.
References- Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 71(1546), 1325-1330.
Sereno and Brusatte, 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(1), 15-46.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Farke and Sertich, 2013. An abelisauroid theropod dinosaur from the Turonian of Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 8(4), e62047.

Quilmesaurus Coria, 2001
Q. curriei Coria, 2001
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Rio Negro, Argentina

Holotype- (MPCA-PV-100) distal femur, tibia (520 mm)
Comments- Juarez Valieri et al. (2004) assigned Quilmesaurus to Abelisauridae based on the marked distal expansion of the cnemial crest and the asymmetrical distal end of the tibia, and to Carnotaurinae because of the downturned distal part of the cnemial crest.
Reference- Coria, 2001. New theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. In Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, Indiana. 3-9.
Juárez Valieri, Fiorelli and Cruz, 2004. Quilmesaurus curriei Coria, 2001. Su validez taxonómica y relaciones filogenéticas. XX Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontología de Vertebrados (La Plata), Resúmenes: 36-37.

unnamed abelisaurid (Janensch, 1925)
Late Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Material- (MB R 3621; = 68 of Janensch) femur (773 mm)
....(MB R 3626; = 69 of Janensch) tibia (~610 mm)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Material- (MB R 3725; = 37 of Janensch) tibia (567 mm)
Comments- Janensch (1925) stated these were similar to Ceratosaurus and thought they might be referrable to C. roechlingi, but Rauhut (2011) notes they are more similar to abelisaurids.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

unnamed Abelisauria (Huene and Matley, 1933)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Material- (AMNH 1733) premaxilla (Chatterjee, 1978)
(AMNH 1753) premaxilla, maxilla (Chatterjee, 1978)
(AMNH 1955) maxilla (Chatterjee, 1978)
(AMNH 1958) distal caudal vertebra (Chatterjee, 1978)
(AMNH 1960) anterior dentary tip (Chatterjee, 1978)
(AMNH 1960) proximal caudal neural arch (AMNH online)
(AMNH coll.) partial frontal, partial dentary (Dalman and Gishlick, 2011)
(GSI K19/579) tibia (600 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K 19/581) tibia (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/529; incorrectly labeled 527) dentary (260 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/532) distal caudal vertebra (110 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/538; incorrectly labeled 548) incomplete maxilla (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/539) metatarsal IV (250 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/544; incorrectly labeled 538) fragmentary maxilla (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/548) incomplete maxilla (~340 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/550) dentary (260 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/558; lost) femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/568; lost) tibia (540 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/570; lost) incomplete femur (~600 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/571) three sacral centra (centrum 70 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/575) squamosal fragment (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/577) jugal fragment (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/580) partial jugal (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/594) distal caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/595; syntype of Coeluroides largus) proximal caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/596) caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/618; lost ) distal femur (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/653) pedal phalanx III-2
(GSI K27/654) pedal phalanx II-1 (80 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/658) metatarsal III (254 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/705) distal caudal vertebra (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/709) dentary (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(GSI K27/710) premaxilla (80 mm) (Huene and Matley, 1933)
(ISI R 163) lacrimal, jugal, posterior dentary, angular (Chatterjee and Rudra, 1996)
six teeth (Mather and Srivastava, 1987)
Comments- Cranial elements showing external sculpturing, caudal vertebrae resembling Majungasaurus, and robust hindlimb elements are here referred to Abelisauria closer to abelisaurids than noasaurids. Jugal GSI K27/580 is distinct from GSI K27/577 in the large posterior notch in the ascending process (shared with Carnotaurus) and different pattern of rugosities. Sacral vertebrae GSI K27/571 resemble Carnotaurus by having transversely narrow centra with only slight intercentral expansion. Proximal caudal neural arch AMNH 1960 resembles Majungasaurus more than Aucasaurus or Carnotaurus in the laterally oriented transverse processes. It differs from Aucasaurus and Carnotaurus in the lack of hyposphene-hypantrum articulations. AMNH 1958, GSI K27/532, 589 (though note Carrano et al., 2011 listed it as noasaurid), 594, 596 and 705 have low ridgelike transverse processes and short rounded prezygopophyses, unlike noasaurids, but like Majungasaurus, Ornithomimoides, O? barasimilis and Dryptosauroides. This material is likely referrable to Rajasaurus, Indosuchus and/or indeterminate Lameta abelisaurian taxa. Chatterjee (1978) and Chatterjee and Rudra (1996) have referred some of it to Indosuchus, but this cannot be confirmed until more material of the latter is discovered. Dalman and Gishlick (2011) reexamined the AMNH material, noting some previously unreported elements, and found that it resolves as a basal abelisaurid while Indosuchus weas carnotaurine. Mathur and Srivastava (1987) referred teeth to Majungasaurus, but these are more likely to belong to a separate taxon, as the teeth of the AMNH abelisaurid specimens strongly resemble those of Majungasaurus.
References- Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologica Indica. 21, 1-74.
Chatterjee, 1978. Indosuchus and Indosaurus, Cretaceous carnosaurs from India. Journal of Paleontology. 52(3), 570-580.
Mathur and Srivastava, 1987. Dinosaur teeth from Lameta Group (Upper Cretaceous) of Kheda District, Gujarat. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 29, 554-566.
Chatterjee and Rudra, 1996. KT events in India: Impact, rifing, volcanism and dinosaur extinction. In Novas and Molnar (eds.). Proceedings of the Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium. Memiors of the Queensland Museum. 39(3), 489-532.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Dalman and Gishlick, 2011. Theropod material from Lameta, India, in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History and its bearing on the diagnosis and phylogenetic and taxonomic status of Indosuchus raptorius. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 95.

unnamed abelisaurian (Bertini, 1996)
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Adamantina Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Material- (URC 44-R) premaxilla, tooth
References- Bertini, 1996. Evidencias de Abelisauridae (Carnosauria: Saurischia) do Neocreta´ceo da Bacia do Parana. Boletim do 4o Simposio sobre o Cretáceo do Brasil. 267-271.
Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: A reappraisal. Cretaceous Research. 27, 923-946.

undescribed abelisaurian (Machado, Campos and Kellner, 2011)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Marilia Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Material- (MCT 1783-R) tibia
Reference- Machado, Campos and Kellner, 2011. A new abelisaurid tibia from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 149.

unnamed abelisaurian (Lamanna, Martinez and Smith, 2002)
Mid Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Bajo Barreal Formation, Chubut, Argentina
Material
- (UNPSJB-PV247) (~8-10 m) maxilla
Comments- This specimen resembles Rugops very closely in the distribution of external grooves and pits, elevated dental lamina, and fine striae on the latter (Sereno et al., 2004). It may be referrable to Xenotarsosaurus, from the same formation, though the latter was smaller and seemingly an adult.
References- Martinez, Maure, Oliva and Luna, 1993. Un maxilar de Theropoda (Abelisauria) de la Formacion Bajo Barreal, Cretacico Tardio, Chubut, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 30(1), 109-110.
Lamanna, Martinez and Smith, 2002. A definitive abelisaurid theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(1), 58-69.
Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271(1546), 1325-1330.

unnamed abelisaurian (Novas and Bandyopadhyay, 2001)
Cenomanian-Early Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen?, Argentina

Material- (MCA 56) cranial elements, distal caudal vertebrae, hindlimb elements, pedal unguals IV (65 mm)
Description- This has cranial sculpturing.
Reference- Novas and Bandyopadhyay, 2001. Abelisaurid pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous of India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina, Publicacion Especial 7. 145-149.

unnamed abelisaurian (Martinez, Novas and Ambrosio, 2004)
Mid Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Bajo Barreal Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material-(MPM-99) incomplete tenth cervical vertebra, incomplete first dorsal vertebra, mid dorsal centrum, ~eighth caudal vertebra, two mid caudal vertebrae
Comments- Martinez et al. (2004) describe this as an abelisaurid that differs from both Carnotaurus and Majungasaurus but is more similar to the former. Comparisons with Xenotarsosaurus from the same formation are limited to the poorly preserved second dorsal of the latter, which differs in minor ways that may be due to positional variation.
Reference- Martinez, Novas and Ambrosio, 2004. Abelisaurid remains (Theropoda, Ceratosauria) from Southern Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 577-585.

undescribed abelisaurian (Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem beds, Morocco
Material
- maxilla
Description- pit and grooved texture on external surface of maxilla; subrectangular alveoli.
Reference- Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271(1546), 1325-1330.

undescribed Abelisauridae (Goswami, Prasad, Benson, Verma and Flynn, 2012)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Kallamedu Formation, India
Material
- teeth
Reference- Goswami, Prasad, Benson, Verma and Flynn, 2012. New vertebrates from the Late Cretaceous Kallamedu Formation, Cauvery Basin, South India, including a troodontid dinosaur, a gondwanatherian mammal, and a Simosuchus-like notosuchian crocodyliform. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 102.

undescribed abelisaurian (Lamanna, Casal and Martinez, 2012)
Mid Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Bajo Barreal Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material- (UNPSJB-PV 1003) posterior skull, dentaries, teeth, two dorsal ribs, partial sacrum, twenty-three caudal vertebrae, fiveteen chevrons, scapula, tarsus, incomplete pes including metatarsal III
Diagnosis- (after Lamanna et al., 2012) rounded prominence bordered posteriorly by mediolaterally-oriented groove on posterolateral part of dorsal surface of frontal; low, acute posteromedial tuberosity on dorsal surface of frontal bordering posterior median fossa; proximal caudal transverse processes abruptly expand proximodistally well medial to their lateral extremes.
Comments- Lamanna et al. (2012) referred this to basal Abelisauridae based on- minimal cranial ornamentation; fenestra between lacrimal, postorbital and frontal; dorsoventrally thin frontal; lack of awl-like, proximally-directed projection at lateral end of proximal caudal transverse process; mediolaterally slender metatarsal III. They note it cannot be compared to the contemporaneous Xenotarsosaurus, but that the first caudal vertebra does differ from MPM-99 from that formation.
Reference- Lamanna, Casal and Martinez, 2012. A new abelisaurid (Theropoda: Ceratosauria) skeleton from the Upper Cretaceous Bajo Barreal Formation of Chubut Province, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 124.

undescribed abelisaurian (Sertich, Seiffert and Manthi, 2013)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lapurr sandstone (= Turkana Grits), Kenya
Material
- (~11-12 m) multiple specimens including cranial material (including a partial skull, premaxilla, postorbital and braincase), axial material and appendicular material (including astragalocalcaneum)
Comments- This is based on unassociated material referred to one taxon "based on morphological consistency and on the recovery of specimens from a narrow stratigraphic and geographic area."
Reference- Sertich, Seiffert and Manthi, 2013. A giant abelisaurid theropod from the Latest Cretaceous of Northern Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 211.

Rugops Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004
R. primus Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Echkar Formation, Niger

Holotype- (MNN IGU1) partial skull including premaxilla, incomplete maxilla, nasal, lacrimal, prefrontal, frontal, parietal, prootic and teeth
Diagnosis- (after Sereno et al., 2004) small fenestra in the skull roof between the prefrontal, frontal, postorbital and lacrimal; row of seven small invaginated depressions on the dorsal surface of each nasal.
Comments- This taxon is placed basal to abelisaurids by Sereno et al. (2004). It is very similar to an unnamed maxilla (UNPSJB-PV247) described by Lamanna et al. (2002) from the Bajo Barreal Formation of Argentina. The nasal fossae are intruded by vascular grooves, and may have served as a base for sensory or display structures.
References- Lamanna, Martinez and Smith, 2002. A definitive abelisaurid theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(1), 58-69.
Sereno, Conrad and Wilson, 2002. Abelisaurid theropods from Africa: Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 106A.
Sereno, Wilson and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 271(1546), 1325-1330.

Abelisauridae Bonaparte and Novas, 1985
Definition- (Abelisaurus comahuensis + Carnotaurus sastrei + Indosaurus matleyi + Indosuchus raptorius + Majungasaurus crenatissimus + Xenotarsosaurus bonapartei) (Novas, 1997)
Other definitions- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Elaphrosaurus bambergi) (modified from Rowe et al., 1997)
(Abelisaurus comahuensis + Carnotaurus sastrei) (Tykoski and Rowe, 2004; modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Carnotaurus sastrei <- Noasaurus leali) (Wilson et al., 2003)
(Carnotaurus sastrei <- Coelophysis bauri, Noasaurus leali, Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2002) long axis of postorbital slanted anteroventrally/posterodorsally; frontals fused to parietals; quadratojugal fused to quadrate; interdental plates striated medially.
Comments- For the same reason noted above for Noasauridae, the inclusion of Coelophysis and Passer as specifiers seems useless in Sereno's (in press) redefinition. Abelisaurus comahuensis should be the internal specifier (Phylocode 11.8), so I don't accept this definition. If Abelisaurus is a carcharodontosaurid, a possibility suggested by Lamanna et al. (2002), it would leave Abelisauridae without Abelisaurus.
References- Thompson, 2011. Comparative analysis of abelisaurid skulls indicates dietary specialization. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 204.
Burch, 2013. The myological consequences of extreme limb reduction: New insights from the forelimb musculature of abelisaurid theropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 97.

unnamed Abelisauridae (Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014)
Late Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Lourinha Formation, Portugal
Material
- (ML 327) lateral tooth (31.8x20.1x10.7 mm)
(ML 966) lateral tooth (46.4x23.7x13 mm)
Reference- Hendrickx and Mateus, 2014. Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and dentition-based phylogeny as a contribution for the identification of isolated theropod teeth. Zootaxa. 3759(1), 1-74.

Majungasaurinae Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2014
Definition- (Majungasaurus crenatissimus <- Carnotaurus sastrei) (after Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2014)
= "Rajasaurinae" Malkani, 2010
= "Majungasaurinae" Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2013 online
Comments-
Malkani (2010) proposed Rajasaurinae for Rajasaurus, apparently within his new invalid family "Vitakrisauridae." However, it was not given a diagnosis (ICZN Article 13.1.1) or explicitly stated to be new (ICZN 16.1), so is a nomen nudum. It could be used for the Rajasaurus+Majungasaurus+Indosaurus clade that appears in some recent analyses. Tortosa et al. (2014) also found this group, and proposed to name it Majungasaurinae.
References- Malkani, 2010. New Pakisaurus (Pakisauridae, Titanosauria, Sauropoda) remains, and Cretaceous Tertiary (K-T) boundary from Pakistan. Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series). 42(1), 39-64.
Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2014. A new abelisaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of southern France: Palaeobiogeographical implications. Annales de Paléontologie. 100(1), 63-86.

Arcovenator Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2014
= "Arcovenator" Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2013 online
A. escotae Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2014
= "Arcovenator escotae" Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2013 online
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Argiles Rutilantes Formation, Var, France
Holotype
- (MHNA-PV-2011.12.1) postorbital, braincase
....(MHNA-PV-2011.12.2) squamosal
....(MHNA-PV-2011.12.3) tibia (510 mm)
....(MHNA-PV-2011.12.4) fibula (490 mm)
....(MHNA-PV-2011.12.5) proximal caudal vertebra
....(MHNA-PV-2011.12.15) tooth
Paratypes- (MHNA-PV-2011.12.20) tooth
(MHNA-PV-2011.12.187) tooth
(MHNA-PV-2011.12.198) proximal caudal vertebra
(MHNA-PV-2011.12.213) proximal caudal vertebra
(MHNA-PV-2011.12.297) tooth
Diagnosis- (after Tortosa et al., in press) frontals with slight median thickening; median dorsal foramen between frontals; low depression with small fenestra in skull roof between frontal, postorbital and lacrimal; postorbital forming strong, rugose, dorsolaterally developed supraorbital brow; thin bony expansion between ventral and posterior rami of postorbital; lateral tuberosity on ventral ramus of postorbital; paroccipital processes bounded dorsally and ventrally by two horizontal bars, forming depression lateral to foramen magnum; basipterygoid process laterally directed; slightly proximally anterodorsally curved fibular crest; lateral tibial condyle more developed posteriorly than medial condyle.
Comments- The type materials were discovered in 2011 and described by Tortosa et al. (2014) as a new taxon of abelisaurid. Their phylogenetic analysis is shown as recovering "Arcovenator" in a clade with Majungasaurus, Indosaurus, Rajasaurus and Rahiolisaurus which they name "Majungasaurinae", yet the matrix is misprinted and when fixed actually finds the new genus as a "majungasaurine" or a basal abelisaurid. Although electronic publication of names was allowed by the ICZN in 2013, Tortosa et al. did not register their name with Zoobank (ICZN 8.5.3), making it unofficial until physical published in 2014.
Reference- Tortosa, Buffetaut, Vialle, Dutour, Turini and Cheylan, 2014. A new abelisaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of southern France: Palaeobiogeographical implications. Annales de Paléontologie. 100(1), 63-86.

Indosaurus Huene, 1931 vide Huene, 1932
I. matleyi Huene, 1931 vide Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Holotype- (GSI K27/565) frontals, parietals, braincase
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2004) Provisionally indeterminate relative to Indosuchus raptorius (pending publication of Dalman and Gishlick's 2011 analysis).
Comments- Though traditionally thought to be more Allosaurus- or Carnotaurus-like than the tyrannosaurid- or Abelisaurus-like Indosuchus, Novas et al. (2004) found that poor preservation made the two taxa impossible to distinguish. In particular, there is no evidence of frontal horns or sagittal crest shape differences. Other minor differences may be individual variation, based on the high amount observed in Majungasaurus. Dalman and Gishlick (2011) however noted in an abstract that the genera resolved in different positions in their phylogenetic analysis.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologia Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas and Bandyopaphyay, 1999. New approaches on the Cretaceous theropods from India. VII International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, abstracts. 46-47.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Dalman and Gishlick, 2011. Theropod material from Lameta, India, in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History and its bearing on the diagnosis and phylogenetic and taxonomic status of Indosuchus raptorius. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 95.

Indosuchus Huene, 1931 vide Huene, 1932
I. raptorius Huene, 1931 vide Huene, 1932
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Lectotype- (GSI K27/685) frontals, parietals,
Paralectotypes- (GSI K20/350) (subadult?) partial lacrimals, frontals, parietals
(GSI K20/690) skull roof
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2004) frontonasal suture placed anteriorly compared to lacrimal.
References- Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Huene and Matley, 1933. The Cretaceous Saurischia and Ornithischia of the central provinces of India. Palaeontologia Indica. 21, 1-74.
Novas, Agnolin and Bandyopadhyay, 2004. Cretaceous theropods from India: A review of specimens described by Huene and Matley (1933). Revista del Museo Argentino del Ciencias Naturales. 6(1), 67-103.
Dalman and Gishlick, 2011. Theropod material from Lameta, India, in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History and its bearing on the diagnosis and phylogenetic and taxonomic status of Indosuchus raptorius. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 95.

Majungasaurus Lavocat, 1955
= Majungatholus Sues and Taquet, 1979
M. crenatissimus (Deperet, 1896) Lavocat, 1955
= Megalosaurus crenatissimus Daperet, 1896
= Majungatholus atopus Sues and Taquet, 1979
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Syntypes- ?(FSL 92.289) incomplete caudal vertebra
?(FSL 92.290) partial pedal ungual
(FSL 92.306a-b) posterior premaxillary tooth, posterior dentary tooth
?(FSL 92.343) sacral centrum
?(FSL coll.) sacral centrum
Referred- (MNHN.MAJ 1) (subadult; holotype of Majungasaurus) incomplete dentary, two teeth (Lavocat, 1955)
(MNHN.MAJ 4; holotype of Majungatholus atopus) lacrimal fragment, frontals, parietals, mesethmoid, laterosphenoids (Sues and Taquet, 1979)
(MNHN 1911a-d) anterior premaxillary tooth, middle maxillary or dentary tooth, posterior maxillary or dentary tooth, posterior dentary tooth (Piveteau, 1926)
?(MNHN coll.; lost?) vertebra, limb bone fragments (Boule, 1896)
?(MNHN coll.; lost) teeth (Boule, 1900)
?(MNHN coll.; lost) tooth, vertebrae including a caudal vertebra, fragmentary limb bones (Thevenin, 1906)
?(MNHN coll.; lost) teeth, bones (Lavocat, 1955)
(UA Bv 532) pedal ungual I (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA Bv 1658) pedal ungual I (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA Bv 1260) pedal phalanx II-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA Bv 1265) pedal phalanx III-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA coll.) numerous teeth, three fragmentary femora or tibiae (Ravoavy, 1991)
Early Maastrichtian(?), Late Cretaceous
Masorobe Member of Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Referred- teeth (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
Middle Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Anembalemba Member of Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Referred- (FMNH PR 2008) premaxilla (72 mm) (Sampson, Krause, Dodson and Forster, 1996)
(FMNH PR 2099) (subadult) partial skull (Sampson, Witmer, Forster, Krause, O'Connor, Dodson and Ravoavy, 1998)
(FMNH PR 2100) incomplete skull (570 mm), mandibles, fifth caudal vertebra (84.9 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (95.7 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (98.1 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (98.1 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (97 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (~93.1 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (96 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (96.7 mm), thirteenth caudal vertebra (95.6 mm), fourteenth caudal vertebra (94.2 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (91.4 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (91.5 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (90.4 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (91.1 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (90.9 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (88.7 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (86.6 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (83.5 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (81.6 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (79.2 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra (79 mm), twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (76.6 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra (74.6 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (70.8 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (67.5 mm), distal caudal vertebra (36.5 mm), eighteen chevrons (Sampson, Witmer, Forster, Krause, O'Connor, Dodson and Ravoavy, 1998)
....(UA 9089) four proximal caudal vertebrae (Ravoavy, 1991)
(FMNH PR 2198) (juvenile) lateral tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2226) (juvenile) anterior tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2228) (juvenile) lateral tooth (Carrano et al., 2002)
(FMNH PR 2278) (adult) premaxillae, maxillae, jugal, quadratojugal, ectopterygoid, quadrate, surangular, angular, prearticular, articular, two fragmentary cervical neural arches, three fragmentary dorsal vertebrae, one fragmentary caudal vertebra, scapulocoracoid, partial ilium, femur, tibiae (one fragmentary), fibulae (one partial; ~406 mm), astragalocalcaneum, metatarsal II (198.9 mm), phalanx II-1, metatarsal III (250 mm), metatarsal IV (207.7 mm), phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2293) axis (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2294) five caudal vertebrae, two chevrons (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2295) third cervical vertebra (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2423) humerus (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2424) tibia (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2425) astragalocalcaneum (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2426) pedal phalanx II-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2427) pedal phalanx II-2 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2428) distal pedal phalanx II-1, pedal ungual II, phalanx III-2 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2429) pedal phalanx III-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2430) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2431) pedal phalanx IV-3 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2432) pedal phalanx IV-4 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2433) pedal phalanx IV-4 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH PR 2434) pedal ungual IV (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(MSNM V3342) lateral tooth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V3360) anterolateral tooth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V3363) anterolateral tooth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V3368) anterolateral tooth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V5255) pedal phalanx III-1 (60 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V5256) pedal phalanx III-2 (36 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V5267) pedal ungual II (42 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V5276) pedal ungual IV (52 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V5368) anterior premaxillary tooth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V5509) pedal ungual IV (51 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V5510) pedal phalanx III-1 (74 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V5518) anterolateral tooth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V6418) pedal ungual III (~57 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V6419) pedal ungual I (29 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V6420) pedal ungual IV (61 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V6421) pedal ungual II (56 mm) (Maganuco et al., 2008)
(MSNM V coll.) 123 lateral teeth (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V coll.) 21 anterolateral teeth (16-35 mm) (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(MSNM V coll.) 19 anterior premaxillary teeth (15-30 mm) (Fanti and Therrien, 2007)
(UA 8678) (subadult) incomplete skull, splenial, prearticular, surangular, atlantal neurapophysis, axis (69.8 mm), third cervical vertebra (59.9 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (61.7 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (63.2 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (~65.5 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (~60.1 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (~56.1 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (57.9 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (58.4 mm), thirteen cervical ribs, first dorsal vertebra (59.3 mm), second dorsal vertebra (~51.9 mm), third dorsal vertebra (55.2 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (~51.6 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (58.9 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (59.7 mm), seventh dorsal neural arch, eighth dorsal vertebra (67.4 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (67.1 mm), tenth dorsal neural arch, eleventh dorsal vertebra (65.6 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra, thirteenth dorsal neural arch, fourteen dorsal ribs, second sacral vertebra, third sacral vertebra, fourth sacral neural arch, first caudal vertebra (71.3 mm), second caudal vertebra (69.6 mm), third caudal vertebra (70.8 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (73.2 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (75.2 mm), mid caudal vertebra, first chevron, ilia (585 mm) (Sampson, Witmer, Forster, Krause, O'Connor, Dodson and Ravoavy, 1998)
(UA 8709) incomplete skull, mandibles (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 8716) premaxilla (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 8717) premaxillae (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 8718) partial lacrimal (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 8719) partial skull roof (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 8782) distal quadrate (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9031) humerus (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9032) tibia (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9033) astragalocalcaneum (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9034) metatarsal II (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9035) metatarsal IV (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9036) pedal phalanx II-1 (88 mm) (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9037) pedal phalanx II-2 (45 mm) (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9038) pedal ungual II (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9039) pedal phalanx III-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9040) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9041) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9042) pedal phalanx III-2 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9043) pedal ungual IV (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9077) tibia, fibula (406.4 mm) (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9078) fibula (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9079) metatarsal III (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9081) pedal phalanx III-1 or III-2 (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA 9082) astragalus (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
(UA coll.) gastralia (O'Connor, 2007)
(FMNH and UA coll.) thousands of isolated teeth (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
specimen including scapulocoracoid, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, metacarpal III, phalanx III-1 fused with III-2, metacarpal IV fused with phalanx IV-1 (Burch and Carrano, 2008)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Miadana Member of Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Referred- teeth (Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007)
Late Cretaceous(?)
Madagascar
Referred- ?(MNHN.MAJ 242) premaxillary tooth (Smith, 2007)
Diagnosis- (after Krause et al., 2007) dorsoventrally deep, fused nasals that are strongly pneumatized via large, bilateral foramina; nasal processes of left and right premaxillae separated by a thin lamina of nasal; maxilla bearing 17 alveoli; frontals rounded rostrally rather than forming a double notch; frontals with a sculptured, median cornual process in adults that is variably pneumatic; pronounced median fossa on sagittal (frontoparietal) crest; dentary bearing 17 alveoli, virtually no extension caudal to last alveolus, and ventral position of lateral sulcus; teeth bearing weakly developed interdenticular sulci; long, falciform atlantal epipophysis; vertebral centra in cranial dorsal series with dorsoventrally elongate articular surfaces; cranial and caudal borders of midcervical transverse processes parallel in lateral view; dorsal and caudal vertebral neural spines dorsally expanded (transversely and craniocaudally); cervical ribs pneumatized via multiple, enlarged foramina on medial surface of shaft, and accessory foramina on cranial and caudal surfaces of capitulotubercular web.
Comments- Deperet (1986) never specified a holotype from his syntypes for Megalosaurus crenatissimus, which came from different localities. Lavocat (1955) described a dentary (MNHN.MAJ 1) he believed to be from the same species, but which he thought indicated generic difference from Megalosaurus. He designated this dentary the type specimen of Majungasaurus, making the new combination Majungasaurus crenatissimus. This was an improper procedure, as Deperet's syntypes remain the type specimens of crenatissimus regardless of which genus they are assigned to. Sampson et al. (1996) and Krause et al. (2007) claimed Lavocat implicitly designated the dentary the neotype of Majungasaurus crenatissimus, but the ICZN does not allow neotype designation without petition unless the type material is lost (Article 75). So Sampson et al.'s and Krause et al.'s use of the dentary as the type specimen for Majungasaurus crenatissimus is incorrect. As Krause et al. determined two teeth of Deperet's syntype are diagnostic to this species, one of them should be designated the lectotype.
An additional nomenclatural issue involves the holotype of Majungatholus atopus, which was originally identified as a pachycephalosaur (Sues and Taquet, 1979). Though a few authors expressed doubt at this identification (Rage, 1988; Giffen, 1989), it was not disproven until 1996 when the skull of FMNH PR 2100 was found (Sampson et al., 1998), showing a Majungatholus dome on an abelisaurid skull. Sampson et al. believed Deperet's and Lavocat's material to be undiagnostic, making the diagnostic Majungatholus specimen the holotype of the species. This also resulted in Majungatholus atopus being the valid name for this theropod from 1998 until 2007. 2007 saw the publication of an extensive monograph on the Maevarano abelisaurid (Sampson and Krause, eds.) which determined both Deperet's and Lavocat's material could be distinguished from other abelisaurids, making Majungasaurus crenatissimus the valid name after all.
Carrano et al. (2011) reidentified three supposed Masiakasaurus teeth from Carrano et al. (2002) as juvenile Majungasaurus- FMNH PR 2198, 2226 and 2228.
Several specimens from outside Madagascar have been referred to Majungasaurus, but these are all fragmentary and more likely to be other abelisaurid taxa, as dental apomorphies of Majungasaurus were only discovered in 2007. Such specimens include teeth and two unguals from Egypt (Gemmellaro, 1921), a tooth from India (Gemmerallo, 1921), teeth from the Lameta Formation of India (Mathur and Srivastava, 1987), and dentary fragments from the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco (Russell, 1996). The latter are carcharodontosaurid.
References- Deperet, 1896. Note on the sauropod and theropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Madagascar. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 3rd series. 24, 176.
Boule, 1896. Note préliminaire sur les débris de dinosauriens envoyés au Muséum par M. Bastard. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. 2, 347-351.
Boule, 1900. Note sur quelques fossiles de Madagascar parvenus récemment au laboratoire de Paléontologie. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle à Paris. 6, 201.
Thevenin, 1906. Note sur des fossils de Madagascar, recueillis par le Dr. Decorse. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle à Paris. 12, 334-336.
Thevenin, 1907. Dinosauriens (Paléontologie de Madagascar IV). Annales de Paléontologie. 2, 121-136.
Gemmellaro, 1921. Rettili maëstrichtiani d'Egitto: Giornale di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche. 32, 339-351.
Piveteau, 1926. Contribution à l’étude des formations lagunaires du Nord-Ouest de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. (4) 26, 33-38.
Lavocat, 1955. Etude des gisements de Dinosauriens de la région de Majunga (Madagascar). Travaux du Bureau Géologique. 69, 1-19.
Lavocat, 1955. Sur une portion de mandibule de Théropode provenant du Crétacé supérieur de Madagascar. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle à Paris. 27, 256-259.
Lavocat, 1955. Les recherches de reptiles fossils à Madagascar. Le Naturaliste Malgache. 7(2), 203-207.
Lavocat, 1957. Sur les couches à dinosauriens de Madagascar. CCTA and Service Géologique de Madagascar, Comptes Rendus. Comités régionaux Centre, Est et Sud Conférence de Tananarive, Avril 1957, Geology, Second Volume. 363-364.
Russell, Russell, Taquet and Thomas, 1976. Nouvelles récoltes de Vertébrés dans les terrains continentaux du Crétacé supérieur de la région de Majunga (Madagascar). Comptes Rendu Sommaire Des Séances et Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 5, 205-208.
Sues and Taquet, 1979. A pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from Madagascar and a Laurasia-Gondwanaland connection in the Cretaceous. Nature. 279, 633-635.
Mathur and Srivastava, 1987. Dinosaur teeth from Lameta Group (Upper Cretaceous) of Kheda District, Gujarat. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 29, 554-566.
Rage, 1988. Gondwana, Tethys, and terrestrial vertebrates during the Mesozoic and Cainozoic. In Audley-Charles and Hallam (eds.). Gondwana and Tethys. Geological Society Special Publication 37. 255-273
Giffin, 1989. Pachycephalosaur paleoneurology (Archosauria: Ornithischia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 9(1), 67-77.
Ravoavy, 1991. Identification et mise en catalogue des vertébrés fossiles récoltes dans le Crétacé supérieur continental de la région de Berivotra (Majunga) fouille 1987. Université d’Antananarivo Mémoire de Recherche. Part II, 55-104.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.) 18, 349-402.
Sampson, Krause, Dodson and Forster, 1996. The premaxilla of Majungasaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with implications for Gondwanan Paleobiography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(4), 601-605.
O'Connor, Suny and Sampson, 1998. The vertebral column of Majungatholus atopus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 67A.
Sampson, Witmer, Forster and Krause, 1998. The evolution and biogeography of Gondwanan theropod dinosaurs: New information from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of African Earth Sciences. Special Abstracts Issue, Gondwana 10: Event Stratigraphy of Gondwana. 27(1A), 167-168.
Sampson, Witmer, Forster, Krause, O'Connor, Dodson and Ravoavy, 1998. Predatory dinosaur remains from Madagascar: Implications for the Cretaceous biogeography of Gondwana. Science, 280, 1048-1051.
Carrano, Sampson and Forster, 2002. The osteology of Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small abelisauroid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 510-534.
Fanti, 2005. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cretaceous layers of Berivotra (Mahajanga, Madagascar): Paleobiogeographic implications. Masters thesis. University of Bologna. 375 pp.
Carrano, 2007. The appendicular skeleton of Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 164-179.
Fanti and Therrien, 2007. Theropod tooth assemblages from the Late Cretaceous Maevarano Formation and the possible presence of dromaeosaurids in Madagascar. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 52(1), 155-166.
Farke and O'Connor, 2007. Pathology in Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 180-184.
Krause, Sampson, Carrano and O'Connor, 2007. Overview of the history of discovery, taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography of Majungasaurus crenatissumus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) form the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 1-20.
O'Connor, 2007. The postcranial axial skeleton of Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 127-162.
Rogers, Krause, Curry Rogers, Rasoamiaramanana and Rahanarisoa, 2007. Paleoenivronment and paleoecology of Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 21-31.
Sampson and Witmer, 2007. Craniofacial anatomy of Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 32-102.
Smith, 2007. Dental morphology and variation in Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Sampson and Krause (eds.). Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. SVP Memoir 8, 103-126.
Burch and Carrano, 2008. Abelisaurid forelimb evolution: New evidence from Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Abelisauridae: Theropoda) from the late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 58A.
Maganuco, Cau and Pasini, 2008. New information on the abelisaurid pedal elements from the Late Cretaceous of NW Madagascar (Mahajanga Basin). Atti Della Societa Italiana de Scienze Naturale Museo Civico de Storia Naturale in Milano. 149 (II), 239-252.
Carrano, Loewen and Sertich, 2011. New materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and implications for the morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 95, 53 pp.
Tsuihiji and O'Connor, 2012. Reconstruction of muscular and pneumatic systems in the neck and anterior trunk of Abelisauridae: Insights from Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 185.
Ratsimbaholison, O'Connor and Felice, 2013. Ontogenetic trends in the craniomandibular skeleton of Majungasaurus crenatissimus and derivation of the abelisaurid skull morphotype. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 196.
M? sp. indet. (Curry, 1997)
Coniacian?, Late Cretaceous
Ankazomihaboka Sandstones, Madagascar
Reference
- Curry, 1997. Vertebrate fossils from the Upper Cretaceous Ankazomihaboka Sandstones, Mahajanga Basin, Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 40A.

Rajasaurus
Wilson, Sereno, Srivastava, Bhatt, Khosla and Sahni, 2003
= "Rajasaurus" Badam, 2003
R. narmadensis Wilson, Sereno, Srivastava, Bhatt, Khosla and Sahni, 2003
= "Rajasaurus narmadensis" Badam, 2003
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lameta Formation, India

Holotype- (GSI No. 21141/1-33) (7-9 m) braincase, cervical centrum, partial dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, partial caudal vertebrae, partial scapula, partial ilia, proximal pubis, femora (one distal), distal tibia, proximal fibula, metatarsals II, metatarsal IV
Referred- (paralectotypes of Lametasaurus indicus; lost) sacrum (610 mm), ilia (960 mm), tibia (580 mm) (Matley, 1923)
(in cranial reconstruction online) premaxilla, maxilla, lacrimal, jugal, postorbital, quadratojugal, dentary, teeth
Diagnosis- (from Wilson et al., 2003) median nasofrontal prominence, with the frontals forming only the posterior rim of the prominence; anteroposteriorly elongate supertemporal fenestrae, with length approx. 150% transverse breadth of frontal; robust ilium with transversed ridge separating the brevis fossa from the acetabulum.
Comments- Collected in 1983 by Suresh Srivastava of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and Ashok Sahni, a paleontologist at Panjab University. Matley (1923) described a sacrum, ilium, tibia and scutes as the thyreophoran Lametasaurus indicus. The postcrania were later recognized as theropod by Chakravarti (1935). The scutes may be crocodilian, sauropod or thyreophoran. Walker (1964) made them the lectotype of Lametasaurus, leaving the theropod elements without a name. Wilson et al. note they may belong to Rajasaurus.
References- Matley, 1923. Note on an armored dinosaur from the Lameta beds of Jubbulpore. Records of the Geological Survey of India. 55, 105-109.
Chakravarti, 1935. Is Lametasaurus indicus an armored dinosaur? American Journal of Science. 30(5), 138-141.
Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 248, 53-134.
Badam, 2003. Scientists discover new carnivorous dinosaur species in India. Associated Press, 14 August.
Wilson, Sereno, Srivastava, Bhatt, Khosla and Sahni, 2003. A new abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lameta Formation (Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of India. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology. 31(1), 1-42.

Brachyrostra Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, 2009
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Majungasaurus crenatissimus) (Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, 2009)
References- Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, 2009. New carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of NW Patagonia and the evolution of abelisaurid theropods. Naturwissenschaften. 96, 409-414.

Pycnonemosaurus Kellner and Campos, 2002
P. nevesi Kellner and Campos, 2002
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Adamantina Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Holotype- (DGM 859-R) five teeth, rib fragments, two incomplete caudal vertebrae, four caudal centra, caudal transverse process, distal pubis, tibia, distal fibula, fragments
Diagnosis- (after Kellner and Campos, 2002) hatchet-shaped cnemial crest; relatively small pubic foot; moderate distal expansion of caudal transverse processes.
References- Bittencourt and Kellner, 2002. Abelisauria (Theropoda, Dinosauria) teeth from Brazil. Boletim do Museu Nacional, Nova Série. 63, 1-8.
Kellner and Campos, 2002. On a theropod dinosaur (Abelisauria) from the continental Cretaceous of Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional. 60(3), 163-170.

Carnotaurinae Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Abelisaurus comahuensis) (Sereno et al., 2004; modified from Sereno, 1998)

Carnotaurini Coria, Chiappe and Dingus, 2002
Definition- (Carnotaurus sastrei + Aucasaurus garridoi) (Coria, Chiappe and Dingus, 2002)

Aucasaurus Coria, Chiappe and Dingus, 2002
= “Aucasarus” Dingus and Chiappe, 2001
A. garridoi Coria, Chiappe and Dingus, 2002
= Abelisaurus garridoi (Coria, Chiappe and Dingus, 2002) Paul, 2010
Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Anacleto Formation of Rio Colorado Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MCF-PVPH-236) (adult) skull, mandible, cervical series, cervical ribs, dorsal series, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, first-thirteenth caudal vertebrae, distal caudal fragments, ten chevrons, scapulocoracoid, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpal I, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, metacarpal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, metacarpal IV, pelvis, femora, tibiotarsi, fibulae, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V
Diagnosis- (from Coria et al., 2002) differs from Carnotaurus in- longer and lower rostrum and external antorbital fenestra; horizontal ventral margin of the antorbital fenestra; complete lateral exposure of the maxillary fenestra; frontal swells instead of horns; sigmoidal outline of the dentigerous margin of the maxilla; less developed coracoidal process; forelimb relatively longer; humerus with a slender and craniocaudally compressed shaft and well-defined condyles; proximal radius lacking a hooked ulnar process; chevrons with dorsally open haemal canals.
References- Coria, Chiappe and Dingus, 2000. A new abelisaur theropod from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 36A-37A.
Dingus and Chiappe, 2001. Walking on Eggs: The Astonishing Discovery of Thousands of Dinosaur Eggs in the Badlands of Patagonia. Scribner, New York. 219 pp.
Coria, Chiappe and Dingus 2002. A new close relative of Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte 1985 (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(2), 460-465.
Paul, 2010. The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. Princeton University Press. 320 pp.
Carabajal, 2011. Braincases of abelisaurid theropods from the Upper Cretaceous of North Patagonia. Palaeontology. 54(4), 793-806.
Paulina-Carabajal and Succar, in press. The endocranial morphology and inner ear of the abelisaurid theropod Aucasaurus garridoi. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2013.0037

Carnotaurus Bonaparte, 1985
C. sastrei Bonaparte, 1985
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
La Colonia Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (MACN-CH 894) (8.11 m, 1.5 tons) almost complete skeleton including skull (596 mm), corpus, ceratobranchials, atlas (45 mm), axis (118 mm), third cervical vertebra (100 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (110 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (119 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (120 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (110 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (108 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (104 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (98 mm), cervical ribs 1-10, first dorsal vertebra (100 mm), second dorsal vertebra (101 mm), third dorsal vertebra (103 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (108 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (101 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (117 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (123 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (122 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (120 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (116 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (120 mm), dorsal ribs 1-11, gastralia, first sacral vertebra (132 mm), second sacral vertebra (115 mm), third sacral vertebra (112 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (~98 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (~71 mm), sixth sacral vertebra (118 mm), seventh sacral vertebra (124 mm), first caudal vertebra (~128 mm), second caudal vertebra (122 mm), third caudal vertebra (120 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (136 mm), fifth caudal neural arch, sixth caudal neural arch, twelfth caudal centrum, fragments of chevrons, scapulocoracoids (905, 900 mm), clavicle, sternal plates (180 mm long), humeri (285, 284 mm), radii (73, 80 mm), ulnae (78, 85 mm), metacarpal I (30 mm), metacarpals II (37, 36 mm), partial phalanx II-1, metacarpals III (29, 31 mm), partial phalanges III-1 (~40 mm), manual ungual III, metacarpals IV (84 mm), two pairs of carpals or manual phalanges, ilia (970 mm), pubes (880 mm), ischia, femora (1.03 m), proximal tibiae, skin impressions
Comments- Though originally reported as being from the Albian-Cenomanian Gorro Frigio Formation, it is actually from much later sediments (Lamanna et al., 2002).
References- Bonaparte, 1985. A horned Cretaceous carnosaur from Patagonia. National Geographic Research. 1, 149-151.
Bonaparte, Novas and Coria, 1990. Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, the horned, lightly built carnosaur from the Middle Cretaceous of Patagonia. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science. 416, 41 pp.
Bonaparte, 1991. The Gondwanian theropod families Abelisauridae and Noasauridae. Historical Biology. 5, 1-25.
Lamanna, Martinez and Smith, 2002. A definitive abelisaurid theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(1), 58-69.
Senter and Parrish, 2006. Forelimb function in the theropod dinosaur Carnotaurus sastrei, and its behavioral implications. PaleoBios. 26(3), 7-17.
Persons, 2010. Anatomy of a speed demon: The caudal musculature of Carnotaurus and the implications for abelisaurid locomotion and evolutionary trajectory. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 145A.
Carabajal, 2011. The braincase anatomy of Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31(2), 378-386.
Persons and Currie, 2011. Dinosaur speed demon: The caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids. PLoS ONE. 6(10), e25763.
Ruiz, Torices, Serrano and Lopez, 2011. The hand structure of Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda, Abelisauridae): Implications for hand diversity and evolution in abelisaurids. Palaeontology. 54(6), 1271-1277.

Abelisaurinae Bonaparte and Novas, 1985 sensu Paul, 1988
Definition- (Abelisaurus comahuensis <- Carnotaurus sastrei) (modified from Sereno, 1998)

Ekrixinatosaurus Calvo, Rubilar-Roger and Moreno, 2004
= "Ekrixinatosaurus" Juarez Valieri, Fiorelli and Cruz, 2004
E. novasi Calvo, Rubilar-Roger and Moreno, 2004
= "Ekrixinatosaurus novasi" Juarez Valieri, Fiorelli and Cruz, 2004
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Candelaros Formation of Rio Limay Group, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MUCPv-294) (7-8 m) (skull ~850 mm) partial maxillae, postorbital, squamosal, frontals, parietals, parasphenoid, occiput, incomplete dentaries, teeth, anterior cervical vertebra, mid-posterior cervical vertebra, dorsal centrum, dorsal ribs, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, ilia, pubis, proximal ischia, femora (776 mm), tibiae (694 mm), proximal fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsals, phalanx II-1 (118 mm), phalanx III-1 (128 mm), phalanges, pedal ungual
Diagnosis- (after Calvo et al., 2004) fenestra between postorbital and frontal; posteriorly directed protuberance on contact of parietal and paroccipital process; anteroposteriorly compressed cervical vertebrae; cervical neural spines as tall as epipophyses; mid-posterior cervical centrum with flat venter; two wide foramina on mid-posterior cervical vertebrae; small prespinal depression with pneumatic excavation connected to neural canal in mid-posterior cervical vertebrae; small prespinal lamina on mid-cervical vertebrae; tibia with swelling at midshaft.
References- Juárez Valieri, Fiorelli and Cruz, 2004. Quilmesaurus curriei Coria, 2001. Su validez taxonómica y relaciones filogenéticas. XX Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Resúmenes. 36-37.
Calvo, Rubilar-Roger and Moreno, 2004. A new Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from northwest Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 555-563.
Juarez Valieri, Porfiri and Calvo, 2011. New information on Ekrixinatosaurus novasi Calvo et al 2004, a giant and massively-constructed abelisauroid from the "Middle Cretaceous" of Patagonia. In Calvo, Porfiri, Gonzalez Riga and Dos Santos (eds.). 2. Paleontología y Dinosaurios desde América Latina. 161-169.

Skorpiovenator Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, 2009
= "Skorpiovenator" Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, online 2008
S. bustingorryi Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, 2009
= "Skorpiovenator bustingorryi" Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, online 2008
Late Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Huincul Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MMCH-PV 48) (~6 m) skull, mandible, ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, eleven dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, few gastralia, sacrum, caudal vertebrae 1-12, three distal caudal vertebrae, chevron, ulna, ilium, proximal pubis, proximal ischium, femora, tibiae, fibula, astragali, calcaneum, metatarsal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, metatarsal III, phalanx III-1, phalanges III-2, phalanges III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4
Diagnosis- (after Canale et al., 2009) ascending process of maxilla homogeneously wide anteroposteriorly; maxillary horizontal ramus dorsoventrally deep with subparallel dorsal and ventral margins; maxilla/jugal contact subvertical; 19 maxillary teeth; lacrimal anteriorly projected and with well-developed suborbital process; quadratojugal with pronounced posterodorsal notch; dentary with posteroventral process bifurcated to receive anterior end of angular; angular with anterior end dorsoventrally deep to fit between splenial and prearticular.
Comments- Canale et al.'s paper was published online in December 2008 before being officially published on paper in March 2009.
Reference- Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin and Novas, 2009. New carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of NW Patagonia and the evolution of abelisaurid theropods. Naturwissenschaften. 96, 409-414.

Abelisaurus Bonaparte and Novas, 1985
A. comahuensis Bonaparte and Novas, 1985
Early Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Anacleto Formation of Rio Colorado Subgroup, Rio Negro, Argentina
(Leanza et al., 2004)
Holotype- (MC 11098) icomplete skull (856 mm)
References- Bonaparte and Novas, 1985. Abelisaurus comahuensis, n. g., n. sp., Carnosauria from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 21, 259-265.
Bonaparte, 1991. The Gondwanian theropod families Abelisauridae and Noasauridae. Historical Biology. 5, 1-25.
Carabajal, 2011. Braincases of abelisaurid theropods from the Upper Cretaceous of North Patagonia. Palaeontology. 54(4), 793-806.

Ilokelesia Coria and Salgado, 2000
= "Ilokelesia" Coria and Salgado vide Coria, 1999
I. aguadagradensis Coria and Salgado, 2000
Late Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Huincul Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (~5 m) postorbital, quadrate, occipital condyle, partial third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, posterior dorsal vertebra, five mid caudal vertebrae, eight chevrons, eight pedal phalanges, two pedal unguals
Diagnosis- (after Coria and Salgado, 2000) quadrate with reduced lateral condyle; cervical vertebrae with very reduced diapopostzygopophyseal laminae; dorsal vertebrae with ventrally concave infraparapophyseal laminae and with ventrally oriented parapophyses; dorsal vertebrae lacking pleurocoels; mid caudal vertebrae with distally expanded transverse processes bearing anteriorly and posteriorly projecting processes; distal edge of caudal transverse processes exhibiting a gently sigmoid profile that is convex anteriorly and concave posteriorly.
Comments- Note issue 15 of GAIA is listed as December 1998 but was not actually published until October 2000.
References- Coria, 1999. Ornithopod dinosaurs from the Neuquén Group, Patagonia, Argentina: Phylogeny and biostratigraphy. In Tomida, Rich and Vickers-Rich (eds). Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium, National Science Museum Monographs 15. 47-60.
Coria and Salgado, 1999. A primitive abelisaur theropod from the Rio Limay Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(3), 39A.
Coria and Salgado, 2000. A basal Abelisauria Novas 1992 (Theropoda-Ceratosauria) from the Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Gaia. 15, 89-102.