= Tetanurae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Passer domesticus <- Torvosaurus tanneri) (modified)
Reference- Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.

Avetheropoda Paul, 1988
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Padian et al., 1999; modified from Currie and Padian, 1997)
= Dinoaves Bakker, 1986
= Tetanurae sensu Novas, 1992
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (modified)
= Neotetanurae Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Duthell and Sues, 1994
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (Allain et al., 2012; modified from Sereno, 1998)
Other definitions- (Sinraptor dongi + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus + Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
= Neotetanurae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus + Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus)
Comments- Bakker (1986) used the name Dinoaves in a phylogenetic tree for a clade containing allosaurs and what are now considered coelurosaurs, but not ceratosaurs or podokesaurs (coelophysoids). It has not been used since and could equally well apply to Tetanurae. Paul (1988) first used Avetheropoda as an order containing allosaurids (including carcharodontosaurids) and all taxa now placed in Coelurosauria, but not metriacanthosaurines (sinraptorids), megalosauroids and more basal taxa. It was too largely ignored until Holtz (1994) used it for an equivalent clade. Sereno proposed Neotetanurae for the same clade that year and both names have since received equally frequent use (e.g. 54 Google Scholar hits for Avetheropoda vs. 56 for Neotetanurae as of 1-15-2012).
Sereno's newest (in press) definition of Neotetanurae differs from the original (Sereno, 1998) by adding Sinraptor and Carcharodontosaurus as internal specifiers. I suppose it would preserve content better if sinraptorids or carcharodontosaurids end up just basal to carnosaurs + coelurosaurs (Paul, 1988; Coria and Salgado, 1995; Longrich, 2001; Paul, 2002). However, if carcharodontosaurids are ceratosaurs (Bonaparte et al., 1990) or sinraptorids are megalosaurids (Kurzanov, 1989), the original intent of Neotetanurae would be lost. The latter two situations seem less likely than the former, so Sereno's redefinition may be more advantageous than not.
While found in nearly every analysis, recent work suggests Avetheropoda as currently conceived may not exist, with megalosauroids actually being carnosaurs so that Avetheropoda includes the current content of Orionides. This can be found in Rauhut (2003) and Cau's unpublished work, while Carrano et al. (2012) find it in their trees with only two more steps.
References- Bakker, 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies. Kensington, New York. 481 pp.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Kurzanov, 1989. O proiskhozhdenii i evolyutsii infraotryada dinozavrov Carnosauria [Concerning the origin and evolution of the dinosaur infraorder Carnosauria]. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal. 1989(4), 3-14.
Bonaparte, Novas and Coria, 1990. Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, the horned, lightly built carnosaur from the Middle Cretaceous of Patagonia. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science. 416, 41 pp.
Holtz, 1994. The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: Implications for theropod systematics. Journal of Paleontology. 68(5), 1100-1117.
Novas, 1992. La evolucion de los dinosaurios carnivoros [The evolution of carnivorous dinosaurs]. In Sanz and Buscalioni (eds.). Los Dinosaurios y Su Entorno Biotico: Actas del Segundo Curso de Paleontologia in Cuenca. Instituto "Juan Valdez", Cuenca, Argentina. 126-163.
Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Dutheil and Sues, 1994. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Sahara. Science. 266, 267-271.
Coria and Salgado, 1995. A new giant carnivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature. 377, 224-226.
Currie and Padian, 1997. Avetheropoda. In Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, New York. 39.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Padian, Hutchinson and Holtz, 1999. Phylogenetic definitions and nomenclature of the major taxonomic categories of the carnivorous Dinosauria (Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(1), 69-80.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Longrich, 2001. Secondarily flightless maniraptoran theropods? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 74A.
Paul, 2002. Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 472 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

"Tyrannosaurus" "lanpingensis" Ye, 1975
= Tyrannosaurus "lanpingi" Zhao, 1986
= Tarbosaurus "lanpinensis" (Ye, 1975) Azuma 1991
Valanginain-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Jingxing (=Chingshong) Formation, Yunnan, China

Material- (IVPP coll.) partial tooth (FABL ~32 mm)
Comments- Ye (often cited as Yeh) first mentioned Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis in 1975. Zhao (1986) provides a photo of the basal half of a tooth, crediting the name Tyrannosaurus "lanpingi" to himself (as Chao). In the plate's caption, he lists it as being from the Early Cretaceous Jingxing Formation of Lanping, Yunnan. Azuma (1991) listed "Tarbosaurus lanpinensis(?)" as a tyrannosaurid from the Tugulu Group of China, citing Dong (1992, which was in press at the time). Dong (1992) discusses it as Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis, mistakenly attributing the name to Zhao, 1983. In Appendix A, Dong lists it as a tyrannosaurid named Tarbosaurus (Tyrannosaurus) lanpinensis (no doubt a misspelling, which Azuma's was based on), and mistakenly attributes it to Chao, 1975. In Appendix C, it is Tarbosaurus (Tyrannosaurus) lanpingensis. Dong states it is from the Chingshong Formation of Lanping County in Yunnan, which he attributes to Tithonian-Neocomian age based on bivalves. He says the species is based on a single tooth without diagnosis or drawing, so is a nomen nudum, but Zhao (1986) did illustrate it. Ford and Chure misspelled it as Tyrannosaurus langingi, credited to Zhao (1986), in an unpublished list based on their 2001 SVP abstract. They have it as from the Upper Chingshing Formation, which they attribute to Berriasian-Hauterivian. It is stated to be a nomen dubium and known from teeth in the IVPP. Hurum and Sabath (2003) list "Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis" as a tyrannosaurid, citing Ye. Azuma et al. (2006) lists "Tyrannosaurus" lanpingensis from the Chingshong Formation. The formation is almost always called the Jingxing Formation, and is agreed by modern paleontologists to be Valanginian-Barremian (e.g. Sha, 2010).
The photo is the basal half of a tooth crown in labial view, and has a FABL of ~32 mm. Only distal serrations are evident, which are small (8 per 5 mm) and have apically angled blood grooves. The size and serration density fall within the range of Tyrannosaurus rex, but also Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. Angled blood grooves are known for tyrannosaurids and Carcharodontosaurus, but also taxa like Fukuiraptor. Importantly, there seem to be prominent enamel wrinkles along the distal carina. These are almost never found in tyrannosauroids, but are known in derived carcharodontosaurids, Allosaurus and Fukuiraptor. As "lanpingensis" is from the Early Cretaceous, it's more likely to be a megaraptoran or carcharodontosaurid than an allosaurid or tyrannosaurine. Both are clades known from large taxa (Chilantaisaurus; Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus) and both are known from Asia (Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor; Shaochilong). Until more details are known, I recommend placing "lanpingensis" in Avetheropoda indet..
References- Ye, 1975. Jurassic system. In Su (ed.). Mesozoic Redbeds of Yunnan. Academia Sinica, Beijing. 11-30.
Zhao, 1986. The Cretaceous biota of China: Reptilia. in Hao, Su, Yu, Li, Li, Wang, Qi, Guan, Hu, Liu, Yang, Ye, Shou, Zhang, et al.. The Cretaceous System of China. Stratigraphy of China. 12, 67-73, plates XI, XII.
Azuma, 1991. Early Cretaceous dinosaur fauna from the Tetori Group Central Japan-Research of dinosaurs from the Tetori Group (1). In Professor Shizuka Miura Memorial Volume, pp.55-69. Fukul Univ., Fukui, Japan. [In Japanese with English abstract]
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong: Springer-Verlag. 188 pp.
Ford and Chure, 2001. Ghost lineages and the paleogeographic and temporal distribution of tyrannosaurids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 50A-51A.
Hurum and Sabath, 2003. Giant theropod dinosaurs from Asia and North America: Skulls of Tarbosaurus bataar and Tyrannosaurus rex compared. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 48(2), 161-190.
Azuma, Li, Currie, Dong, Shibata and Lu, 2006. Dinosaur footprints from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. Memior of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. 5, 1-14.
Sha, 2010. Historical distribution patterns of trigonioidids (non-marine Cretaceous bivalves) in Asia and their palaeogeographic significance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277(1679), 277-283.

"Unquillosauridae" Powell, 1986
Unquillosaurus Powell, 1979
U. ceibalii Powell, 1979
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Los Blanquitos Formation, Argentina

Holotype- (PVL 3670-11) ilial fragment, pubis (514 mm)
Description- Novas and Agnolin (2004) determined the supposedly diagnostic proximal sulcus noted by Powel (1979) doesn't exist, and is actually the pubic peduncle of the ilium broken and displaced. This allowed them to identify a ventrally concave pubic peduncle, and the angle between the anterior and ventral edges supports opisthopuby. What's normally seen as the acetabular surface of the pubis is the posterior part of a very long ilial peduncle, leaving a very tiny space for the acetabulum, which is said to resemble maniraptoriformes. These characters support placement in Maniraptora.
Comments- While the family Unquillosauridae was apparently named by Powell in his thesis, the ICZN does not accept theses as valid for nomenclatural purposes, so it is a nomen nudum.
In 1997, Ford suggested on the DML that Unquillosaurus was similar to Unenlagia, which has gone so far as to prompt discussion of synonymy. However, Unquillosaurus is not synonymous with Unenlagia. First, I should note the pubis was described incorrectly, the medial side being lateral and vice versa (as later determined by Carrano et al., 2012). The supposed "lateral crest" is really the pubic apron, the "lateral" facets on the pubic boot are really for the pubic symphysis. Compared to Unenlagia- the pubis is more propubic; the ischial peduncle is longer; there was an obturator notch; the shaft is anteroposteriorly thicker distally; the pubic boot projects slightly anteriorly; there is a proximomedial sulcus; the ilial peduncle is less transversly expanded; the pelvic canal is narrower; the proximal shaft expands laterally; the distal end is expanded transversely, not compressed; there is a gap in the symphysis proximal to the pubic boot. Also keep in mind Unquillosaurus is from the Los Blanquitos Formation, while Unenlagia is from the Rio Neuquen Formation.
Novas and Agnolin (2004) keep Powell's orientation, remarking on the "prominent external longitudinal ridge" (=pubic apron?), odd medially convex pelvic canal margins (concave if reversed) and lack of an apron or medial symphysis. In addition, the medial end is described as "flattened and lacks marks for the articulation with the opposite bone". I see no reason to doubt the hypothesis they have the pubis reversed.
Novas and Agnolin refer to Maniraptora, while Carrano et al. suggest it is a carcharodontosaurid. It is at least an avetheropod due to lacking an obturator foramen.
References- Powell, 1979. Sobre una asociacion de dinosaurios y otras evidencias de vertebrados del Cretacico superior de la region de La Candelaria, Prov. de Salta, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 16, 191-204.
Powell, 1986. Revision de los titanosauridos de America del Sur Argentina. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina.
Novas and Agnolin, 2004. Unquillosaurus ceibalii Powell, a giant maniraptoran (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat.. 6(1), 61-66.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Valdoraptor Olshevsky, 1991
V. oweni (Lydekker, 1889) Olshevsky, 1991
= Megalosaurus oweni Lydekker, 1889
= Altispinax oweni (Lydekker, 1889) Huene, 1923
Berassian-Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Hastings Beds, England

Holotype- (BMNH R2559) incomplete metatarsal II, incomplete metatarsal III (~240 mm), incomplete metatarsal IV
Referred- (BMNH 2661) metatarsal II (Lydekker, 1890)
Diagnosis- (after Naish and Martill, 2007) metatarsal II mediolaterally compressed; metatarsal II with a prominent dorsolateral ridge.
Comments- This was originally referred to Hylaeosaurus by Owen (1856), but was identified as theropod by Hulke (1881). Holtz et al. (2004) suggested it might prove synonymous with Neovenator or Eotyrannus, but Naish and Martill (2007) confirm it is distinct. Carrano et al. (2012) refer it to Avetheropoda based on the trapezoidal cross section of metatarsal III.
Lydekker (1890) referred BMNH R604a, 604c-d and 1525 from the earlier Wadhurst Clay and BMNH 2574, 2661 and 2680 from the type horizon to the species, but most have not been compared in detail (see Altispinax? sp. indet. entry). Naish (online, 2007) did note that BMNH 2661 was properly referred however.
References- Owen, 1856. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Wealden Formation. Part IV. Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 10, 1-26.
Hulke, 1881.
Lydekker, 1889. On the remains and affinities of five genera of Mesozoic reptiles. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 45, 41-59.
Lydekker, 1890. Contributions to our knowledge of the dinosaurs of the Wealden and the sauropterygians of the Purbeck and Oxford Clay. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 36-53.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 34: 449-458.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 1-167.
Olshevsky, 1991. A Revision of the Parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, Excluding the Advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings. 2, iv + 196 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Naish, 2007. The large theropods Becklespinax and Valdoraptor from the Lower Cretaceous of England. SVPCA 2007, Abstracts Programme.
Naish, online 2007. http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2007/10/_becklespinax_and_valdoraptor.php
Naish and Martill, 2007. Dinosaurs of Great Britain and the role of the Geological Society of London in their discovery: Basal Dinosauria and Saurischia. Journal of the Geological Society, London. 164, 493-510.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed possible avetheropod (Janensch, 1925)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Material- (MBR 3628; = St 233) ilium (537 mm)
Comments- Rauhut (2011) found this to be most similar to megalosauroids, except for the cuppedicus fossa which is like some ceratosaurs and avetheropods. It is not coelurosaurian however. Carrano et al. (2012) stated the transverse pubic peduncle compression (~2 times long as wide) is like allosaurians and suggested it was carcharodontosaurian based on the more vertical pubic peduncle orientation, but the peduncle is only 1.78 times longer than wide and a ventrally projecting pubic peduncle is shared with almost all neotheropods in their matrix. When entered into Carrano et al.'s matrix, MBR 3628 emerges as a non-allosauroid avetheropod excluded from Proceratosaurus+Ornitholestes+Compsognathus.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed possible avetheropod (Hu, 1963)
Late Valanginian-Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Jehol Group, Liaoning, China
Material
- (IVPP V2756) partial mid caudal vertebra, proximal tibia, distal phalanx
Comments- Hu (1963) assigned this to Megalosauridae indet., but Carrano et al. (2012) believed the small lateral condyle was more similar to allosaurians and coelurosaurs. They stated it may belong to the latter clade. Additionally, I note the distally restricted fibular crest is like Cristatusaurus, Torvosaurus, allosaurians and coelurosaurs.
References- Hu, 1963. [The carnivorous dinosaurian remains from Fusin, Liaoning]. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 7, 174-176.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed avetheropod (Turner, Hwang and Norell, 2007)
Berriasian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Huhteeg Svita, Mongolia
Holotype
- (IGM coll.) postorbital (60 mm)
Comments- The heavily rugose texture and straight anterior process suggest assignment to Carnosauria or Tyrannosauroidea.
Reference- Turner, Hwang and Norell, 2007. A small derived theropod from Oosh, Early Cretaceous, Baykhangor Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3557, 27 pp.

unnamed avetheropod (Forster, Farke, McCartney, De Klerk and Ross, 2009)
Berriasian-Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Kirkwood Formation, South Africa
Material
- (AM 6041) proximal femur
Comments- Forster et al. (2009) referred this to non-avetheropod Tetanurae because of its anteriorly angled head, but Carrano et al. (2012) noted this is also present in some carnosaurs, and that the lack of an articular groove and presence of an accessory trochanter were avetheropod characters. They thus referred it to Carnosauria, but did not realize basal coelurosaurs like Tugulusaurus have anteriorly angled heads as well.
References- De Klerk, Forster, Sampson, Chinsamy-Turan and Ross, 2000. A new coelurosaurian dinosaur from the early Cretaceous of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20, 324-332.
Forster, Farke, McCartney, De Klerk and Ross, 2009. A "basal" tetanuran from the Lower Cretaceous Kirkwood Formation of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(1), 283-285.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Carnosauria Huene, 1920
Definition-
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Holtz and Padian, 1995)
= Allosauroidea sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Passer domesticus) (modified)
= "Yangchuanosauria" Longrich, 2002
Definition- (Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Longrich, 2002)
References- Huene, 1920. Bemerkungen zur Systematik und Stammesgeschichte einiger Reptilien [Remarks on the systematics and phylogeny of some reptiles]. Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs und Vererbungslehre. 22, 209-212.
Holtz and Padian, 1995. Definition and diagnosis of Theropoda and related taxa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15(3), 35A.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Longrich, 2002. Systematics of Sinosauropteryx. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 80A.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.

Allosauroidea
Marsh, 1878 vide Currie and Zhao, 1994
Definition-
(Allosaurus fragilis + Sinraptor dongi) (Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Padian and Hutchinson, 1997)
Other definitions- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008; modified from Sereno, 1998)
Comments- Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994.
References- Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. American Journal of Science and Arts. 15, 241-244.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30, 2037-2081.
Padian and Hutchinson, 1997. Allosauroidea. In Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, New York. 6-9.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2008. Phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda): Comparative analysis and resolution. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6(2), 155-182.

Erectopodidae Huene, 1932
Erectopus Huene, 1923
E. superbus (Sauvage, 1882a) Huene, 1923
= Megalosaurus superbus Sauvage, 1882a
= gen. indet. superbus (Sauvage, 1882a) Huene, 1932
= Erectopus sauvagei Huene, 1932
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Phosphate bearing beds of La Penthieve, Meuse, France

Lectotype- (MNHN 2001-4) anterior maxilla
'Plastotype'- (MNHN 2001-4; holotype of Erectopus sauvagei) incomplete phalanx I-1 (55 mm), partial manual ungual I, incomplete phalanx II-I (28 mm), phalanx II-2 (28 mm), partial manual ungual II, distal metacarpal III, phalanx III-1 (25 mm), proximal phalanx III-2, femur (480 mm), proximal tibia, distal tibia, calcaneum, metatarsal II (230 mm)
Paralectotypes- (lost) teeth, dorsal centra (53, 56, 62, 65, 65 mm), dorsal rib fragments, sacral fragment, proximal caudal vertebra (58 mm), distal caudal vertebra (75 mm), neural spine fragments, distal radius(?), distal ulna(?), metacarpal I (45 mm), phalanx I-1 (45 mm), metacarpal IV, partial ilium, proximal fibulae, phalanx IV-? (30 mm)
Comments- Barrois (1875) and Sauvage (1876) described a tooth from Louppy-le-Chateau and other remains (two teeth and a centrum from Grandpre) as Megalosaurus. Sauvage (1882a) later briefly described a partial skeleton which is the type of his new species Megalosaurus superbus, associated with a larger distal femur. He described the skeleton, distal femur and other remains later that year (1882b), believing the previously known teeth from Louppy and Grandpre to come from the same species. Huene (1923; and later in 1926a, b) separated it from Megalosaurus as the new genus Erectopus superbus. Sauvage did not designate any material as a holotype, and it is not certain it all derives from one individual. In particular, the larger distal femur was found in the same area, and the teeth were discovered before the partial skeleton in a potentially different area. Huene (1932) incorrectly believed Sauvage based the name superbus on the original teeth, and as he thought these were too large to go with the postcrania, he separated the latter as Erectopus sauvagei. However, there is no evidence Sauvage intended to base superbus on the teeth, and the fact he waited until describing the postcrania in 1882 to name the species suggests the opposite. Furthermore, Allain (2005) correctly notes the original teeth match the preserved maxillary teeth in size. Huene retained the teeth as gen. indet. superbus, which he believed was an allosaurid in contrast to Erectopus, which he placed in a monotypic new family. Allain made the maxillary fragment the lectotype of Erectopus superbus, as the rest of the material is lost (though some elements are preserved as casts to form a plastotype). As the tooth matches that on the lectotype, and the rest of the specimen is no more certainly associated than the maxilla and tooth are with it, there is no reason to separate the tooth from the postcrania taxonomically. Notably, the ICZN does not allow a species to lack a genus, and the genus Erectopus must be attached to the species superbus based on Huene (1923), regardless which elements each name is based on. Erectopus sauvagei is thus an objective junior synonym of Erectopus superbus.
Several elements have been reidentified since Sauvage's (1882a, b) description. The posterior mandible is an anterior maxilla (Allain, 2005).The clavicle was reidentified as a scapula (Huene, 1926a, b), but is a partial ilium (Chure, 2000). The "inferior" (=proximal?) radius is a distal tibia (Huene, 1926a, b). Huene (1926a, b) identified two supposed proximal metacarpals as a distal radius and ulna, though as these were never illustrated this is uncertain. Manual digits II-IV are I-III, and phalanges II-2 and II-3 are actually just I-2 (the ungual). Similarly, phalanges III-3 and III-4 are just II-3 (the ungual). The supposed manual phalanx III-1 of Sauvage and Chure (?-1 of Huene) is more probably the other phalanx I-1 as it is too long for III-1, and too broad for digit III. Sauvage identified an element as the lateralmost metacarpal, which would be V in his reconstruction, but which is probably IV (considered a lateral manual phalanx by Chure, 2000). The questionably referred manual phalanx of Sauvage and pedal phalanx I-1 of Huene is metacarpal I (Molnar, 1990). The distal fibulae are proximal fibulae (Huene, 1926a, b).
Not Erectopus- Several other European remains have been referred to Erectopus or Megalosaurus superbus in the past. Sauvage (1882b) thought the tooth from Louppy and two teeth from Grandpre described by Barrois (1875) and Sauvage (1876) belonged to his new species Megalosaurus superbus. A distal metatarsal and a proximal metapodial from Grandpre were also described, the latter of which Huene (1926a, b) believed was a distal fibula. Sauvage also referred a much larger distal femur from Louppy to Megalosaurus superbus, though Huene (1926a, b) believed it to derive from a different taxon. Also figured by Sauvage is a large pedal phalanx from Bar-le-Duc, while he mentions another large pedal phalanx from an unstated locality.
Simionescu (1913) compared a tooth from earlier sediments in Romania to Megalosaurus superbus. Huene (1926) doubted it was the same species due to age differences, but did continue to call it Erectopus aff. superbus. It does not seem currently diagnostic past Neotheropoda.
Huene (1926a) referred a centrum from Grandpre described as Megalosaurus by Sauvage (1876) to Erectopus superbus. Similarly, he referred a distal femur from Blacourt described as dinosaurian by Sauvage (1876) to E. superbus, but Chure (2000) determined it is crocodilian.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski (1957) referred two tooth fragments from the Aptian of Portugal to Megalosaurus superbus, but these are undiagnostic.
Relationships- Allain (2002a, b) found Erectopus to emerge as a carnosaur in an unpublished phylogenetic analysis based on his thesis, which was also the conclusion of his 2005 redescription of the material. This was based solely on the interpretation of the distal tibia as indicating a well developed posterior astragalar ascending process. However, a similar morphology is also seen in the tibia of Poekilopleuron, which lacks a posterior ascending process. Carrano et al. (2012) suggest Erectopus is a non-carcharodontosaurid allosauroid, possibly a metriacanthosaurid, though they did not include it in their analysis. When it is added to the matrix, it emerges as a non-allosaurian carnosaur, and indeed can be a metriacanthosaurid. Note if it is a metriacanthosaurid, Erectopodidae would have priority as the family name.
References- Barrois, 1875. Les reptiles du terrain Crétacé du nord-est du Bassin de Paris. Bulletin scientifique, historique et littéraire du Nord. 6, 1-11.
Sauvage, 1876. Notes sur les reptiles fossiles no. 9. De la presence du type dinosaurien dans le Gault du nord de la France. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 4, 439-442.
Sauvage, 1882a. Sur les Reptiles trouvés dans le gault de l'est de la France [On the reptiles found in the Gault of eastern France]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Académie des Sciences. 94, 1265-1266.
Sauvage, 1882b. Recherches sur les reptiles trouvés dans le Gault de l'est du bassin de Paris [Research on the reptiles found in the Gault of the eastern Paris Basin]. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, série 3. 2(4), 1-42.
Simionescu, 1913. Megalosaurus aus der Unterkreide der Dobrogea. Chi. Min. Geol. Palaeontol. 1913, 686-687.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1926a. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista Museo de La Plata. 29, 35-167.
Huene. 1926b. On several known and unknown reptiles of the order Saurischia from England and France. Annals and Magazine of Natural History.17, 473-489.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), 361 pp.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957. [The dinosaurs of Portugal]. Services Geologiques du Portugal. Memoire 2, 1-63.
Molnar, 1990. Problematic Theropoda: "Carnosaurs". in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford. 306-317.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD dissertation. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. Unpublished thesis. 329 pp.
Allain, 2002b. The phylogenetic relationships of Megalosauridae within basal tetanurine theropods (Dinosauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 31A.
Allain, 2005. The enigmatic theropod dinosaur Erectopus superbus (Sauvage, 1882) from the Lower Albian of Louppy-le-Ch'teau (Meuse, France). In Carpenter (ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. Indiana University Press. 72-86.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
E? sp. indet. (Stromer, 1934)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

Material- (IPHG 1912 VIII 78) tibia
(IPHG 1912 VIII 85) femur (800 mm)
(IPHG 1912 VIII 190) (juvenile) femur
Reference- Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharîje-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Nat. Abt., (n. s.) 22, 1-79.

Kelmayisaurus Dong, 1973
K. petrolicus Dong, 1973
Valanginian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Lianmuqin Formation of the Tugulu Group, Xinjiang, China

Holotype- (IVPP V4022) maxillary fragment, quadrate fragment (lost), incomplete dentary (523 mm)
Referred- ? distal pubes (Dong, 1992)
Early Cretaceous
Ejinhoro Formation, Inner Mongolia, China

Referred- ? (CCDP coll.) mandible (Dong, 1992)
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte et al., 2010) deeply inset and dorsally concave accessory groove located anteriorly on the lateral surface of the dentary.
Comments- Generally viewed as an indeterminate theropod, Brusatte et al. (2010) report Kelmayisaurus is diagnostic and shares characters with megalosauroids, carcharodontosaurids and megaraptorans. They redescribed it the following year as a basal carcharodontosaurid more derived than Neovenator but less than Acrocanthosaurus and more derived taxa, but only one more step was necessary to place it as a more basal carchaeodontosaurid, megalosaurine or basal coelurosaur. Adding it to the matrix of Caranno et al. (2012) results in a less resolved placement however, as an allosaurian excluded from Megaraptora and carcharodontosaurids as derived as Eocarcharia. Moving it to Megalosauroidea or Coelurosauria still requires only a single additional step, so either relationship is about equally probable.
Dong (1992) mentioned two referred specimens. One is from the Ejinhoro Formation and may be possible to refer to Kelmayisaurus as the holotype also includes a dentary. The other is a pair of distal pubes from the same locality as the holotype, but cannot be compared with the latter.
References- Dong, 1973. Dinosaurs from Wuerho. Memoirs of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology Academica Sinica. 11, 45-52.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Ocean press/Springer-Verlag, Beijing/Berlin. 188 pp.
Brusatte, Benson and Xu, 2010. The evolution of large-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Mesozoic in Asia. Journal of Iberian Geology. 36(2), 275-296.
Brusatte, Benson and Xu, 2012. A reassessment of Kelmayisaurus petrolicus, a large theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57(1), 65-72.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Xuanhanosaurus Dong, 1984
X. qilixiaensis Dong, 1984
Bathonian-Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Xiashaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (IVPP V6729) four anterior dorsal vertebrae, posterior dorsal vertebra, dorsal neural arch, partial scapula, coracoid, humerus (265 mm), radius (202 mm; proximal end lost), ulna (240 mm; lost), distal carpal I, distal carpal II, distal carpal III, metacarpal I (52 mm), phalanx I-1 (84 mm), manual ungual I (64 mm), metacarpal II (109 mm), phalanx II-1 (64 mm), metacarpal III (94 mm), phalanx III-1 (32 mm), phalanx III-2 (28 mm), metacarpal IV (50 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) glenoid articular facet of humerus forms a raised horizontal ridge that overhangs the humeral shaft posteriorly.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) dorsal neural spines transversely thick with gently concave lateral surfaces.
Comments- The supposed sternum is part of the coracoid (Rauhut, 2000).
Benson (2008, 2010) and Holtz et al. (2004) recovered Xuanhanosaurus as a non-orionidan tetanurine, and Rauhut (2000) also found it to be a non-coelurosaur tetanurine. Benson found it to be sister to the Marshosaurus + Piatnitzkysaurus + Condorraptor clade, but this was poorly supported. More recently, Carrano et al. (2012) recovered the genus as a metriacanthosaurid outside Yangchuanosaurus and the derived metriacanthosaurine clade (Sinraptor, Siamotyrannus and Metriacanthosaurus). Yet when their analysis is properly ordered, it has a less exact position as a carnosaur outside Yangchuanosaurus, the derived metriacanthosaurine clade and Allosauria. In Carrano et al.'s matrix, it moves to Piatnitzkysauridae with only one more step, and outside Orionides with only three more steps, so no suggested position is well supported.
References- Dong, 1984. A new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Sichuan Basin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 22(3), 213-218.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focusing on basal tetanurans and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed probable allosauroid (Russell, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gres Rouges Infracenomaniens, Morocco

Material- (CMN 41865) distal humerus (~385 mm, 156 mm wide)
Comments- Very similar to Xuanhanosaurus.
Reference- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle. 18,349-402.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Williston, 1902)
Early-Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
Kansas, US

Material- centrum
References- Williston, 1902. Notes on some new or little-known extinct Reptiles. Kansas University Science Bulletin. 1, 247-254.
Lane, 1946. A survey of the fossil vertebrates of Kansas Part III: The Reptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 49(3), 289-332.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Ghevariya and Srikami, 1994)
Middle Jurassic
Patcham Formation, India

Material- caudal vertebrae
Reference- Ghevariya and Srikarni, 1994. Dinosaur Fauna from Mesozoic Rocks of Western India: In: Gondwana Nine, v. 1, Ninth International Gondwana Symposium. 143-163.

undescribed possible allosauroid (Flynn, Simpson, Razafimanastoa, Andriatompohavana and Totovolohy, 1997)
Middle Jurassic
Madagascar

Material- teeth, two presacral vertebrae
Comments- These were listed as belonging to a "small ?allosauroid", but not described.
Reference- Flynn, Simpson, Razafimanastoa, Andriatompohavana and Totovolohy, 1997. New Triassic and Jurassic Vertebrates from Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 46A.

undescribed possible allosauroid (Rich, Roland, Gangloff and Hammer, 1997)
Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
Suntar Series, Russia

Reference- Rich, Roland, Gangloff and Hammer, 1997. Polar Dinosaurs. In Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, New York. 562-573.

unnamed allosauroid (Knoll, Buffetaut and Bulow, 1999)
Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Marnes de Dives, France

Material- (Bulow coll. 25192) braincase
.... frontals (Buffetaut and Enos, 1992)
Comments- Allain (2002) states this is probably an allosaurid. It is not Piveteausaurus or Eustreptospondylus.
Reference- Buffetaut and Enos, 1992. Un nouveau fragment crânien de dinosaure théropode du Jurassique des Vaches Noires (Normandie, France) : remarques sur la diversité des théropodes jurassiques européens. C.R. Acad. Sci., Pans. 314 (II), 217-222.
Knoll, Buffetaut and Bulow, 1999. A theropod braincase from the Jurassic of the Vaches Noires Cliffs (Normandy, France): osteology and palaeoneurology. Bull. Soc. Geol. France. 170(1), 103-109.
Allain, 2001. Redescription of Streptospondylus altdorfensis, Cuvier’s theropod dinosaur, from the Jurassic of Normandy, Geodiversitas. 23(3), 349-367.

unnamed Allosauroidea (Naish, 2003)
Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Hastings Group, England

Material- (HASMG G.378; = HASTM GG98 of Benton and Spencer, 1995) proximal tibia (~550 mm)
teeth (Austen et al., 2010)
Comments- The tibia differs from Neovenator, though it resembles the latter and Allosaurus more than Fukuraptor or Sinraptor. It may be referrable to Becklespinax.
References- Benton and Spencer, 1995. Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain. Chapman & Hall, London.
Naish, 2003. A definitive allosauroid (Dinosauria; Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of East Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 114, 319-326.
Austen, Brockhurst and Honeysett, 2010. Vertebrate fauna from Ashdown Brickworks, Bexhill, East Sussex. Wealden News. 8, 13-23.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Canudo et al., 2005)
Late Tithonian-Middle Berriasian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
Villar del Arzobispo Formation, Spain

Material- (IPS-G1) tooth (82.74 mm)
References- Canudo, Aurell, Barco, Cuenca-Bescós, and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2005. The dinosaurs of the Villar del Arzobispo Formation (middle Tithonian–lower Berriasian) in Galve (Teruel). Geogaceta. 38: 39-42.
Canudo, Ruiz-Omenaca, Aurell, Barco and Cuenca-Bescos, 2006. A megatheropod tooth from the late Tithonian - middle Berriasian (Jurassic-Cretaceous transition) of Galve (Aragon, NE Spain). N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 239 (1), 77- 99.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Infante, Canudo, and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Mirambel Formation, Spain

Material- (LAD4r-1) tooth (~22 mm)
Reference- Infante, Canudo, and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2005. First evidence of theropod dinosaurs in the Mirambel Formation (lower Barremian, Lower Cretaceous) in Castellote, Teruel. Geogaceta. 38:31-34.

undescribed allosauroid (Kirkland, 2005)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Yellow Cat Member of Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Comments- Kirkland (2005) listed a "large carnosaurid perhaps related to Utah’s state fossil, the Late Jurassic Allosaurus" as coming from the Yellow Cat Member.
Reference- Kirkland, 2005. Utah’s Newly Recognized Dinosaur Record. Utah Geological Survey: Survey Notes. 37(1), 1-5.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Ruiz-Omenaca, Canudo and Infante, 2005)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Camarillas Formation, Spain

Material- (MPZ2005/316-317) teeth
Reference- Ruiz-Omenaca, Canudo and Infante, 2005. Presencia de un posible Alosaurido (Dinosauria: Theropoda) en el Cretacico inferior (Barremiense Inferior) de la Maca 3, (Galve, eruel): XXI Jornadas de la Sociedad Espanola de Paleontologia, p. 117-118.

unnamed allosauroid (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation, Niger
Material-
(MNN GAD1; holotype of Kryptops palaios in part) (~6-7 m; adult) fragmentary anterior dorsal vertebra (~70 mm), two partial mid dorsal vertebrae, two ribs (~500-600 mm), sacrum (?,?,?,110,110 mm), ilia (650 mm), pubes (~620 mm), ischia (~580 mm)
Comments- This was described as part of the holotype of the abelisaur Kryptops by Sereno and Brusatte (2008). The postcrania were in situ, while the maxilla was loose on the surface 15 meters away. Furthermore, Carrano et al. (2012) noted the postcrania are too primitive for an abelisaur, suggesting they do not belong together. They believed a a subrectangular fenestra between the fourth and fifth sacral neural spines as in Giganotosaurus and a peg-and-socket ilioischial articulation indicated the postcrania were carcharodontosaurid, probably the contemporaneous Eocarcharia. Cau (online, 2012) ran the postcrania as a separate OTU and found them to clade with Siamotyrannus in Metriacanthosaurinae. They are retained here as Allosauroidea incertae sedis.
References- Sereno and Brusatte, 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(1), 15-46.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cau, online 2012. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2012/05/tetanurae-update-part-2.html

undescribed possible allosauroid (Dalman, Paulina-Carabajal and Currie, 2012)
Late Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Colorado, US
Material-
(YPM 57589) (large) premaxilla, maxilla, quadratojugal, braincase, dentary, teeth, vertebral fragments, rib or gastralial fragments, pectoral or pelvic element, limb bone fragments, metatarsals, phalanges
Comments- Dalman et al. (2012) noted this has a short and deep premaxilla, four premaxillary teeth, a deep maxilla and a robust quadratojugal. Their analysis recovered it close to Allosaurus, Fukuiraptor and Neovenator, suggesting this may be a basal allosauroid. Additional details are based on the YPM online catalog.
Reference- Dalman, Paulina-Carabajal and Currie, 2012. A new large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Upper Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian) of Colorado. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 84.

undescribed allosauroid (Judd, Irmis and Kirkland, 2013)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Ruby Ranch Member of Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Material- cervical vertebra, partial sacrum, partial pelvis, femur
Comments- Judd et al. (2013) found this to be an allosauroid based on- anterior pleurocoel of cervical vertebra anteroposteriorly elongate; cervical parapophysis located in middle of centrum; no articular groove on proximal surface of femoral head. However, it is similar to megalosaurids in having an oblique ligament groove that does not extend past the posterior surface of the femoral head.
Reference- Judd, Irmis and Kirkland, 2013. A new large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation (Ruby Ranch Member) in Central Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 150.

Metriacanthosauridae Paul, 1988 sensu Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
Definition- (Metriacanthosaurus parkeri <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (suggested)
= Sinraptoridae Currie and Zhao, 1994
= Sinraptoridae sensu Padian and Hutchinson, 1997
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis) (modified)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Holtz et al., 2004
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus)
Comments- Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994.
Brusatte and Sereno's (2008) definition of Sinraptoridae differs from Holtz et al.'s (2004) by including Passer as an external specifier, which I view as superfluous, since a (Allosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus (Sinraptor, Passer)) topology has never been advocated. Megalosaurus might be a better choice for a tertiary external specifier, to cover traditional phylogenies prior to 1993.
In several phylogenies prior to 1994, metriacanthosaurids such as Yangchuanosaurus were seen as outside Avetheropoda. While not seen in many recent analyses, this only takes five more steps when constrained in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, so is still quite possible.
Not metriacanthosaurids- Bakker et al. (1992) thought the maxilla OUMNH J.13506 was a 'yangchuanosaur', but this was referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii by Benson (2010).
References- Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth and Filla, 1992. Edmarka rex, a new, gigantic theropod dinosaur from the Middle Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic of the Como Bluff outcrop region. With comments on the evolution of the chest region and shoulder in theropods and birds, and a discussion of the five cycles of origin and extinction among giant dinosaurian predators. Hunteria. 2(9), 1-24.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Yangchuanosaurus Dong, Chang, Li, Zhou, 1978
= "Szechuanoraptor" Chure, 2000
Comments- Rauhut (2000) believed Yangchuanosaurus and Sinraptor to be "almost identical" and found it likely all specimens were from a single species, which would be Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis. More recently, Carrano et al. (2012) found Sinraptor to be closer to Metriacanthosaurus, Siamotyrannus and Shidaisaurus than to Yangchuanosaurus.
References- Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Y. shangyouensis Dong, Chang, Li, Zhou and Chang, 1978
= Szechuanosaurus "yandonensis" Dong, Chang, Li and Zhou, 1978
= Yangchuanosaurus magnus Dong, Zhou and Zhang, 1983
= Metriacanthosaurus "carpenteri" Paul, 1988
= Metriacanthasaurus shangyouensis (Dong, Chang, Li, Zhou, 1978) Paul, 1988
= “Szechuanoraptor dongi” Chure, 2000
Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Shangshaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (CV 00215) (7.9 m, 1.33 tons, subadult) skull (780 mm), mandibles (780 mm), axis (64 mm), third cervical vertebra (78 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (95 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (115 mm), sixth cervical vertebra 118 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (120 mm) eighth cervical vertebra (138 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (114 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (95 mm), fourteen cervical ribs (eighth 500 mm), first dorsal vertebra (120 mm), second dorsal vertebra (120 mm), third dorsal vertebra (120 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (120 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (125 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (130 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (130 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (128 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (130 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (130 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (135 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (132 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (133 mm), twenty-four dorsal ribs (100-1080 mm), first sacral vertebra (130 mm), second sacral vertebra (110 mm), third sacral vertebra (91 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (100 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (105 mm), first caudal vertebra (98 mm), second caudal vertebra (102 mm), third caudal vertebra (100 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (96 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (106 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (118 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (108 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (107 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (115 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (110 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (110 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (110 mm), twelve chevrons (to 199 mm), distal scapula, fragmentary humerus, ilia, pubes, ischia, femora (850 mm), tibiae (755 mm), fibulae, astragalus, calcaneum, several pedal phalanges(?)
Referred- (Beijing Museum of Natural History coll.) skeleton (Dong, 1988)
(CV 00214; intended holotype of "Szechuanoraptor dongi") (3.8 m, 130 kg) axis (55 mm), third cervical vertebra (60 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (65 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (55 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (65 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (70 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (62 mm), first dorsal vertebra (60 mm), second dorsal vertebra (60 mm), third dorsal vertebra (74 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (60 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (65 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (62 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (62 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacral centrum, eighteen caudal vertebrae, scapula (500 mm), coracoid, humeri (270, 265 mm), ulnae, radii, two distal carpals, metacarpal I (50 mm), metacarpal II (90 mm), metacarpal III, manual phalanges, manual ungual I, manual II, manual ungual III, ilium, pubes (~460 mm), ischium (420 mm), femur (585 mm), tibiae (580 mm), fibula (560 mm), astragali, calcanea, metatarsal I (56 mm), pedal ungual I, metatarsal II, metatarsal III (200 mm), metatarsal IV, pedal phalanges, pedal unguals (Dong, Zhou and Zhang, 1983)
(CV 00216; holotype of Yangchuanosaurus magnus) (10.5 m; 3.1 tons) partial skull (1.11 m), mandibles (1.17 m), axis (115 mm), third cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal vertebrae, second dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, first sacral vertebra (145 mm), second sacral vertebra (135 mm), third sacral vertebra (120 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (111 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (120 mm), first caudal vertebra (130 mm), second caudal vertebra (125 mm), third caudal vertebra (125 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (120 mm), four mid caudal vertebrae, ilium, incomplete ischium, femur (950 mm), pedal phalanx I-1, pedal phalanx III-1
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) differs from Sinraptor in- higher ratio of skull height to length (0.5); dorsal vertebral neural spines lower (about 1.8 times centrum height); dorsal centra relatively longer; more pronounced
margin of the antorbital fossa on the jugal (also in hepingensis).
Comments- Paul (1988), Holtz et al. (2004) and Carrano et al. (2012) all consider magnus to be synonymous with shangyouensis. Paul believed the ilium and tibia were poorly ossified in shangyouensis' type, showing it to be a juvenile (though far younger juveniles like Scipionyx have expanded preacetabular processes showing full ossification). Carrano et al. noted the (pro-?, or accessory?) maxillary fossa being developed into a fenestra in magnus is congruent with that specimen being older. In addition, variation in pneumatic features is common in theropods, even between sides of the same individual. Of Dong et al.'s (1983) other characters to distinguish the species, larger size in magnus could be ontogenetic, magnus lacks a foramen at the base of the posterodorsal dentary process but surangular foramina are known to vary in presence in Dromiceiomimus brevitertius individuals, and shangyouensis' type has a tapered preacetabular process that may be artificial but also varies in Archaeopteryx lithographica individuals.
"Szechuanoraptor"- Dong et al. (1978) list Szechuanosaurus "yandonensis" as a new species in a faunal list of taxa from the Wujiaba quarry of the Shangshaximiao Formation. There is no description or illustration, making this a nomen nudum. In 1983, Dong et al. note there was only a single large theropod skeleton in the Wujiaba quarry, described by them as a neotype of Szechuanosaurus campi. It can be implied that Dong et al. originally believed CV 00214 to be a new species of Szechuanosaurus, but later decided to include it in S. campi.
Paul (1988) noted the teeth associated with CV 00214 lack roots, so were shed by a scavenger. He placed the specimen in Metriacanthosaurus (along with Yangchuanosaurus), as Metriacanthosaurus? sp.. He stated "there are so many uncertainties about this beast that I balk at giving it a new name." Yet in the earlier discussion of Metriacanthosaurus, Paul refers to the species as M. carpenteri and states it belongs in a separate subgenus than M. parkeri and M. shangyouensis. One may conclude Paul originally intended to name the taxon, but later changed his mind and didn't catch all the times he had used the name. In any case, "carpenteri" is a nomen nudum since ICZN article 11.5 states "To be available, a name must be used as valid for a taxon when proposed ..."
Chure (2000) used this specimen as the holotype of his new species "Szechuanoraptor dongi" in his unpublished thesis. Names in theses aren't usually listed in this website, and this one is only because it was later published by Glut (2003). Glut's work includes a caveat to the effect that it is not available to establish new taxonomy however, so the name remains unofficial. Chure referred the specimens of Szechuanosaurus? zigongensis to "Szechuanoraptor dongi" as well, but this seems incorrect, since they are from an earlier formation and differ morphologically.
Carrano et al. (2012) agreed with Paul that CV 00214 could not be referred to Szechuanosaurus, and also with me in that zigongensis is from an earlier formation and they could not identify apomorphies shared between them. They found the specimen to be sister to Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis in their analysis and synonymized the species.
References- Dong, Chang, Li and Zhou, 1978. Note on a new carnosaur Yanchuangosaurus shangyuanensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Jurassic of Yangchuan District, Szechuan Province. Kexue Tongabao. 5, 302-304.
Dong, Zhou and Zhang, 1983, The dinosaurian remains from Sichuan Basin, China. Palaeontologia Sinica. 162C(23), 1-145.
Dong, 1988. Dinosaurs of China. English Ed. (text by A.C. Milner), 114 pp. China Ocean Press, Beijing and British Museum (Natural History), London.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (UT-CO) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD dissertation. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Glut, 2003. Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia. Supplement 3.McFarland Press. 726 pp
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Y. zigongensis (Gao, 1993) Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
= Szechuanosaurus zigongensis Gao, 1993
Bathonian-Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Xiashaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (ZDM 9011) ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, thirteen dorsal vertebrae (series 1.17 m), dorsal ribs, five sacral vertebrae, twenty-five caudal vertebrae, scapula, humerus (360 mm), radius (200 mm), ulna (240 mm), distal carpal (46 mm), metacarpal I (62 mm), phalanx I-1 (92 mm), metacarpal II (118 mm), phalanx II-1 (75 mm), metacarpal III (107 mm), metacarpal IV (52 mm), ilia (550 mm), pubes (580 mm), ischia (510 mm)
Referred- ?(ZDM 9012) maxilla, teeth (Gao, 1993)
?(ZDM 9013) ten teeth (Gao, 1993)
?(ZDM 9014) femur, tibia, fibula (Gao, 1993)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) differs from Gasosaurus and Xuanhanosaurus in the more rectangular deltopectoral crest and the proximal part of the humerus being less expanded transversely; from Monolophosaurus and Eustreptospondylus in the gradually sloping anterior rim of the maxilla and the lack of opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae; from Piatnitzkysaurus in the gradually sloping anterior rim of the maxilla and the less expanded proximal humerus; from Poekilopleuron in the more strongly pronounced olecranon process of the ulna and the lack of a medial process on the radius; from Metriacanthosaurus in the less steeply sloping posterodorsal rim of the ilium; from Proceratosaurus in the more massive and relatively shorter posterior part of the maxilla.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) only cervical vertebrae 2–4 opisthocoelous, remainder amphiplatyan.
Comments- ZDM 9011 was discovered in 1984 and initially referred to Gasosaurus, but described by Gao (1993) as a new species of Szechuanosaurus - S. zigongensis. This was based on a number of characters, largely symplesiomorphies. Chure (2000) referred these specimens to his new taxon "Szechuanoraptor dongi" (based on CV 00214), needlessly creating a new species name, but there appears to be little reason for such a referral, as Carrano et al. (2012) note. The specimens derive from different formations and differ morphologically, with Carrano et al. finding zigongensis to be sister to Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis instead. They therefore renamed it Yangchuanosaurus zigongensis. While recovered outside Orionides by both Rauhut (2000) and Holtz et al. (2004), this requires 11 more steps in Carrano et al.'s analysis, so is probably not true.
References- Gao, 1993. A new species of Szechuanosaurus from the Middle Jurassic of Dashanpu, Zigong, Sichuan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 31(4), 308-314.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (UT-CO) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD dissertation. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Bristol [U.K.], 1-440.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Metriacanthosaurinae Paul, 1988
Definition- (Metriacanthosaurus parkeri <- Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis) (modified from Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) anteroventral border of maxillary antorbital fossa demarcated by raised ridge; pronounced ventral keel on anterior dorsal vertebrae (also in Carcharodontosaurus); straight posterior margin of iliac postacetabular process; angle of less than 60 degrees between long axes of pubic shaft and boot; ventrally curved ischial shaft; bulbous fibular crest on tibia.
Comments- Paul (1988) originally used this as a subfamily of eustreptospondylids, including all metriacanthosaurids known at the time (Yangchuanosaurus and Metriacanthosaurus). Carrano et al. (2012) later recovered a much larger Metriacanthosauridae and used Paul's subfamily as a name for one subclade, though they mistakenly think Paul named the family instead and thus credit themselves with the subfamily.
References- Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed metriacanthosaurine (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2007)
Early Cretaceous?
Phu Kradung Formation, Thailand
Material
- (SM 10) tibia (618 mm)
Comments- Buffetaut and Suteethorn (2007) described numerous similarities to Sinraptor and Yangchuanosaurus, referring it to Sinraptoridae. Carrano et al. (2012) agreed, and I note it has a bulbous fibular crests like metriacanthosaurines in particular.
References- Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2007. A sinraptorid theropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Phu Kradung Formation of northeastern Thailand. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France. 178, 497-502.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Shidaisaurus Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan and Wang, 2009
S. jinae Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan and Wang, 2009
Aalenian-Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Upper Lufeng Formation, Yunnan, China
Holotype
- (LDM-LCA 9701-IV) braincase, three teeth, atlantal intercentrum, axis, cervical vertebrae, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, thirteenth dorsal vertebra, two gastralia, sacral vertebrae 1+2, third sacral vertebra, fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral vertebra, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra, third caudal vertebra, ilium (620 mm), pubes (620 mm), ischium (599 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Wu et al., 2009) supraoccipital excluded from foramen magnum; paroccipital processes downturned at 110 degrees; large, pointed axial epipophyses; thin and broad lamina between axial neural spine and epipophyses; iliopubic ratio ~1.00; obturator notch absent on ischium; ischium >96% of pubic length.
Comments- Wu et al. merely considered Shidaisaurus a tetanurine, perhaps non-avetheropod due to the absent axial pleurocoel. Carrano et al. (2012) included it in their tetanurine analysis and found it to be a basal metriacanthosaurine.
References- Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan and Wang, 2009. A new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Lufeng, Yunnan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica. 83(1), 9-24.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Metriacanthosaurus Walker, 1964
M. parkeri (Huene, 1923) Walker, 1964
= Megalosaurus parkeri Huene, 1923
= Altispinax parkeri (Huene, 1923) Huene, 1932
Early-Middle Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Upper Oxford Clay, England

Holotype- (OUM J.12144) three anterior dorsal vertebrae (110 mm), posterior dorsal neural arch, partial posterior dorsal centrum, incomplete first sacral vertebra, second sacral centrum, first caudal vertebra, nine proximal caudal vertebrae, incomplete ilium (~765 mm), incomplete pubes, incomplete ischia, femora (800 mm), proximal tibia
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) dorsal margin of the ilium with a pronounced kink over the posterior part of the acetabulum (may be due to preservation- Carrano et al., 2012).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) ventral surfaces of posterior dorsal centra flat and with breadth approximately 2/3 posterior height of centrum.
Comments- Pickering (unpublished ms) has referred the distal fibula BMNH 40517 to Metriacanthosaurus parkeri, which was first mentioned by Lydekker (1888) as Omosaurus? sp., then referred to Lexovisaurus durobrivensis by Galton (1985). It was most recently called Dinosauria indet. by Maidment et al. (2008).
References- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamta, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria: British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34: 449-458.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptile-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monogr. Geol. Palaeontol. (Pt. I and II, Ser. I) 4, 1-361.
Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 248, 53-134.
Galton, 1985. British plated dinosaurs (Ornithischia, Stegosauridae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 5, 211-254.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Bristol [U.K.], 1-440.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. Unpublished thesis. 329 pp.
Maidment, Norman, Barrett and Upchurch, 2008. Systematics and phylogeny of Stegosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 367-407.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Siamotyrannus Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 1996
S. isanensis Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 1996
Berraisian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

Holotype- (PW9-1) five dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, caudal vertebrae 1-13, several chevrons, ilium (820 mm), pubis, ischium
Referred- ? teeth, tibia (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) double vertical ridge on central part of lateral iliac blade.
Comments- Although originally assigned to the Tyrannosauroidea (Buffetaut et al., 1996), Pharris (DML, 1997), Rauhut (2000), Holtz et al. (2004) and Carrano et al. (2012) determined it is carnosaurian.
Rauhut argues against the assignment of Siamotyrannus to the Tyrannosauroidea because the structure in the figure is not a medioventral shelf on the ilium, that other theropods have vertical lateral ilial ridges and proximolateral ischial scars, and that the pubic foot is broken posteriorly, so its length cannot be determined. However, he fails to mention the narrow second and third sacral centra, well-marked insertion of the transverse process of sacral 1 on the ilium and other minor characters cited by Buffetaut et al.. It grouped with allosauroids in his preliminary analysis, before it was excluded to limit the number of MPT's.
Holtz et al. placed Siamotyrannus with Fukuiraptor because both were scored as lacking dorsal pleurocoels, but anterior dorsal centra are unknown for both, and all non-carcharodontosaurid carnosaurs lack mid and posterior dorsal pleurocoels. When this relationship is enforced in Carrano et al.'s matrix, it takes 11 more steps, showing it is unlikely.
Most recently, Carrano et al. found Siamotyrannus to be a derived metriacanthosaurine, which is followed here. This must remain tentative though, considering it shows some similarities to basal coelurosaurs as well, and coelurosaurs were poorly sampled in that analysis. It only requires five extra steps to move Siamotyrannus to Coelurosauria in their matrix, so neither position is unlikely.
References- Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 1996. The earliest known tyrannosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand. Nature. 381(6584), 689-691.
http://dml.cmnh.org/1997Jun/msg00271.html
Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from Thailand and their bearing on the early evolution and biogeographical history of some groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs. in Lucas, Kirkland and Estep, eds.. Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin 14.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Bristol [U.K.], 1-440.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska. The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 861 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Sinraptor Currie and Zhao, 1994
S. dongi Currie and Zhao, 1994
= Yangchuanosaurus dongi (Currie and Zhao, 1994) Gao, 1999
Bathonian-Oxfordian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Shishugou Formation, Xinjiang, China

Holotype- (IVPP 10600) (7.62 m) skull (900 mm), mandible, two ceratobranchials (500 mm), atlas, axis (78 mm), third cervical vertebra (74 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (85 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (80 mm), partial sixth cervical vertebra, partial seventh cervical vertebra, partial eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra (100 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (87 mm), incomplete cervical ribs 2-10, (dorsal series 1426.3 mm) first dorsal vertebra (83.5 mm), second dorsal vertebra (94 mm), third dorsal vertebra (95.5 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (101.5 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (113 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (118 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (113 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (119 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (120 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (122 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (122 mm), dorsal ribs 1-11, gastralia, first sacral vertebra (108 mm), second sacral centrum (78.5 mm), third sacral centrum (99 mm), fourth sacral centrum (104.5 mm), partial fifth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral rib, first caudal vertebra (77 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (103 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (102.5 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (87.5 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (85 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (95.5 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (110 mm), scapulae (755 mm), sternum, proximal phalanx I-1, metacarpal II (135 mm), phalanx II-2 (87 mm), metacarpal III (122 mm), phalanx III-1 (38 mm), manual ungual III (81 mm), metacarpal IV (57 mm), ilia (682 mm), pubes (700 mm), ischia (650 mm), femora (876 mm), tibiae (776, 769 mm), fibulae (729, 697 mm), astragali, calcanea, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I (90 mm), phalanx I-1 (66 mm), pedal ungual I (66 mm), metatarsal II (360 mm), phalanx II-1 (135 mm), phalanx II-2 (107 mm), pedal ungual II (111 mm), metatarsal III (410 mm), phalanx III-1 (135 mm), phalanx III-2 (98 mm), phalanx III-3 (74 mm), pedal ungual III (90 mm), metatarsal IV (375 mm), phalanx IV-1 (98 mm), phalanx IV-2 (82 mm), phalanx IV-3, pedal ungual IV (86 mm), metatarsal V (65 mm)
Paratype- (IVPP coll.) nine teeth
Referred- skull, cervical vertebrae (Clark et al., 2002)
Diagnosis- (after Currie and Zhao, 1994) differs from S. hepingensis in- longer, lower premaxilla; more numerous and elaborate accessory maxillary fossae; posterior postorbital process with reduced lateral exposure; longer subtemporal bar.
Comments- Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994.
References- Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing. 1-188.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30, 2037-2081.
Clark, Xu, Forster, Wang and Andres, 2002. New small dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation at Wucaiwan, Xinjiang, China. JVP 22(3) 44A.
Gao, 1999. A complete carnosaur skeleton from Zigong, Sichuan. Sichuan Science & Technology Press. Chengdu.
S? hepingensis (Gao, 1992) Currie and Zhao, 1994
= Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis Gao, 1992
Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Shangshaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (ZDM 0024) (8.84 m) skull (1.04 m), stapes, mandibles (1 m), teeth (61x28x13 mm), preatlas, atlantal intercentrum, neural arch, odontoid process, axis, cervicals 3-10 (890 mm), cervical ribs, dorsal vertbrae 1-13 (1.55 m), dorsal ribs, gastralium, sacrum, caudal vertebrae 1-35, ten chevrons, scapulae (760, 740 mm), coracoids (250 mm), ilium, pubis, ischium, femur (980 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) differs from Yangchuanosaurus in- proportionally long, low skull; very tall dorsal vertebral neural spines.
differs from Sinraptor dongi in- sinuous, rugose nasal crest; marked margin of jugal antorbital fossa; more horizontally oriented pubic boot.
Comments- Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994.
While initially assigned to Yangchuanosaurus, Currie and Zhao (1994) placed it in their new genus Sinraptor. The only published test of this idea is Carrano et al. (2012) who found it to indeed be closer to Sinraptor than to Yangchuanosaurus. Yet Siamotyrannus and Metriacanthosaurus are also related to Sinraptor, and forcing hepingensis to be sister to S. dongi requires an additional step.
References- Gao, 1992. Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis, a new species of carnosaur from Zigong, Sichuan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 30 313-324.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30 p. 2037-2081.
Gao, 1999. A complete carnosaur skeleton from Zigong, Sichuan. Sichuan Science & Technology Press. Chengdu.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Allosauria Paul, 1988
Comments- Paul (1988) used Allosauria for what would now be called Carnosauria, though he excluded metriacanthosaurids and included Ornitholestes, Proceratosaurus and tyrannosaurids. As Paul's Allosauridae included known carcharodontosaurids (Shaochilong, Acrocanthosaurus, Becklespinax, Labocania and Carcharodontosaurus), Carrano et al. (2012) used Allosauria for the allosaurid+carcharodontosaurid clade of carnosaurs. They provided no definition, though (Allosaurus fragilis + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, -Metriacanthosaurus parkeri) would be the obvious choice. Several analyses such as Allain (2002) have instead found carcharodontosaurids to group with metriacanthosaurids to the exclusion of allosaurids, which takes six more steps when enforced in Carrano et al.'s matrix, so is still quite possible.
References- Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Carcharodontosauridae Stromer, 1931
Definition-
(Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
Other definitions- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Holtz et al., 2004)
(Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
(Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Neovenator salerii, Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010)
= "Acrocanthosauridae" Molnar, 2001
= Carcharodontosauridae sensu Holtz et al., 2004
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi)
= Carcharodontosauridae sensu Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Passer domesticus)
= "Carcharodontosauria" Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2009 online
= Carcharodontosauria Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Neovenator salerii <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010)
Comments- Brusatte and Sereno's (2008) definition differs from Holtz et al.'s (2004) by including Passer as an external specifier. The only times carcharodontosaurids have been placed in Coelurosauria is when tyrannosaurids were as well (Bakker et al., 1988; Paul, 1988), and they have often been placed closer to tyrannosaurids than to Allosaurus or Passer (Paul, 1988; Kurzanov, 1989; Molnar et al., 1990). So Tyrannosaurus would be a more useful tertiary external specifier than Passer. The remote possibility of a relationship to ceratosaurs (Bonaparte et al., 1990) might suggest Carnotaurus should be used as an additional external specifier.
Molnar (2001) proposed Acrocanthosauridae for at least Acrocanthosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus, but did not provide a definition or diagnosis (ICZN Article 13.1.1), so the taxon is a nomen nudum.
Benson et al. (2010) found megaraptorans grouped with Neovenator as basal carcharodontosaurids, but redefined Carcharodontosauridae to include only those taxa closer to Carcharodontosaurus than to Neovenator. They then gave their new taxon Carcharodontosauria the tradition definition for Carcharodontosauridae. These taxonomic changes are here seen as unecessary and not followed. Benson et al.'s paper was originally released online in November 2009 but not officialy published until January 2010.
References- Molnar, 2001. Theropod paleopathology: A literature survey. In Tanke and Carpenter (eds). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press. 337-363.
Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010. A new clade of archaic large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic. Naturwissenschaften. 97(1), 71-78.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Calvo et al., 2004)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gorro Frigio Formation, Argentina

Material- (MEF 1157) cervicals, caudals, scapula
Reference- Calvo, Porfiri, Veralli, Novas and Pobletei, 2004. Phylogenetic status of Megaraptor namunhuaiquii Novas based on a new specimen from Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 565-575.

unnamed possible carcharodontosaurid (Buffetaut, Mechin and Salessy, 1988)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Gres a Reptiles Formation, France

Material- maxilla (240 mm)
Comments- Originally described as an abelisaurid, but probably a carcharodontosaurid instead (Carrano and Sampson, 2002).
References- Buffetaut, Mechin and Mechin-Salessy, 1988. Un dinosaure théropode d’affinités gondwaniennes dans le Crétacé supérieur de Provence. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. t. 306. Sér. II: 153-158.
Carrano and Sampson, 2002. Ceratosaurs: A global perspective. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 41A.

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Russel, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Kem Kem Formation, Morocco

Material- (CMN 41859) dentary fragment
(CMN 41861) dentary fragment (teeth FABL 6-14 mm )
Comments- Originally described as cf. Majungasaurus sp., these are carcharodontosaurid instead (Carrano and Sampson, 2002).
References- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.) 18:349-402.
Carrano and Sampson, 2002. Ceratosaurs: A global perspective. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 41A.

Neovenatoridae Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010
Definition- (Neovenator salerii <- Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010)
= "Neovenatoridae" Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2009 online
Comments- Benson et al.'s paper was originally released online in November 2009 but not ofdficialy published until January 2010.
Reference- Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010. A new clade of archaic large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic. Naturwissenschaften. 97(1), 71-78.
Neovenator Hutt, Martill and Barker, 1996
= "Neovenator" Naish, 1996
N. salerii Hutt, Martill and Barker, 1996
= "Neovenator salerii" Naish, 1996
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Wessex Formation, England

Diagnosis- (after Hutt et al., 1996) five premaxillary teeth (also in Allosaurus); external naris twice as long as high; maxilla with large maxillary fenestra approximately one sixth the length of the maxillary tooth row; tooth crowns one quarter total tooth length; pedal unguals with groove on extensor surface.
(after Naish et al., 2001) premaxilla with accessory interpremaxillary peg and socket articulation in the dorsal region of the symphysis.
(after Brusatte et al., 2008) transverse expansion of the anterior articular surface of the axial intercentrum; lateral foramina on the anterior surface of the odontoid; small single foramen on the lateral surface of the axial neural spine; fusion of the cervical ribs to the posterior cervical vertebrae; camellate internal texture exposed externally on parapophyseal facets of eighth and ninth cervical vertebrae (possibly due to fusion with ribs); ventral surfaces of anterior dorsal vertebrae developed as sharp ridges, not inset from the lateral surface of the centra; hypapophyses of anterior dorsal vertebrae developed as low mound-like eminences; curved flanges emerging laterally from pre- and postzygapophyseal facets of posterior dorsal vertebrae; scapula-coracoid glenoid fossa that is wider mediolaterally than long anteroposteriorly; shelf adjacent to the preacetabular notch on the medial surface of the ilium; distal ischial boot in which the left and right ischia are conjoined anteriorly but diverge posterolatcrally; femoral head oriented anteromedially and inclined proximally; robust ridge on the external surface of the lesser trochanter of the femur; thumbprint-shaped depression on posterior surface of femoral shaft lateral to the proximal end of the fourth trochanter; proximodistally short, notch-like extensor groove and almost flat anterior surface of distal end of femur; suboval rugosity on medial surface of distal tibia; anteroposteriorly pinched proximal portion of the lateral malleolus of the distal tibia; ventral spine on anterolateral crest of fibular condyle of tibia; concave lateral surface of metatarsal II for articulation with metatarsal III.
Other diagnoses- Hutt et al. (1996) included a large external naris in their diagnosis, but Brusatte et al. (2008) noted it was similar in size to most carnosaurs. Posterior dorsal centra that are pleurocoelous are found in other carcharodontosaurids as well.
Naish et al. (2001) included high dorsolateral nasal crests in their diagnosis, but Brusatte et al. (2008) note these are also present in Allosaurus. Brusatte et al. also note serrations which complete across tooth tips are now known in many other theropod taxa.
Holotype- (BMNH R10001) (~7.5 m; subadult or adult) teeth, incomplete fifth cervical vertebra (62 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (73 mm), first dorsal vertebra (71 mm), incomplete second dorsal vertebra (62 mm), fourth dorsal transverse processes, partial fifth dorsal vertebra (87 mm), incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra (77 mm), incomplete seventh dorsal vertebra (93 mm), incomplete eighth dorsal vertebra (89 mm), incomplete twelfth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), partial thirteenth dorsal vertebra (117 mm), three or four sacral centra, caudal vertebrae, fragmentary ilia, proximal pubis, pubic shaft fragments, ischial shaft fragments, distal ischia
....(MIWG 6348) (skull ~798 mm) premaxillae (87 mm), incomplete maxilla, incomplete nasal, incomplete palatine, anterior dentary (lost), teeth, axis (58 mm), partial sixth cervical vertebra (76 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (66 mm), incomplete ninth cervical vertebra (75 mm), proximal cervical rib, ninth dorsal vertebra (92 mm), incomplete tenth dorsal vertebra (95 mm), fourteenth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), two partial dorsal ribs, rib fragments, ten-fifteen fragmentary gastralia, partial first caudal vertebra (109 mm), second caudal vertebra (99 mm), incomplete third caudal vertebra (105 mm), incomplete fourth caudal vertebra (109 mm), incomplete fifth caudal vertebra (107 mm), incomplete sixth caudal vertebra (107 mm), incomplete seventh(?) caudal vertebra (106 mm), ninth(?) caudal neural arch, incomplete fourteenth(?) caudal vertebra (103 mm), incomplete seventeenth(?) caudal vertebra (103 mm), eighteenth(?) caudal centrum (102 mm), incomplete twenty-first(?) caudal vertebra (94 mm), incomplete twenty-second(?) caudal vertebra (95 mm), fused twenty-fifth(?) (91 mm) and twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (92 mm) and twenty-sixth chevron, incomplete twenty-seventh(?) caudal vertebra (88 mm), twenty-eighth(?) caudal vertebra (81 mm), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (79 mm), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (77 mm), distal caudal vertebra (75 mm), distal caudal vertebra (73 mm), distal caudal vertebra (71 mm), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (68 mm), partial proximal chevron, two mid chevrons (~100 mm), distal chevron, incomplete scapula (~505 mm), incomplete coracoid (140 mm), proximal ischium, femora (730, 730 mm), tibiae (680, 685 mm), fibula (618 mm), metatarsal II (315 mm), phalanx II-1 (109 mm), phalanx II-2 (88 mm), proximal metatarsal III (~343 mm), pedal unguals III (one partial; 117 mm), metatarsal IV (325 mm), phalanx IV-1 (83 mm), phalanx IV-2 (69 mm), phalanges IV-3 (52 mm), phalanx IV-4 (34 mm), pedal ungual IV (82 mm), metatarsal V (150 mm)
Paratype- (MIWG 6352) (subadult) second dorsal centrum, fifth dorsal centrum (~77 mm), partial seventh dorsal neural arch, several rib fragments, fused second-fourth sacral centra, first or fifth sacral centrum, sacral neural arch, partial chevron, axial fragments, partial ilium, pubes (560 mm), proximal ischium
Referred- ?(IWCMS 2000.1108) distal ____ (Brusatte et al., 2008)
?(IWCMS 2002.186) vertebral fragments including two anterior cervical neural arches, long bones (Brusatte et al., 2008)
?(MIWG 4199) (~10 m) pedal phalanx (Hutt, 2001)
?(MIWG 5121) tooth (Brusatte et al., 2008)
(MIWG 5470) (subadult or adult) incomplete ninth cervical neural arch, incomplete eighth dorsal vertebra, pedal phalanx III-1 (Hutt, 2001)
?(MIWG coll.) proximal caudal vertebrae, pedal phalanges (Naish et al., 2001)
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1978 and collected over the next two decades, becoming accessioned in two museums. Hutt (1999) and Martill and Naish (2001) referred to the dentary in the holotype as BMNH R10001, but it has apparently never been stored at the BMNH and may be an MIWG specimen. The paratype was discovered in 1987 and originally thought to be a different species (Hutt et al., 1990), as the holotype was thought to have a small pubic boot based on an incorrectly identified ischium. MIWG 5470 was discovered in 1985.
Though generally believed to be a basal carcharodontosaurid now, Neovenator was originally assigned to Allosauridae. This requires 7 more steps when enforced in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, so is less likely but still possible.
References- Hutt, Simmonds and Hullman, 1990. Predatory dinosaurs from the Isle of Wight: Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society. 9, 137-146.
Naish, 1996. Isle of Wight: Dinosaur Discoveries. 1, 15.
Hutt, Martill and Barker, 1996. The first European allosauroid dinosaur (Lower Cretaceous, Wealden Group, England). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatsheft. 1996(10), 635-644.
Hutt, 1999. Neovenator salerii: A new theropod dinosaur from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight: its status and significance for theropod evolution. M.Phil thesis. University of Portsmouth.
Hutt, 2001. Appendix, catalogue of Wealden Group Dinosauria in the Museum of Isle of Wight Geology. in Martill and Naish (eds). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association. 411-422.
Martill and Naish, 2001. The geology of the Isle of Wight. in Martill and Naish (eds). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association. 25-43.
Naish, Hutt and Martill, 2001. Saurischian dinosaurs 2: theropods. in Martill and Naish (eds). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association. 242-309.
Sweetman, 2004. The first record of velociraptorine dinosaurs (Saurischia, Theropoda) from the Wealden (Early Cretaceous, Barremian) of southern England. Cretaceous Research. 25, 353-364.
Brusatte, Benson and Hutt, 2008. The osteology of Neovenator salerii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Wealden (Barremian) of the Isle ofWight. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society. 162(631), 1-166.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Carcharodontosauridae sensu Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Neovenator salerii, Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi)

unnamed clade (Becklespinax altispinax + Concavenator corcovatus + Eocarcharia dinops + Sauroniops pachytholus)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) squared anterior margin of antorbital fossa (unknown in Becklespinax and Sauroniops)
(after Cau et al., 2012) prefrontal facet of the frontal restricted to the anterior end of the lateral surface (unknown in Becklespinax and Concavenator); wide nasal-frontal contact reaching the posteromedial end of the nasal process of the frontal (unknown in Becklespinax and Concavenator); preorbital facet that is deepest in the anterior end of the facet (unknown in Becklespinax and Concavenator).
(suggested) accessory centrodiapophyseal lamina on the transverse processes of the posterior dorsal vertebrae (unknown in Eocarcharia and Sauroniops); eleventh and twelfth dorsal neural spines highly elongate (five times the height of the centra), while ninth dorsal neural spine is short (unknown in Eocarcharia and Sauroniops); firm contact between apexes of eleventh and twelfth dorsal neural spines (unknown in Eocarcharia and Sauroniops).

Becklespinax Olshevsky, 1991
B. altispinax (Paul, 1988) Olshevsky, 1991
= Acrocanthasaurus altispinax Paul 1988
= Altispinax altispinax (Paul, 1988) Rauhut, 2003
= Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum" Pickering, 1984 vide Pickering, 1995
Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Hastings Beds Group, England

Holotype- (BMNH R1828) tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra
Diagnosis- (after Cuesta et al., 2013) (compared to Concavenator) less ventrally constricted centra; anteriorly angled posterior dorsal neural spines; posterior dorsal neural spines distally expanded; posterior dorsal neural spines transversely broader.
Other diagnoses- Olshevsky (1991) listed "firm contact between the apexes of the neural spines of vertebrae #9 and 10 (and, presumably, later vertebrae in the series)", but this is also present in Concavenator (though the vertebrae are 11 and 12 in the latter genus and presumably Becklespinax too).
Comments- Naish (DML, 2004) notes he found Becklespinax to be an allosauroid in his unpublished thesis. This is provisionally accepted here, and strengthened by Concavenator's position as a basal carcharodontosaurid. However, Carrano et al. (2012) believe the anterior dorsal neural spine is broken, lessening the resemblence. While Carrano et al. state that within Tetanurae it can only be excluded from Spinosauridae and Carcharodontosauridae, when entered conservatively into their matrix it emerges as a carnosaur and most often sister to Concavenator and Eocarcharia. The discrepancy is due to the authors stating Becklespinax is unlike carcharodontosaurids in lacking posterior dorsal pleurocoels, but Concavenator also lacks these.
Huene (1923) stated that if the dorsal vertebrae (BMNH R1828; later made the holotype of Becklespinax altispinax) were shown to belong to Megalosaurus dunkeri, it would be renamed Altispinax. Kuhn (1939) was the first author to definitively tie a species to the genus, making Altispinax dunkeri official. The conditional nature of Huene's (1923) statement prevents it from attaching the name Altispinax to the vertebrae by ICZN rules (contra Rauhut, 2000).
Pickering (1995) attempted to make BMNH R1828 the lectotype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum", which included as paratypes the holotype of Valdoraptor oweni and several additional specimens (BMNH R604, 604a-b, 604d). However, the species altispinax and oweni have priority (Pickering incorrectly considered them nomina rejecta, which cannot occur without an ICZN decision), and there is no evidence these specimens are conspecific. This makes Pickering's species (which is a nomen nudum in any case) an objective junior synonym of Becklespinax altispinax.
References- Owen, 1855. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck formations. Part II. Dinosauria (Iguanodon). (Wealden). Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 8, 1-54.
Owen, 1856. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Wealden Formation. Part IV. Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 10, 1-26.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34: 449-458.
Kuhn, 1939. Beitrage zur Keuperfauna von Halberstadt. Palaeontol. Z. 2: 258-286.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Olshevsky, 1991. A Revision of the Parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, Excluding the Advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings. 2, 196 pp.
Pickering, 1995. "Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry," A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing, Capitola, California: 478 pp. [January 27, 1995].
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Bristol [U.K.], 1-440.
http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Jan/msg00247.html
http://dml.cmnh.org/2004Dec/msg00086.html
Naish, online 2007. http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2007/10/_becklespinax_and_valdoraptor.php
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cuesta, Ortega and Sanz, 2013. Solving the synonymy issue in Concavenator corcovatus and Becklespinax altispinax, two distinct theropods from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 110.

Concavenator Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2010
C. corcovatus Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2010
Late Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Calizas de La Huerguina Formation, Spain
Holotype
- (MCCM-LH 6666) incomplete skull, partial mandible, ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, thirteen dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, gastralia, five sacral vertebrae, thirty caudal vertebrae, twenty-six chevrons, scapulae, coracoid, humeri, radius, ulna, metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, metacarpal III, phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, ilium, pubes, ischium, femora (one incomplete), tibiae (one incomplete), incomplete fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, two distal tarsals, metatarsals II, phalanges II-1 (one proximal), phalanx II-2 fragment, metatarsals III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, partial phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V, pedal claw sheaths, scale impressions, smaller theropod vertebrae
Diagnosis- (after Ortega et al., 2010) having four recesses, three of them connected, on the nasal bones (unknown in Becklespinax); a large, rounded, thickened postorbital brow occupying one-third of the orbit (unknown in Becklespinax); relatively high, cranially directed neurapophyses of the second and third caudal vertebrae (unknown in Becklespinax); small, thorn-like caudal process at the base of each neurapophysis of the proximal caudal vertebrae (unknown in Becklespinax).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) differs from Becklespinax in- posterior dorsal centra bear large lateral fossae (although no foramina); posterior dorsal neural spines have less curved anterior and posterior margins at their bases, apices of the tallest dorsal neural spines are anteroposteriorly narrow, curving towards a single apex formed from multiple spines.
(proposed) tenth dorsal neural spine one third as tall as eleventh dorsal neural spine; eleventh dorsal neural spine strongly tapered distally in lateral view; eleventh and twelfth dorsal neural spines appressed except at base.
Other diagnoses- Ortega et al. (2010) also included "tall neurapophyses of the eleventh and twelfth dorsal vertebrae (five times the height of the centra)" in their diagnosis, but this is also true in Becklespinax.
Comments- Ortega et al. (2010) identified a line along the lateral side of Concavenator's ulna as possessing quill knobs, which are otherwise unknown in non-paravian taxa. However, both Mortimer (online, 2010) and Naish (online, 2010) independantly regard the structure as an intermuscular line instead, with the former identifying it more precisely as the line between the extensor carpi ulnaris and the flexor ulnaris. This is due the more anterior position of the line, which coincides with the intermuscular boundary on Alligator and non-maniraptoran theropods, but not with quill knobs in paravians.
References- Mortimer, online 2010. http://theropoddatabase.blogspot.com/2010/09/concavenator-part-ii-becklespinax.html
Naish, online 2010. http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/09/concavenator_incredible_allosauroid.php
Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2010. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Nature. 467, 203-206.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cuesta, Ortega and Sanz, 2013. Solving the synonymy issue in Concavenator corcovatus and Becklespinax altispinax, two distinct theropods from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 110.

Eocarcharia Sereno and Brusatte, 2008
E. dinops Sereno and Brusatte, 2008
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation of the Tegama Group, Niger
Holotype
- (MNN GAD2) (~6-8 m) postorbital (163 mm tall)
Paratypes- (MNN GAD3) postorbital
(MNN GAD4) partial postorbital
(MNN GAD5) partial postorbital
(MNN GAD6) partial postorbital
(MNN GAD7) incomplete maxilla (528 mm)
(MNN GAD8) maxillary fragment
(MNN GAD9) maxillary fragment
(MNN GAD10) prefrontal (55 mm), frontal (102 mm)
(MNN GAD11) frontoparietal, orbitosphenoid fragments
(MNN GAD12) three teeth
(MNN GAD13) tooth fragment
(MNN GAD14) tooth (48 mm)
Referred- ?(MNN GAD15) tooth (Sereno and Brusatte, 2008)
? teeth (Sereno et al., 1994)
? vertebrae, pelvic elements including pubis (Sereno, unpublished)
Diagnosis- (after Sereno and Brusatte, 2008) enlarged subtriangular laterally exposed promaxillary fenestra larger in size than the maxillary fenestra; circular accessory pneumatic fenestra on the posterodorsal ramus of the maxilla; dorsoventral expansion of the antorbital fossa ventral to the promaxillary and maxillary fenestrae; postorbital brow accentuated by a finely textured boss, positioned above the posterodorsal corner of the orbit; postorbital medial process with a plate-shaped projection fitted to an articular slot on the frontal; postorbital articulation for the jugal that includes a narrow laterally-facing facet; enlarged prefrontal lacking the ventral process with subquadrate exposure on the dorsal skull roof and within the orbit (limiting the anterior ramus of the frontal to the roof over the olfactory bulbs); low protuberance on the frontoparietal suture.
Comments- Sereno et al. (1994) noted mid-sized carcharodontosaurid teeth from the Elrhaz Formation. Sereno later mentioned carcharodontosaurid remains from Gadoufaoua in an online update to his 2000 Project Exploration dig in Niger. These included teeth, jaw bones and a postorbital (which are elements described for Eocarcharia), but also vertebrae and pelvic elements. A pubis was photographed in situ. These may be elements later referred to Kryptops, as no Eocarcharia postcrania were described in Sereno and Brusatte (2008). Kryptops' pelvis and dorsals do look somewhat carnosaurian, but the in situ pubis does not appear to be the Kryptops specimen.
References- Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998. A Long-Snouted Predatory Dinosaur from Africa and the Evolution of the Spinosaurids. Science. 282(5392), 1298-1302.
http://www.projectexploration.org/niger2000/10_03_2000_2.htm
Sereno and Brusatte, 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(1), 15-46.

Sauroniops Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2013
S. pachytholus Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2013
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem Formation, Morocco

Holotype- (MPM 2594) frontal (186 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Cau et al., 2013) dorsoventrally thickened frontal (with the depth of the body ranging between 28%, along the medial suture, and 38%, at the level of the anteromedial margin of the supratemporal fossa, of bone length); nasal processes of the frontal with a transversely convex dorsal surface and completely separated medially by the posteromedial processes of nasal extended along 40% of the frontal length and reaching the frontal body; thick dome-like eminence in the anterolateral corner of the dorsal surface of the frontal at the level of the prefrontal-lacrimal articulations; anterolateral margin of the lateral surface of the frontal with a narrow vertical lamina separating the prefrontal facet from an elliptical fossa in the lacrimal facet; prefrontal facet of the frontal trapezoidal, barely visible in ventral view, mostly restricted to the anterodorsal margin of the lateral surface of the bone, and not participating in the orbital fossa; frontal with interdigitate suture for prefrontal restricted to the anteroventral corner of the facet, formed by a low shelf running along the posterolateral margin of the nasal process and a small finger-like projection; hypertrophied, D-shaped lacrimal facet of the frontal bordering the whole posterolateral exposure of the prefrontal facet and with maximum depth that is four times the depth of the anterior half of the postorbital facet; dorsal surface of the frontal anterior to the anteromedial margin of supratemporal fossa raised and facing anterodorsally, describing with the dorsal dome a posteromedially-anterolaterally directed saddle-shaped concavity, and confluent with a series of low rounded rugosities placed posteriorly to the nasal facet.
Comments- Cau et al. (2012, 2013) found this specimen to be most similar to Eocarcharia.
References- Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2012. Evidence of a new carcharodontosaurid from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57(3), 661-665.
Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2013. A thick-skulled theropod (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco with implications for carcharodontosaurid cranial evolution. Cretaceous Research. 40, 251-260.

Acrocanthosaurus Stovall and Langston, 1950
= "Acrocanthus" Langston, 1947 vide Czaplewski, Cifelli and Langston, 1994
Comments- Goodwin et al. (1999) referred teeth to cf. Acrocanthosaurus sp., but these can only be identified as Tetanurae indet..
Reference- Goodwin, Clemens, Hutchison, Wood, Zavada, Kemp, Duffin and Schaff, 1999. Mesozoic continental vertebrates with associated palynostratigraphic dates from the northwestern Ethiopian plateau. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(4), 728-741.
A. atokensis Stovall and Langston, 1950
= "Acracanthus atokaensis" Langston, 1947 vide Czaplewski, Cifelli and Langston, 1994
Late Aptian-Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
Antlers Formation, Oklahoma, US

Holotype- (MOU 8-0-S9 or OMNH 10146) (9.9 m) lacrimal, partial jugal, partial postorbital, incomplete squamosal, frontals, parietals, braincase, ectopterygoid, articular, fragment of surangular, fragment of angular, atlantal intercentrum, axial fragment, partial third cervical vertebra (96 mm), incomplete fourth cervical vertebra (98 mm), incomplete fifth cervical vertebra (123 mm), sixth cervical neural arch, partial seventh cervical centrum (153 mm), incomplete eighth cervical vertebra (158 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (168 mm), incomplete tenth cervical vertebra (153 mm), three incomplete cervical ribs, fifth dorsal vertebra (107 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal centrum (128 mm), thirteenth dorsal centrum (125 mm), eight dorsal neural spines, five posterior dorsal ribs, gastralium, two caudal centra, two proximal chevrons, coracoid, pubes (~838 mm), ischium (~621 mm), distal femur (~950 mm), tibia (~865 mm), fibulae (801 mm), astragalus, metatarsal III (416 mm)
Paratype- (MOU 8-0-S8 or OMNH 10147) (11.29 m) two dorsal centra, four dorsal neural spines, eight posterior dorsal ribs, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra (128 mm), third caudal vertebra (138 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (140 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (149 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (146 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (141 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (140 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra, nineteenth caudal vertebra (131 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (134 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (135 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra, twenty-third caudal vertebra (124 mm), proximal chevron, pubes, proximal femur (~950 mm), fragmentary tibia (~958 mm), metatarsal II (416 mm), metatarsal III (445 mm), phalanx III-1 (145 mm)
Referred- (NCSM 14345; OMNH 10168) (11.5 m) skull (1.29 m), mandibles (1.315 m), presacral vertebral fragments, cervical rib, several partial dorsal ribs, gastralia fragments, over fourteen caudal vertebrae (120-160 mm), six chevrons, scapula (970 mm), coracoid (360 mm), humerus (370 mm), radius (220 mm), ulna (255 mm), radiale, ulnare, semilunate carpal, metacarpal I (62 mm), phalanx I-1 (111 mm), proximal manual ungual I, metacarpal II (116 mm), phalanx II-1 (101 mm), proximal manual ungual II (124, 144 mm), metacarpal III (89 mm), phalanx III-1 (50 mm), phalanx III-2 (42 mm), incomplete femur (~1.277 m), incomplete tibia, partial astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal I (111 mm), phalanx I-1 (70 mm), pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (410 mm), phalanx II-1 (55 mm), phalanx II-2 (122 mm), partial metatarsal III (~439 mm), phalanx III-1 (160 mm), phalanx III-2 (115 mm), partial metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1 (85 mm), phalanx IV-2 (70 mm), phalanx IV-3 (58 mm), phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (200 mm) (Currie and Carpenter, 2000)
?(OMNH 3031) four gastralia (paleofile.com)
(OMNH 51788) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
? teeth (Nydam et al., 1997)
Middle-Late Aptian
Arundel Formation, Maryland, US

(USNM 497718) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497722) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497723) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497724) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497725) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497726) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Ruby Ranch Member of Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

(CEU 5107) tooth (Kirkland et al., 1997)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early-Late Cretaceous
Turney Ranch Formation, Arizona, US
(ASDM coll.) tooth (Ratkevich, 1997)
Aptian-Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
Trinity Group, Texas

?(SMU 62271) teeth (Thurmond, 1974)
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Twin Mountains Formation, Texas, US
(SMU 74646) (1.87 tons) incomplete jugal, ectopterygoid, palatine, partial surangular, articular, partial prearticular, partial splenial, rostral tooth (84 mm tall, 31 by 19.5 mm wide), partial tooth, axis (101 mm), partial third cervical vertebra, partial fourth cervical vertebra, partial fifth cervical vertebra (158 mm), partial sixth cervical vertebra (180 mm), seventh cervical neural spine, eighth cervical neural spine, ninth cervical neural spine, tenth cervical centrum, two posterior cervical zygapophyseal assemblies, seven partial cervical ribs, first dorsal centrum (295 mm), partial second dorsal vertebra (268 mm),partial third dorsal vertebra, partial fourth dorsal vertebra, partial fifth dorsal centrum, partial sixth dorsal vertebra, partial seventh dorsal vertebra, partial eighth dorsal vertebra, incomplete ninth dorsal vertebra (135 mm), incomplete tenth dorsal vetrtebra (144 mm), partial eleventh dorsal vertebra, partial twelfth dorsal vertebra, partial thirteenth dorsal vertebra, ten dorsal neural spines, nineteen partial dorsal ribs, dorsal rib fragments, gasteralia, partial first sacral vertebra (170 mm), incomplete second sacral vertebra (160 mm), incomplete third sacral vertebra (160 mm), partial fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral fragment, two sacral neural spines, first caudal vertebra (117 mm), second caudal vertebra (124 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (139 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (135 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (135 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (140.5 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (150 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (142 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (141 mm), ninteenth caudal vertebra (141 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra, twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (133 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (131 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra, proximal scapula, distal scapula, incomplete pubes, ischia (844 mm), femora (1090 mm), distal metatarsal II (Harris, 1998)
Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous
Woodbine Formation, Texas, US
Material
- ? teeth (Bennett et al., 2012)
Early Cretaceous
US

? femur (Langston, 1974)
? teeth (Gallup, 1975)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) absence of nasal extension of antorbital fossa and associated pneumatopores; supraoccipital expanded parasagittally into double boss posterior to nuchal crest; cervical vertebral neural spines with triangular anterior processes that insert into fossae ventral to overhanging processes on preceding neural spines; neural spines of presacral, sacral and anterior caudal vertebrae more than 2.5 times taller than respective centrum lengths; accessory process on lateral surface of caudal prezygapophysis
Comments- Harris (1998) believes the tooth (UUVP 904) described by DeCourten (1991) does not belong to Acrocanthosaurus because the serrations are too coarse. However, Kirkland et al. (1997) mention cf. Acrocanthosaurus sp., which is a tooth (CEU 5107) with finer serrations (Harris, 1998).
SMU 62271 were said to be similar to Allosaurus, so are provisionally assigned to Acrocanthosaurus here based on provenance.
Senter and Robins (2005) note that NCSM 14345 does not include manual phalanges II-2 or III-3, manual ungual III, or the tips of manual unguals I and II. These were illustrated and described by Currie and Carpenter (2000) based on casts made by BHI personnel.
Currie and Carpenter (2000) found Acrocanthosaurus to be an allosaurid, but of their thirteen characters supporting this, at least four are primitive (promaxillary and maxillary fenestrae; axial intercentrum subparallel to axis ventral margin; paired anterior and posterior processes at base of chevrons; pubic foramen present in distal pubis), three are also found in Giganotosaurus (basioccipital participates in basal tubera; distal ends of paroccipital processes below foramen magnum; internal carotid opening pneumatized), one in Carcharodontosaurus (separation of trigeminal nerve branches complete), and five aren't known in Carcharodontosaurus or Giganotosaurus (long basipterygoid processes; reduced external mandibular fenestra; pronounced notch between acromion and coracoid; sigmoidal humerus; metacarpal IV absent). So there are actually no characters published by Currie and Carpenter that support placing Acrocanthosaurus in the Allosauridae. Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus are clearly more closely related to each other than Acrocanthosaurus is to either, but there's no reason to believe the latter is not carcharodontosaurid. When constrained as an allosaurid in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, it takes 12 additional steps, showing this topology is indeed improbable.
References- Langston, 1947. unpublished Master's Thesis.
Stovall and Langston, 1950. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, a new genus and species of Lower Cretaceous Theropoda from Oklahoma. Amer. Mid. Nat. 43 696-728, 4 figs., 4 pls.
Langston, 1974. Nonmammalian comanchean tetrapods: Geoscience and Man, v. 8, p. 77-102.
Thurmond, 1974. Lower Vertebrate Faunas of the Trinity division in North-Central Texas: Geoscience and Man, v. 8, April 1, p. 103-129.
Gallup, 1975. Early Cretaceous Dinosaurs and associated vertebrates from north-central Texas in the field Museum of Natural History: Thesis, presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, The University of Texas at Austin, January 1975, 159pp.
DeCourten, 1991. The Long Waik quarry and tracksite: unveiling the mysterious Early Cretaceous of the Dinosaur Triangle region. in Averett (ed.). Guidebook for Dinosaur quarries and tracksites tour, western Colorado and eastern Utah. Grand Junction: Grand Junction Geological Society. 19-25.
Czaplewski, Cifelli, and Langston, 1994. Catalog of type and figured fossil vertebrates, Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Oklahoma Geological Survey Special Publication. 94, 1-35.
Kirkland, Britt, Burge, Carpenter, Cifelli, DeCourten, Eaton, Hasiotis and Lawton, 1997. Lower to Middle Cretaceous dinosaur faunas of the Central Colorado Plateau: a key to understanding 35 million years of tectonics, sedimentology, evolution, and biogeography. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 42, 69-103.
Nydam, Cifelli, Brinkman and Gardner, 1997. Preliminary report on the vertebrate fauna of the Antlers Formation (Lower Cretaceous: Aptian-Albian) of Oklahoma: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 17, supplement to n. 3, Abstracts of Papers, Fifty-seventh Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, October 8-11, p. 67a.
Ratkevich, 1997. Dinosaur remains of southern Arizona. in D.L. Wolberg, E. Stump and G.D. Rosenberg (eds.), Dinofest International, pp. 213-221. Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences.
Harris, 1998. A Reanalysis of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, its Phylogenetic Status, and Paleobiogeographic Implications, Based on a New Specimen from Texas. New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin 13: 1-75.
Harris, 1998. Large, Early Cretaceous theropods in North America. in Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 14, 225-228.
Lipka, 1998. The affinities of the enigmatic theropods of the Arundel Clay facies (Aptian), Potomac Formation, Atlantic Coastal Plain of Maryland. in Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 14, 229-234.
Currie and Carpenter, 2000. A new specimen of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (Theropoda, Dinosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of Oklahoma, USA. Geodiversitas 22 (2) : 207-246.
Franzosa and Rowe, 2005. Cranial endocast of the Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(4), 859-864.
Senter and Robins, 2005. Range of motion in the forelimb of the theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, and implications for predatory behaviour. Zoological Journal. 266, 307-318.
Eddy, 2008. A re-analysis of the skull of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (NCSM 14345): Implications for allosauroid morphology, phylogeny, and biogeography. Masters Thesis. 180 pp.
Eddy and Clarke, 2011. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). PLoS ONE. 6(3), e17932.
Bennett, Main, Noto, Anderson and Vranken, 2012. Microvertebrate paleoecology, wildfires and biodiversity of coastal Appalachia in the Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation at the Arlington archosaur site, North Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 63.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
A? sp. indet. (Burge, 1996)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Material- teeth, bone fragments
Reference- Burge, 1996. New Dinosaur Discoveries in the Lower Cretaceous of Southeastern Utah: Proceedings of Southwest Paleontological Society and Mesa Southwest Museum, Mesa, Arizona, v. 4, p. 85-105.
A? sp. indet. (Cranwell, 2003)
Late Early Cretaceous
Shellenberger Canyon Formation, Arizona, US

Material- caudal centra
Reference- Cranwell, 2003. New evidence of dinosaurs from the Shellenberger Canyon Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of southeastern Arizona, USA: In: Southwest Paleontological Symposium 2002, Guide to Presentations, Mesa Southwest Museum, unnumbered.

Veterupristisaurus Rauhut, 2011
V. milneri
Rauhut, 2011
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Holotype- (MB R 1938; = ST 270) (~10 m) mid caudal vertebra (123 mm)
Paratype-....(MB R 2166; = ST 757) two fused mid caudal vertebrae (91, ~90 mm) fused with chevron fragment
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2011) mid caudal spinoprezygapophyseal lamina extends anteriorly to midwidth of the base of the prezygapophysis (rather than its lateral margin); mid caudal spinoprezygapophyseal lamina flanked laterally by short, parallel lamina extending from lateral margin of prezygapophysis posteriorly.
Comments- These vertebrae were originally referred to Ceratosaurus roechlingi by Janensch (1925), though Rauhut (2011) described them as a new taxon of carcharodontosaurid most closely related to Acrocanthosaurus based on the shared strong anterolateral ridge on the mid caudal transverse processes.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

unnamed clade (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Acrocanthosaurus atokensis)
Comments- This subset of carcharodontosaurids is characterized by wrinkled tooth enamel, among other characters.

unnamed Carcharodontosauridae (Rich, Rich, Lanus, Rich and Vacca, 1999)
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Cerro Castano Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material- (MPEF-PV 1160-1167, 1169) nine tooth fragments
(MPEF-PV 1168) dentary tooth (69.6 mm)
Comments- May be referrable to Tyrannotitan, based on provenance.
References- Vickers-Rich, Rich, Lanus, Rich and Vacca, 1999. 'Big Tooth' from the Early Cretaceous of Chubut Province, Patagonia: A possible carcharodontosaurid. in Tomida, Rich, and Vickers-Rich (eds.). Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium. National Science Museum Monographs. 15, 85-88.
Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cuneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000. Theropods from the "Middle" Cretaceous Chubut Group of the San Jorge sedimentary basin, central Patagonia: A preliminary note. GAIA. 15, 111-115.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cuneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous
Bayo Overo Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material- (MPEF-PV 1171-1174) tooth, three tooth fragments
Comments- From the same locality as "Megalosaurus" inexpectatus, so may be referrable to that taxon.
Reference- Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cuneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000. Theropods from the "Middle" Cretaceous Chubut Group of the San Jorge sedimentary basin, central Patagonia: A preliminary note. GAIA. 15, 111-115.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Calvo, Rubila and Moreno, 1999)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Candeleros Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Material- maxilla, dentary, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, ilia, pubis, femur, tibia, pedal elements
Reference- Calvo, Rubila and Moreno, 1999. Report of a new theropod dinosaur from northwestern Patagonia. XV Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontología de Vertebrados. Ameghiniana. 36(4, suppl.), 7R.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Martinelli and Forasiepi, 2004)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Rio Negro, Argentina

Material- (MACN-PV RN 1086) tooth
Reference- Martinelli and Forasiepi, 2004. Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Bajo de Santa Rosa (Allen Formation), Río Negro province, Argentina, with the description of a new sauropod dinosaur (Titanosauridae). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 6(2), 257-305.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Medeiros and Schultz, 2002)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Alcantara Formation of the Itapecuru Group, Brazil

Material- teeth
Comments- Referred to Carcharodontosaurus sp. by Medeiros and Schultz (2002), but this is unlikely given the location.
References- Medeiros and Schultz, 2002. The dinosaurian fauna of "Laje do Coringa", Middle Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 60(3), 155-162.
Castro, Bertini, Santucci and Medeiros, 2005. Fossils from the Coroata Locality, undifferentiated geological unity, Itapecuru Group, Lower/Middle Albian from the Sao Luis-Grajau Basin, Maranhao State, North/Northeastern Brazil. In Kellner, Henriques and Rodriguesn (eds.). II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro Museu Nacional. Boletim de Resumos. 75-76.
Elais, Bertini and Medeiros, 2005. Review of the occurrences concerning isolated amniotes teeth, in the Cretaceous deposits from the Maranhao State. In Kellner, Henriques and Rodriguesn (eds.). II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro Museu Nacional. Boletim de Resumos. 99-100.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Canudo, Salgado, Barco, Bolatti and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2004)
Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Cerro Lisandro Formation, Rio Negro, Argentina

Material- (Endemas PV-2) tooth
teeth
Reference- Canudo, Salgado, Barco, Bolatti and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2004. Dientes de dinosaurios teropodos y sauropodos de la Formacion Cerro Lisandro (Cenomaniense superior-Turoniense inferior, Cretacico superior) en Rio Negro (Argentina). Geo-Temas. 6(5), 31-34.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Novas, Martinez, de Valais and Ambrosio, 1999)
Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Mata Amarilla Formation, Santa Cruz, Argentina

Material- teeth
Reference- Novas, Martinez, de Valais and Ambrosio, 1999. Nuevos registros de Carcharodontosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda) en el Cretácico de Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 36, 17R.

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Veralli and Calvo, 2003)
Late Turonian-Early Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Portezuelo Formation of Rio Neuquen Subgroup, Argentina

Material- (MUCPv 381, 384, 386, 387, 391) ten teeth
Comments- These may belong to Megaraptor, if the latter is carcharodontosaurid, but it is here placed as a coelurosaur.
References- Veralli and Calvo, 2003. New findings of carcharodontosauid teeth on Futalognko quarry (Upper Turonian), north Barreales Lake, Neuquén, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 40(4, suppl.), 74R.
Veralli and Calvo, 2004. Dientes de terópodos carcharodontosáuridos del Turoniano superior-Coniaciano inferior del Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 587-590.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Kellner and Campos, 1998)
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Adamantina Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Material- (MMR/UFU-PV 005) tooth (Candeiro et al., 2006)
(UFRJ-DG 379-Rd) tooth (Candeiro et al., 2004)
Description- strong enamel ridges on teeth similar to carcharodontosaurids.
References- Kellner and Campos, 1998. Review of Cretaceous theropods and sauropods from Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 55A.
Silva and Kellner, 1999. Novos dentes de Theropoda do Cretaceo continental do Brasil. Paleontologia em Destaque, Boletim Informativo da Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia 14(26).
Candeiro, Abranches, Abrantes, Avilla, Martins, Moreira, Torres and Bergqvist, 2004. Dinosaurs remains from western São Paulo state, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Upper Cretaceous). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 18:1-10.
Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: a reappraisal. Cretaceous Research.
Candeiro, Santos, Rich, Marinho and Oliveira, 2006. Vertebrate fossils from the Adamantina Formation (Late Cretaceous), Prata paleontological district, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: Geobios, v. 39, p. 319-327.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Marilia Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Material- (CPP 124, 127, 129a, 152, 156, 197, 199, 200, 208, 216, 241, 375/1, 376, 447-449, 474, 475) eighteen teeth
References- Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: a reappraisal. Cretaceous Research.
Candeiro, Currie and Bergqvist, 2012. Theropod teeth from the Marília Formation (Late Maastrichtian) at the paleontological site of Peirópolis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Geociências. 42(2), 323-330.

unnamed Carcharodontosauridae (Rauhut, 1999)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Wadi Milk Formation, Sudan

Material- (Vb-607) proximal caudal centrum (137 mm)
(Vb-717) proximal caudal centrum (136 mm)
?(Vb-718) pedal phalanx III-2 (105 mm)
?(Vb-849) distal tarsal III, proximal metatarsal III
(Vb-870) mid caudal centrum (130 mm)
(Vb-871) mid caudal vertebra (136 mm)
Comments- Pleurocoels in Vb-607 and Vb-871 may indicate referral to Carcharodontosaurus. Vb-871 is from a different taxon than Vb-607, Vb-717 and Vb-870, based on the deeper ventral groove, less prominent ventral keel, and more distally developed pleurocoels. The limb elements are only tentatively referred to Carcharodontosauridae, based on similarity to allosauroids.
References- Werner, 1991. Aspects on Terrestrial Upper Cretaceous ecosystems of Egypt and Northern Sudan: Fifth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, extended abstracts-edited by Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., Heintz, N., and Nakrem, H. A., Contributions from the Paleontological Museum, University of Oslo, no. 364, 1991, p. 71-72.
Werner, 1993. Late Cretaceous continental vertebrate fauns of Niger and Northern Sudan: In: Geosicentific Research in Northeast Africa. Edited by Thorweihe, U., and Schandelmier, S., Proceedings of the international Conference on Geoscientific Research in Northeast Africa/Berlin/Germany/17-19 June 1993, p. 401-405.
Werner, 1994. Die kontinentale Wirbeltierfauna aus der unteren Oberkreide des Sudan (Wadi Milk Formation): Berliner geowiss. Abh. E, v. 13, p. 221-249.
Rauhut, 1999. A dinosaur fauna from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of northern Sudan. Palaeontologia Africana. 35:61-84.

unnamed possible carcharodontosaurid (Young and Sun, 1957)
Late Jurassic
Kelaza Formation, Xinjiang, China

Material- (IVPP V903) (~6 m; ~600 kg) anterior dentary, three teeth
Comments- Originally referred to cf. Szechuanosaurus, that genus is an indeterminate neotheropod. Molnar (1974) noted the lateral dentary shelf was similar to Labocania, and Mapusaurus has one too (Coria and Currie, 2006). Chure (2000) noted the typically theropod teeth (recurved with small serrations) distinguish the taxon from segnosaurs, which also have a lateral dentary shelf. He referred it to Theropoda indet..
References- Young and Sun, 1957. Note on a fragmentary carnosaurian mandible from Turfan, Sinkiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 1(2), 2027-2036.
Molnar, 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology. 48(5), 1009-1017.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.

unnamed clade (Labocania anomala + Shaochilong maortuensis)
Diagnosis- very thick frontal; supratemporal fossa restricted from frontal; sagittal crest on frontal; lack of helical groove on quadrate condyle.
Comments- Labocania and Shaochilong appear to be each others closest relatives, a possibility originally noted by Molnar (1974), and later elaborated by Chure (2000). The clade remains unnamed however. The taxa fall outside Tyrannoraptora in a modified version of Senter's (2007) matrix, as Shaochilong lacks a palatal shelf, nasal fusion or transversely convex nasals, and has fused interdental plates. While the triangular obturator process of Labocania and the subcondylar recesses of Shaochilong are similar to coelurosaurs, these are also present in some carcharodontosaurids.

Labocania Molnar, 1974
L. anomala Molnar, 1974
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
El Gallo Formation, Mexico

Diagnosis- pneumatic quadrate; oblique ridge on posterior face of quadrate; lateral dentary shelf.
Holotype- (LACM 20877) (~7.5 m; ~1.2 tons) (skull ~660 mm) partial maxilla, distal quadrate, frontal, dentary fragment, premaxillary teeth, maxillary teeth, chevron, proximal ischium (~750 mm), shaft of pubis, nearly complete metatarsal II (<507 mm), phalanx III-2 (~115 mm)
Comments- Discovered in 1970, this taxon was originally compared to Indosaurus, Shaochilong and an unnamed partial dentary from the Kelaza Formation described by Young and Sun (1957) (IVPP V903). Similarities to tyrannosaurids were also noted. Paul (1988) referred it to his Allosauridae, which was paraphyletic to tyrannosaurids. Lamanna and Smith reexamined this species in 1998 and found the specimen to be more fragmentary than expected. A paper may be published soon. They conclude it is a tyrannosaurid, although it may not be valid. Chure (2000) referred it to Holtz's tyrannosaur + ornithomimosaur + troodontid clade, and thought it was most closely related to Shaochilong. Another so far unpublished possibility is a relationship to carcharodontosaurids, as Mapusaurus and Giganotosaurus have a pneumatic quadrate, lateral dentary shelf, proximolateral ischial fossa and triangular obturator process. This would coincide with Brusatte et al.'s (2009) recent assignment of Shaochilong to that clade.
References- Young and Sun, 1957. Note on a fragmentary carnosaurian mandible from Turfan, Sinkiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 1(2), 2027-2036.
Molnar, 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology. 48(5), 1009-1017.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009. The first definitive carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Asia and the delayed ascent of tyrannosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 96(9), 1051-1058.

Shaochilong Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009
= “Alashansaurus" Chure, 2000
S. maortuensis (Hu, 1964) Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009
= Chilantaisaurus maortuensis Hu, 1964
= "Alashansaurus" maortuensis (Hu, 1964) Chure, 2000
Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Ulanhushi Formation of Dashigou Group, Inner Mongolia, China

Lectotype- (IVPP V2885.1) (~5-6 m; ~500 kg; adult) (skull ~580 mm) incomplete braincase
....(IVPP V2885.2) partial nasal, frontals (93.3 mm), parietals (22 mm)
Paralectotypes- ....(IVPP V2885.3) quadrates (143 mm)
....(IVPP V2885.4) maxillae (one incomplete, one fragmentary and lost; ~350 mm)
....(IVPP V2885.5) incomplete axis (~70 mm)
?...(IVPP V2885.6) incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (72 mm), two proximal caudal vertebrae (lost)
?...(IVPP V2885.7) mid caudal vertebra (85 mm), distal caudal centrum (85 mm), distal caudal centrum (90 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Hu, 1964) twelve maxillary teeth.
(after Chure, 1998) paradental groove on medial surface of maxilla absent; large cylindrical pneumatic cavity in posterior nasals; deep sagittal crest on frontals and parietals.
(after Chure, 2000) no maxillary palatal shelf.
(after Brusatte et al., 2009) maxillary antorbital fossa reduced in extent and nearly absent; deep, dorsoventrally oriented grooves located dorsally on maxillary interdental plates; large pneumatic foramen at anterodorsal corner of dorsal tympanic recess of prootic.
Other diagnoses- Hu (1964) also diagnosed maortuensis by its large occipital condyle (compared to the foramen magnum), which is similar to other carcharodontosaurids. His last two characters- small skull and small quadrate, are too vague to evaluate.
Of the supposedly diagnostic characters listed by Chure (1998), the fused maxillary interdental plates, anteriorly limited supratemporal fossae, declined paroccipital processes and highly pneumatized and shortened basicranium are typical of carcharodontosaurids. Contra Chure, a paraquadrate foramen was present, and the maxillary interdental plates are not small. The frontal sagittal crest is shared with Labocania.
Chure (2000) listed additional diagnostic characters, including ones that are typical of carcharodontosaurids- thick, flat frontals; subnarial process of frontals forms a deep trough; short axis. The absent distal quadrate groove is shared with Labocania, while the frontals aren't unfused and the axial neural spine is posterodorsally inclined.
Comments- Hu (1964) placed this and Chilantaisaurus tashuikensis in the same genus based on dental and caudal similarities. The caudals of Chilantaisaurus are only doubtfully referred and belong to the proximal part of the series, while those of Shaochilong are more distal. Also, the tooth of Chilantaisaurus is similarly doubtfully referred and comparison with the exposed tooth of Shaochilong is not useful. Because of this, Chure (1998) separated the two species, and later (2000) created a new genus for maortuensis in his unpublished thesis- "Alashansaurus" (incorrectly spelled "Alshansaurus" by Brusatte et al., 2010). The name was published by Glut (2003), but the latter reference includes a caveat to prevent it from being an official taxonomic source, leaving the possibility of Chure being its official describer once his thesis' contents are published. This happened in 2009, when Chure coauthored Brusatte et al. (2009), naming the genus Shaochilong instead.
After Hu's assignment to the Megalosauridae, Molnar (1974) noted frontal and quadrate similarities to Labocania. Both Paul (1988) and Molnar et al. (1990) assigned it to a paraphyletic Allosauridae, closer to tyrannosaurids than Allosaurus. Chure (1998) noted it shared characters with Labocania, tyrannosaurs, troodontids and dromaeosaurids. He later (2000) assigned it to Holtz's tyrannosaur + ornithomimosaur + troodontid clade based on the proximolateral ischial scar in the related Labocania, and to the Tyrannosauroidea based on the highly pneumatized basicranium and short and deep braincase. He finds it is most closely related to Labocania, which I concur with based on characters described above. Brusatte et al. (2009) entered it into Smith et al.'s (2007) matrix, finding it to be a carcharodontosaurid outside of Carcharodontosaurinae and related to Tyrannotitan.
References- Hu, 1964. Carnosaurian remains from Alashan, Inner Mongolia. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 8, 42-63.
Molnar, 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology. 48(5), 1009-1017.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Molnar, Kurzanov and Dong, 1990. Carnosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. Berkeley: University of California Press. 169-209.
Chure, 1998. "Chilantaisaurus" maortuensis, a large maniraptoran theropod from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of Nei Mongol, PRC. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 33A-34A.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
Glut, 2003. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia - Supplement 3. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC.
Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009. The first definitive carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Asia and the delayed ascent of tyrannosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 96(9), 1051-1058.
Brusatte, Chure, Benson and Xu, 2010. The osteology of Shaochilong maortuensis, a carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Asia. Zootaxa. 2334, 1-46.

Carcharodontosaurinae Stromer, 1931 vide Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus + Giganotosaurus carolinii) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)

"Megalosaurus" chubutensis Corro, 1974
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Cerro Castillo Formation, Argentina

Holotype- (MACN 18.189) tooth (~85 mm)
Comments- Poblete and Calvo (2004) assign chubutensis to Carcharodontosauridae, based on marginal wrinkles, serration density and a distal carina which descends in a zigzag pattern in lingual view. They consider it indeterminate. Carrano et al. (2012) stated it resembled abelisaurids, but did not list shared characters.
Reference- Corro, 1974. Un nuevo megalosaurio (Carnosaurio) del Cretacico de Chubut (Argentina). Comunicación del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia. 1, 37-44.
Poblete and Calvo, 2004. "Megalosaurus chubutensis" del Corro: un posible Carcharodontosauridae del Chubut. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 59R-60R.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

"Megalosaurus" ingens Janensch, 1920
= Ceratosaurus ingens (Janensch, 1920) Paul, 1988
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Lectotype- (MB R 1050) tooth (120 mm)
Paralectotypes- (MB R 1060) tooth
(MB R 1069) tooth
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Paralectotypes- (MB R 1054) tooth
(MB R 1057) tooth
(MB R 1058) tooth
(MB R 1061) tooth
(MB R 1067) tooth
Callovian-Oxfordian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Lower Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Paralectotypes- (MB R 1053) tooth
(MB R 1064) tooth
Callovian-Tithonian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Paralectotypes- (MB R 1082) tooth
?(MB R coll.) thirteen teeth, tooth fragments
Comments- Though Janensch (1925) referred 13 more teeth and tooth fragments to the taxon, these are excluded by Rauhut (2011) as not sharing the exact same combination of characters. Rauhut did note there are Tendaguru teeth that are similar except for the absence of enamel wrinkles, which are individually variable in many other taxa. While this species has been referred to both Megalosaurus (Janensch, 1920) and Ceratosaurus (Paul, 1988), Rauhut (2011) noted it differs from these taxa. Specifically, Megalosaurus differs in having a more strongly recurved crown tip, finer serrations, mesial serrations that ends well above the crown-root junction, and lacks down-pointing grooves at the bases of the serrations. Ceratosaurus also lacks the latter grooves, has strongly transversely flattened crowns, pronounced flat or even slightly concave areas adjacent to the carinae, and never shows enamel wrinkles. Rauhut (1995) noted similarity with Carcharodontosaurus in the interdenticle grooves, and suggested it may be a carcharodontosaurid. He later (2011) made the same suggestion, this time based on the combination of only slightly recurved crowns, basally directed grooves at the base of the serrations, mesial carina extends to the base of the crown, and marginal, apically curved enamel wrinkles along the carinae. If so, these characters are only shared with carcharodontosaurines within that family.
References- Janensch, 1920. Ueber Elaphrosaurus bambergi und die Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Sitz.-Ber. naturforsch. Fr. Berlin 1920 225-235, 7 figs.
Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Rauhut, 1995. 1995. Zur systematischen Stellung der afrikanischen Theropoden Carcharodontosaurus Stromer, 1931, und Bahariasaurus Stromer, 1934. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. 16(1), 357-375.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

Carcharodontosaurus Stromer, 1931
Diagnosis- (modified after Brusatte and Sereno, 2008) pronounced grooved sculpturing of nearly the entire lateral surface of the maxilla; large internal carotid and paracondylar pneumatocoels (pneumatic recesses); deep funnel-shaped basisphenoid fossa.
C. saharicus (Deperet and Savornin, 1925) Stromer, 1931
= Megalosaurus saharicus Deperet and Savornin, 1925
= Megalosaurus (Dryptosaurus) saharicus (Deperet and Savornin, 1925) Deperet and Savornin, 1927
= Megalosaurus africanus Deperet and Savornin, 1925 vide Huene, 1956
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem Formation, Morocco

Neotype- (SGM-Din 1) (12.79 m) incomplete skull (missing premaxillae, squamosals, quadratojugals) (~1.42 m) (Sereno et al., 1996)
Referred- ?(CMN 41817) tooth (54x27x12 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41818) tooth (67x36x22 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41819) tooth (69x34x16 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41859) maxillary fragment (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41908) tooth (30x24x11 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41910) tooth (23x19x6 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 50792) cervical vertebra (148 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(M-CH-003) tooth (Amiot, Buffetaut, Tong, Boudad and Kabiri, 2004)
?(M-TA-032) tooth (Amiot, Buffetaut, Tong, Boudad and Kabiri, 2004)
? teeth, ilium (Lavocat, 1954)
? teeth (Taquet, 1976)
? teeth (Sadleir, 1998)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Algeria

Holotype- ?(lost; syntypes of Megalosaurus saharicus) two maxillary or dentary teeth
Referred- ?(MNNHN coll.) twelve teeth (to FABL of 42 mm), few mid caudal vertebrae (~70-100 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

?(IPHG 1912 VIII 68) ilium (Stromer, 1934)
(IPHG 1922 X46; holotype of Carcharodontosaurus) partial maxilla, maxillary teeth, nasals, frontals, parietals, supraoccipital, partial exoccipital-opisthotics, axis, anterior cervical vertebra (100 mm), cervical vertebra, proximal dorsal rib, proximal caudal vertebra (145 mm), proximal chevron (150 mm), partial chevron, manual ungual, incomplete pubes (>1 m), partial ischium, femora (1.26 m), fibula (880 mm) (Stromer, 1931)
?remains (Smith et al., 2001)
Cretaceous
Africa

?(FPDM-V6211) fragmentary skull (Azuma, 2005)
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte and Sereno, 2007) laterally protruding ventral margin of the maxillary external antorbital fossa; deep and ventrally-facing fossa between
the inner wall of the maxilla and the anteromedial process; deep and dorsoventrally protruding lacrimal-frontal suture; invaginated anteromedial corner of the supratemporal fossa; distinct enamel wrinkles on both mesial and distal margins of mesial (anterior) and mid maxillary crowns.
Comments- Megalosaurus saharicus is based on two teeth from the Albian Continental Intercalaire of Algeria (Deperet and Sevornin, 1925). Huene (1956) listed Megalosaurus africanus, incorrectly attributed to Deperet and Savornin (1925), but this is probably a mistake. Later, Stromer (1931) described a partial skeleton from the Early Cenomanian Baharija Formation of Egypt and referred it to this species, creating the genus Carcharodontosaurus for it. An incomplete skull from the Cenomanian Kem Kem Formation of Morocco closely resembling Stromer's specimen was reported by Sereno et al. (1996). Brusatte and Sereno (2007) noted Giganotosaurus has identical teeth to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, thus the original Megalosaurus saharicus specimens are indeterminate. In order to save Carcharodontosaurus saharicus from being a nomen dubium, they made the incomplete Kem Kem skull the neotype of the species (Stromer's material is destroyed). Since no diagnostic differences have been noted between the teeth of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus and Giganotosaurus, the referral of isolated teeth to any particular derived carcharodontosaurid taxon is based solely on locality.
The ilium (IPHG 1912 VIII 68) referred to Carcharodontosaurus by Stromer (1934) does not necessarily belong to this taxon, and may be ceratosaurian (?= Deltadromeus or Bahariasaurus). Twelve teeth and a few mid caudal vertebrae from the holotype locality were described by Lapparent (1960). The teeth are described as having enamel wrinkles as in derived carcharodontosaurids and being very similar to the holotype, though the caudals' referral is uncertain. They are referred here to C. saharicus based on provenance. Russell (1996) described a maxillary fragment, cervical vertebra and teeth from the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco, which though closely resembling those in Stromer's specimen, are only referred to the species saharicus based on provenance. The same can be said for teeth from that locality mentioned by Lavocat (1954) and Sadlier (1998), though Lavocat's teeth were not only compared to Carcharodontosaurus, but also Tendaguru taxa and Tyrannosaurus, so may not be referrable to carcharodontosaurids at all. Smith et al. (2001) reported new remains of cf. Carcharodontosaurus from the Baharija Formation of Egypt. Sereno et al. (1996) referred the specimen of Spinosaurus B and the material of Sigilmassasaurus to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, but this is not followed here (see Sigilmassasaurus entry).
References- Deperet and Savornin, 1925. Sur la decouverte d'une faune de vertebres albiens a Timintoun (Sahara occidental). Comptes Rendus de l’Academic de Sciences. 181, 1108-1111.
Depéret and Savornin, 1927. La faune de reptiles et de poisons albiens de Timimoun (Sahara algérien). Bulletin de la société géologique de France. 27, 257-265.
Stromer, 1931. Wirbeltiere-Reste der Baharijestufe (unterstes Cenoman). Ein Skellett-Rest von Carcharodontosaurus nov. gen.. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Nat. Abt. (N. F.) 9 1-23, 1 pl.
Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharîje-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Nat. Abt., (n. s.) 22 1-79, 3 pls.
Lavocat, 1954. Sur les Dinosauriens du continental intercalaire des Kem-Kem de la Daoura. C. R. 19th Internatl. Geol. Congr. 1952: 65-68.
Huene, 1956. Palaeontologie und Phylogenie der Niederen Tetrapoden. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlang, Jena. 716 pp.
Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
Taquet, 1976. Geologie et Paleontologie du gisement de Gadoufaoua (Aptian du Niger): Cahires Paleont, 191pp.
Rauhut, 1995. Zur systematischen Stellung der afrikanischen Theropoden Carcharodontosaurus Stromer 1931 und Bahariasaurus Stromer 1934. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen E16 (Gundolf-Ernst-Festschrift): 357-375.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.) 18:349-402.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
Sidleir, 1998. Theropod teeth from the Cretaceous of Morocco. JVP 18(3) 74A.
Larsson, 2001. Endocranial anatomy of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) and its implications for theropod brain evolution. pp. 19-33. in Tanke, Darren H. & Carpenter, Kenneth, eds., 2001. Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, Indiana: xviii + 542 pp.
Smith, Lamanna, Lacovara, Dodson, Smith, Poole, Giegengack and Attia, 2001. A giant sauropod dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous mangrove deposit in Egypt. Science 292:1704-1706.
Amiot, Buffetaut, Tong, Boudad and Kabiri, 2004. Isolated theropod teeth from the Cenomanian of Morocco and their palaeobiogeographical significance. Revue de Paleobiologie, Geneve. 9, 143-149.
Azuma, 2005. The Flying Dinosaurs: Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, 118pp.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
C? iguidensis Brusatte and Sereno, 2007
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Echkar Formation of the Tegama Group, Niger

Holotype- (MNN IGU2) partial maxilla
Paratypes- (MNN IGU3) (adult) braincase
(MNN IGU4) partial lacrimal
(MNN IGU5) anterior dentary
(MNN IGU6) tooth
(MNN IGU7) tooth
(MNN IGU8) tooth
(MNN IGU9) tooth
(MNN IGU10) tooth
? teeth, vertebral fragments
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte and Sereno, 2007) very reduced antorbital fossa limited to the proximity of the maxillary fenestra; anteromedial maxillary process that is broadly arched toward the midline; prominent horizontal crest on the medial aspect of the main maxillary body; braincase excavated by a deep invaginated fossa on the anterior aspect of the laterosphenoid ala.
Comments- Sereno et al. (2004) noted carcharodontosaurids were associated with Rugops in the Echkar Formation, and Brusatte and Sereno (2005) breifly described the new species in an abstract. It was named and described in detail by Brusatte and Sereno (2007). They also referred a cervical centrum (MNN IG11) to the species, but it was found loose from the ground and was too immature to belong to the same individual as MNN IGU3. It is here referred to Sigilmassaurus, which Sereno views as synonymous with Carcharodontosaurus (see Sigilmassasaurus entry).
References- Sereno, Wilson, and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271(1546), 1325-1330.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2005. A new specis of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and its implications for allosauroid phylogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 40A.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1953)
Albian-Early Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous
Tegama Group, Niger

Material- (MNNHN coll.; from In Abangarit) two braincase fragments, 137 teeth (anterior teeth- 80x33 mm, 77x31 mm, 62x28 mm, 64x27 mm, 54x26 mm; lateral teeth- 125x47 mm, 70x45 mm, 105x40 mm, 90x37 mm, 87x36 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (120 mm), distal caudal vertebra, manual phalanx II-2 (60 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, etc.). Over a hundred of the teeth are carcharodontosaurid, however. Carcharodontosaurid material may be referrable to Carcharodontosaurus sp. nov., based on provenance. A pedal ungual from In Abangarit referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent matches the Spinosaurus B morphotype currently associated with Sigilmassasaurus (Novas et al., 2005).
References- Lapparent, 1953. Gisements de dinosauriens dans le "Continental intercalaire" d'In Abangharit (Saharia meridional): Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris, v. 236, p. 1905-1906.
Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat., n.s.. 7(2), 167-175.
C? sp. indet. (Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Chenini Formation, Tunisia

Material- four teeth
References- Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978. Eine Bonebed-Lagerstatte aus dem Wealden Sud-Tunesiens (Umgebung Ksar Krerachfa). Berliner geowissenchaftliche Abhandlungen A. 8, 53-65.
Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Ghanmi, Jaeger, Martin, Mazin and Tong, 1988. Nouvelles decouvertes de vertebres fossiles dans l'Albien du Sud tunisien: Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France, 8th series, tomo 4, n. 2, p. 335-339.
Benton, Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Martill, Ouaja, Soussi and Trueman, 2000. Dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates from fluvial deposits in the Lower Cretaceous of Southern Tunisia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 157, p. 227-246.
Buffetaut and Ouaja, 2002. A new specimen of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia, with remarks on the evolutionary history of the Spinosauridae: Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France, tomo 173, n. 5, p. 415-421.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1951)
Early Cretaceous
Dahar, Tunisia

Material- nine teeth
Reference- Lapparent, 1951. Decouverte de dinosauriens associes la und faunad de reptiles et de poissons, dans le Cretaceous inferieur de l'extreme sud tunisien: Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris, v. 232, p. 1430-1432.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Albian-Early Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Tunisia

Material- (MNNHN coll.) five teeth (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- These teeth are said to have Carcharodontosaurus' 'characteristic thickness and form', so may be carcharodontosaurid.
Reference- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation, Niger

Material- (MNNHN Td. 2250) teeth (Taquet, 1976)
(MNNHN Td. 2269) teeth (Taquet, 1976)
(MNNHN coll.) anterior tooth (70 mm), lateral tooth fragment, mid caudal vertebra (>85 mm), radius (~110 mm), manual ungual (85 mm), pedal phalanx (85 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material described by Lapparent was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, etc.). The tooth fragment has carcharodontosaurid enamel wrinkles.
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
Taquet, 1976. Geologie et Paleontologie du gisement de Gadoufaoua (Aptian du Niger): Cahires Paleont, 191pp.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Berriasian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Irhazer Group, Niger

Material- (MNNHN coll.) partial cervical vertebra, two dorsal vertebrae (120 mm), two sacral vertebrae (280 mm combined), mid caudal vertebra (115 mm), three caudal vertebrae (100, 110, 120 mm), two distal chevrons (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, etc.).
Reference- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Niger

Material- (MNNHN coll.; from Tefidet) two mid caudal vertebrae (85 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
(from Akarazeras) teeth (Taquet, 1976)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, etc.).
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
Taquet, 1976. Geologie et Paleontologie du gisement de Gadoufaoua (Aptian du Niger): Cahires Paleont, 191pp.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Sahara Desert

Material- (MNNHN coll.) eight vertebrae, partial humerus, distal manual phalanx (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, etc.).
Reference- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
C? sp. indet. (Buffetaut, 1989)
Late Albian-Early Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous
Tegama Formation?, Morocco

Reference- Buffetaut, 1989. New remains of the enigmatic dinosaur Spinosaurus from the Cretaceous of Morocco and the affinities between Spinosaurus and Baryonyx. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte 1989(2):79-87.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Algeria

Material- ?(MNNHN coll.; from Alrar) caudal vertebra (60 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
(MNNHN coll.; from Aoulef) dorsal centrum (75 mm), proximal caudal centrum (105 mm), few mid caudal vertebrae (~70-100 mm), caudal vertebra (80 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
(from Oued Boudjihane) teeth (Bassoullet and Iliou, 1967)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, etc.). A manual ungual from Dijoua referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent matches bone taxon J of Russell (1996), a possible oviraptorosaur. A distal metatarsal from Alrar referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent is actually a manual phalanx and matches bone taxon I of Russell, which may belong to the same species as bone taxon J. A pedal ungual from Alrar referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent matches the Spinosaurus B morphotype currently associated with Sigilmassasaurus (Novas et al., 2005).
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France 88A: 1-57.
Bassoullet and Iliou, 1967. Discovery of dinosaurs associated with crocodilians and fish in the Lower Cretaceous of the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Société Géologique de la France, Comptes Rendus Sommaire des Sciences. 1967:294-295.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.) 18, 349-402.
Novas, Dalla Vecchia and Pais, 2005. Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat., n.s.. 7(2), 167-175.
C? sp. indet. (Bond and Bromley, 1970)
Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous
Gokwe Formation, Zimbabwe

Material- teeth
Reference- Bond and Bromley, 1970. Sediments with the remains of Dinosaurs near Gokwe, Rhodesia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 8, p. 313-327.

Giganotosaurinae Coria and Currie, 2006
Definition- (Giganotosaurus carolinii, Mapusaurus rosea <- Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified from Coria and Currie, 2006)
= Giganotosaurini Coria and Currie, 2006 vide Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Giganotosaurus carolinii <- Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
Diagnosis- (after Coria and Currie, 2006) femur with a weak fourth trochanter; shallow and broad extensor groove.
short distal caudal prezygapophyses (<25% of central length); scapular acromion rises from blade at low angle; cruciate ridge in femoral flexor groove absent.
References- Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.

Tyrannotitan Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005
T. chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Cerro Castano Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (MPEF-PV 1156) (~11.4 m) incomplete dentaries, partial second dorsal neural arch, partial third dorsal vertebra, incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra, incomplete fifth dorsal vertebra, incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal neural spine, ninth dorsal neural spine, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, fourteenth dorsal neural spine, gastral fragments, first sacral neural spine, proximal caudal vertebra, six chevrons, proximal scapulocoracoid, distal humerus, radii (one partial, one fragmentary), ilial fragments, incomplete pubes, incomplete ischia, femora, fibula
Paratype- (MPEF-PV 1157) (~12.2 m) incomplete jugal, quadratojugal, incomplete dentary (680 mm), two teeth, atlas, incomplete seventh cervical vertebra, incomplete first dorsal vertebra, incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra, incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, partial eighth dorsal neural arch, twelfth dorsal centrum, thirteenth dorsal centrum, fourteenth dorsal centrum, dorsal rib fragment, fourteenth dorsal rib, partial sacrum, incomplete distal caudal vertebra, chevron, femur (1.40 m), distal metatarsal II, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, phalanx IV-2, phalanx III-3
Referred- (MPEF-PV 10821) tooth (Canale et al., 2014)
eighteen teeth (Canale et al., 2014)
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2005) teeth with bilobate denticles on mesial carina.
(after Canale et al., 2014) dentary with an anteroventrally-posterodorsally symphyseal margin in lateral view; second and third dorsal vertebrae with well-developed accessory lamina connecting anterior and
posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae; fibular fossa extended over the proximal end of the crista tibiofibularis in the femoral shaft; proximomedial fossa of the fibula with posteriorly projected anterior border.
Other diagnoses- Canale et al. (2014) noted the depth of the Meckelian groove is similar to Carcharodontosaurus? iguidensis, Giganotosaurus and Allosaurus, thus Novas et al.'s (2005) deep Meckelian groove is invalid. Similarly, Canale et al. noted the posterior dorsal neural spine ligament scars are equally well developed in Acrocanthosaurus, Giganotosaurus and Mapusaurus, contra Novas et al..
Comments- Novas et al. (2005) list three pedal phalanges as being present in the holotype ("2.I, 2.II and 3.III"), but also illustrate an ungual supposedly from digit II, which wouldn't correspond to any of these. The skeletal reconstruction only shows two phalanges- ungual III and a distal phalanx. Canale et al. (2014) reidentified the phalanges as II-2, ungual II, IV-2 and IV-3. The supposed ulna was reidentified as a radius and several presacral centra had revised positions in Canale et al. (2014).
References- Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cúneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000. Theropods from the "Middle" Cretaceous Chubut Group of the San Jorge sedimentary basin, Central Patagonia. A preliminary note. GAIA. 15, 111-115.
Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005. A large Cretaceous theropod from Patagonia, Argentina, and the evolution of carcharodontosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 92(5), 226-230.
Canale, Novas and Pol, 2014. Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of Tyrannotitan chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005 (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Historical Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2013.861830

Mapusaurus Coria and Currie, 2006
= "Mapusaurus" Fiorillo and Eberth, 2004
M. roseae Coria and Currie, 2006
= "Mapusaurus rosae" Papolio, 2004
Late Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Huincul Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Argentina

Holotype- (MCF-PVPH-108.1) nasal
Paratypes- (MCF-PVPH-108.5) incomplete lacrimal/prefrontal
(MCF-PVPH-108.45) incomplete humerus (~300 mm)
(MCF-PVPH-108.83) axial neural arch
(MCF-PVPH-108.90) mid cervical neural arch
(MCF-PVPH-108.115) maxilla
(MCF-PVPH-108.125) partial dentary
(MCF-PVPH-108.128) ilium (1.05 m)
(MCF-PVPH-108.165) ischium (1.01 m)
(MCF-PVPH-108.167) incomplete jugal
(MCF-PVPH-108.177) postorbital
(MCF-PVPH-108.179) splenial
(MCF-PVPH-108.202) (~12.6 m) fibula (860 mm)
Referred- (MCF-PVPH-108.2) partial dentary (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.3) (~5.5 m; juvenile) partial dentary (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.4) postorbital (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.6) quadrate (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.7) angular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.8) anterior dentary tooth (65x33x20 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.9) mid dentary tooth (71x32x17 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.10) posterior tooth (41x25x13 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.11) maxillary fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.12) anterior nasal fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.14) manual ungual II(?) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.15) partial surangular (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.16) tooth (50x28x15 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.17) posterior nasal fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.18) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.19) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.21) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.22) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.23) pedal phalanx III-1 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.24) pedal phalanx III-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.25) partial femur, pedal phalanx III-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.26) pedal phalanx III-1 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.27) pedal phalanx II-2(?) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.28) pedal phalanx III-3 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.31) (~6.4 m) metatarsal III (454 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.32, 34-36) (~6.0-6.1 m) metatarsal II, metatarsal II (385 mm), metatarsal III (434 mm), metatarsal IV (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.33, 188) (~6.5-7.2 m) metatarsal II (450 mm), metatarsal III (460 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.37) (~7.3 m) metatarsal IV (475 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.38, 200) (~6.6 m) metatarsal II (415 mm), metatarsal III (>410 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.39) partial dentary (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.41) tooth (FABL >23 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.42) tooth (33x17.7x13.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.43) tooth (53x31x14.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.44) (~9.9 m) femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.46) radius (Coria and Currie, 2006)
?(MCF-PVPH-108.48) fused proximal metacarpal II and III (or distal humerus) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.50) scapula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.51) partial fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.52) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.53) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.54) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.57) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.58) (~9.7 m) tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.59) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.61) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.62) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.63) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.64) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.65) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.66) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.67) (~8.1 m) tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.68) (~9.8 m) tibia (1.04 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.69) scapular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.70) incomplete astragalus (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.71) partial coracoid (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.73) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.75) mid caudal vertebra (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.76) mid caudal vertebra (165 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.78) mid caudal vertebra (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.79) distal caudal vertebra (97 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.80) posterior dorsal centrum (165 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.81) proximal caudal vertebra (140 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.82) anterior dorsal vertebra (87 mm; excluding anterior ball) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.84) mid dorsal neural arch (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.85) dorsal neural arch (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.89) fifth sacral centrum (135 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.95) proximal ischium (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.96) proximal ischium (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.97) dorsal chevron (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.100) lacrimal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.101) lacrimal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.102) quadrate (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.103) posterior dentary tooth (24x20x9 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.106) anterior dorsal rib (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.109) manual phalanx II-2 (80 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.110) tooth (81.5x30x10.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.111) tooth (77x38x17 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.113) tooth (54x19x8.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.114) tooth (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.116) furcula or anterior gastralium (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.120) tooth (36x22 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.124) metatarsal II (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.131) tooth (?x19x8 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.132) (~8.4 m) fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.138) maxilla, tooth (47x23 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.139) partial prearticular (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.141) tooth (39x28x12 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.142) maxilla (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.145) (~12.2 m) pubic shaft (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.148) proximal pubis (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.149) proximal pubis (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.153) postorbital (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.162) cervical epipophysis (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.166) tooth (42x23x16 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.168) jugal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.169) partial maxilla, tooth (68 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.170) quadrate (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.171) tooth (56x29x16 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.173) tooth (>73x37 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.176) tooth (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.180) tooth (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.181) ilial fragment (>1.05 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.183) incomplete lacrimal/prefrontal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.185) (~12.2 m) scapular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.187) scapular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.189) (~8.3 m) fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.196) fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.198) pedal ungual II or IV (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.201) (~6.3 m) metatarsal III (450 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.203) (~10.2 m) femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.205) mid caudal vertebra (120 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.209) first sacral centrum (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.210) dorsal chevron (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.220) partial fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.230) gastralium fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.233) (~9.5 m) femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.234) partial femur (1.30 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.245) partial ilium (~1.05 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.246) metatarsal I (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.247) distal caudal vertebra (44 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108) few dorsal ribs, hundreds of dorsal rib fragments, gastralium fragments, more than nine pedal phalanges (Coria and Currie, 2006)
Diagnosis- (after Coria and Currie, 2006) upper quadratojugal process of jugal splits into two prong (unknown in Giganotosaurus); small anterior mylohyoid foramen positioned above dentary contact with splenial (unknown in Giganotosaurus); second and third metacarpals fused (supposed carpometacarpus may be distal humerus); humerus with broad distal end and little separation between condyles (unknown in Giganotosaurus); brevis fossa of ilium extends deeply into excavation dorsal to ischial peduncle.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) differ from Giganotosaurus in- lacking a second pneumatic foramen on the medial quadrate; details of the topology of the nasal rugosities.
Comments- The above material comes from at least nine individuals. Carrano et al. (2012) believe MCF-PVPH-108.48 is a distal humerus and not a carpometacarpus as Coria and Currie (2006) described it. While non-maniraptoriforms otherwise lack metacarpal fusion and it does resemble a distal humerus, it differs from Mapusaurus in having two bulbous condyles with a notch between them and a large epicondyle, so may belong to another theropod.
This taxon was discovered in 1995, but only reported to Coria in 1997, when he and Currie examined the material. It was announced at that years Society of Vertebrate Paleontology meeting, and described briefly in an abstract (Coria and Currie, 1997). At the time, only the remains of an 8 meter long specimen were known, and it was identified as an adult. Coria and Currie returned to the site in 1998 to discover the presence of at least six individuals, some of which Currie said could be larger than Giganotosaurus’ holotype. The largest specimens are MCF-PVPH-145, 185 and 202, which are about 100-103% the size of the Giganotosaurus holotype.
The association of several individuals was suggested to be due to pack behavior. This was reported to the popular media in May 1999, and later described in another abstract (Eberth et al., 2000). Later (Eberth and McCrea, 2001), the minimum number of individuals was increased to eight. This paper finds the probable cause of death to be drought and notes the bones experienced at least two flooding events and were exposed and trampled over more than one season. However, they state several alternatives exist besides gregarious behavior to explain the find, including environmental stress and breeding. In the final publication, Coria and Currie (2006) raised the minimum number of individuals to nine.
It was reported on the internet that a magazine had termed the taxon Giganotosaurus "argentine", but this has yet to be confirmed and would be a nomen nudum in any case. Fiorillo and Eberth (2004) used the name "Mapusaurus" in their taphonomy chapter in The Dinosauria 2nd. edition, probably by accident. Papolio (2004) listed it as "Mapusaurus rosae" in a field guide.
References- Coria and Currie, 1997. A new theropod from the Rio Limay Formation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3) 40A.
Eberth, Currie, Coria, Garrido and Zonneveld, 2000. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20 (3).
Eberth and Crea, 2001. Were large theropods gregarious? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3) 46A-47A.
Fiorillo and Eberth, 2004. Dinosaur taphonomy. in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska, 2004. The Dinosauria: Second Edition.
Papolio, 2004. "Animales Prehistóricos de América del Sur".
Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Giganotosaurus Coria and Salgado, 1995
G. carolinii Coria and Salgado, 1995
= Carcharodontosaurus carolinii (Coria and Salgado, 1995) Figueiredo, 1998
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Candeleros Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MUCPv-Ch1) (12.2 m, 5 tons) (skull- ~1.8 m) premaxilla, maxilla, maxillary teeth (74, 97 mm), nasal, lacrimal, postorbital, quadrates (410 mm), braincase, ectopterygoid, pterygoid, anterior dentary, dentary tooth, tooth (>82x45x18 mm), tooth (102x39.5x22 mm), tooth (88x33.5x20 mm), axis, most postaxial cervical vertebrae, most dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, first caudal vertebra, caudal vertebrae 7-21, two distal caudal vertebrae, eight chevrons, partial scapula (727 mm), partial coracoid, ilium (1.54 m), pubes (1.11 m), ischia (1.2 m), femora (1.43 m), tibia (1.12 m), fibula (835 mm), metatarsi, pedal elements
Referred- (FPDM coll.) tooth (87x44.2x19.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MUCPv-52) tooth (90 mm) (Calvo, 1999)
(MUCPv-95) (~13.2 m, 6.2 tons) (skull ~1.95 m) incomplete dentary, teeth (Calvo and Coria, 2000)
tooth (56x31.5x17 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
teeth (Valais and Apesteguia, 2001)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) two pneumatic foramina on medial surface of quadrate.
Comments- Carrano et al. (2012) report a femur length of 1.365 m for the holotype and believe the skull to be less than 1.5 m long when reconstructed correctly.
The combination Carcharodontosaurus carolinii was first used by Figueiredo (1998) (probably due to confusing Carcharodontosaurus and Giganotosaurus, as it was said to be discovered in 1995 but found in Morocco), but was used as an explicit new combination by Paul (2010).
Canale et al. (2014) noted the scapulocoracoid is actually damaged, so that the low acromion and unexpanded distal end are artificial.
References- Coria and Sagado, 1994. A giant theropod from the middle Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14(3), 22A.
Coria and Salgado, 1995. A new giant carnivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature. 377, 224-226.
Figueiredo, 1998. Os dinossáurios carnívoros: A sua descrição e modo de vida. Centro Portugues de Geo-historia e Pre-historia. 4 pp.
Calvo, 1999. Dinosaurs and other vertebrates of the Lake Ezequiel Ramos Mexia area, Neuquen - Patagonia, Argentina. in Tomida, Rich and Vickers-Rich (eds.). Proceedings of the Second Godwanan Dinosaur Symposium. 13-45.
Calvo and Coria, 2000. New specimen of Giganotosaurus carolinii supports it as the largest theropod ever found. Gaia 15, pp. 117-122.
Valais and Apesteguia, 2001. Dientes asignables a Giganontosaurus (Carcharodontososauria, Theropoda) provenientens de “La Buitera”, Formacion Candeleros, provincia de Rio Negro: Ameghiniana, v. 38, n. 4, supplement, p. 6R-7R.
Coria and Currie, 2002. The braincase of Giganotosaurus carolinii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(4), 802–811.
Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.
Carabajal and Canale, 2010. Cranial endocast of the carcharodontosaurid theropod Giganotosaurus carolinii Coria & Salgado, 1995. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 258(2), 249-256.
Paul, 2010. The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. Princeton University Press. 320 pp.
Eddy and Clarke, 2011. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). PLoS ONE. 6(3), e17932.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Canale, Novas and Pol, 2014. Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of Tyrannotitan chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005 (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Historical Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2013.861830

Allosauridae Marsh, 1878
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi) (modified from Padian and Hutchinson, 1997)
Other definitions- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (Holtz et al., 2004)
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
= Labrosauridae Marsh, 1882
= Antrodemidae Stromer, 1934
= Allosaurinae Marsh, 1878 sensu Paul, 1988
= Allosauridae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified)
= Allosauridae sensu Holtz et al., 2004
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus)
= Allosauridae sensu Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus)
Comments- Brusatte and Sereno's (2008) definition differs from Holtz et al.'s (2004) by including Passer as an external specifier. In this case, I agree it's useful for cases like Paul (2002), Longrich (2001) and Coria and Salgado (1995). I wonder if Tyrannosaurus might be a useful external specifier as well, as tyrannosaurids and allosaurids have often been posited as sister groups (Paul, 1988; Kurzanov, 1989; Molnar et al., 1990). However, in all these cases, Carcharodontosaurus was seen as an intermediate between Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus, which would keep tyrannosaurids from being allosaurids under Brusatte and Sereno's and Holtz et al.'s definitions.

unnamed possible allosaurid (Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Sudre and Sige, 1993)
Early Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
unnamed formation, Gard, France

Material- (MM-2) proximal manual phalanx II-2
(MM-8) fragmentary dorsal rib
(MM-9) fragmentary dorsal rib
(MM-11) manual ungual II
(MM-12) manual ungual III (~82 mm)
(MM-13) manual ungual III
(MM-14) manual phalanx III-2 (~50 mm)
(MM-15) manual phalanx III-3 (67 mm)
(MM-16) metacarpal III (10.2 mm)
(MM-17) manual ungual II (~114 mm)
(MM-18) manual phalanx II-1 (10.2 mm)
(MM-19) metacarpal I (82 mm)
(MM-20) humerus (~210 mm)
(MM-21) scapular fragment
Comments- Similar to Allosaurus in the medial concavity of metacarpal I, in which it is unlike Acrocanthosaurus. Thus it is provisionally referred to this family.
References- Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Sudre and Sige, 1993. A theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Southern France. Revue de Paleobiologie. 7, 173-188.

unnamed allosaurid (Zinke, 1998)
Early Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Alcobaca Formation, Portugal

Diagnosis- (after Zinke, 1998) differs from Allosaurus in lacking downward-pointing blood grooves.
Material- (IPFUB GUI D 66) tooth (Rauhut, 2000)
(IPFUB GUI D 191-194) four teeth (~8.75 mm)
(IPFUB GUI Th 4) (juvenile) maxilla (Rauhut and Fecner, 2005)
Comments- Chure (2000) doubted they could be referred to Allosauridae, with the rather weak defense of "they are just more similar to Allosaurus than other taxa", which would be in itself an acceptable reason to refer them to this family.
References- Zinke, 1998. Small theropod teeth from the Upper Jurassic coal mine of Guimarota (Portugal). Palaontologische Zeitschrift 72: 179-189.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
Rauhut, 2000. The dinosaur fauna from the Guimarota mine, Chapter 11: In: Guimarota, A Jurassic Ecosystem, edited by Martin T., and Krebs B., Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, p. 75-82.
Rauhut and Fecner, 2005. Early development of the facial region in a non-avian theropod dinosaur: Proceedings of the Royal Society, b, v. 171, 1179-1183.

unnamed possible allosaurid (Park et al., 2000)
Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous
Hasandong Formation of the Shindong Group, South Korea

Material- (KPE 8004) tooth
(KPE 8005) tooth
References- Park, Yank, and Currie, 2000. Early Cretaceous dinosaur teeth of Korea. in Lee (ed.), 2000. International Dinosaur Symposium for Kosong County in Korea. Paleontological Society of Korea Special Publication. 4:85-98.
Lee, 2003. Dinosaur bones and eggs in South Korea. Memoir of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. 2:113-121.

unnamed possible allosaurid (Dong, 1997)
Barremian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Xinminbao Group, Gansu, China

Material- (IVPP V.11122-3) tooth (24 mm)
Comments- Though referred to the Allosauridae by Dong (1997), Chure (2001) found no support for this assignment and considered it Theropoda indet.. The tooth is moderately tall and recurved with both mesial and distal serrations. The former may be confined to the apical half and seem subequal in size to the distal ones.
References- Dong, 1997. On small theropods from Mazongshan Area, Gansu Province, China. Pp. 13-18. in Dong, Z., ed. Sino-Japanese Silk Road Dinosaur Expedition. China Ocean Press, Beijing. 114 p.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.

undescribed allosaurid (Matsukawa and Obata, 1994)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Zouyun Formation, Mongolia

Comments- Matsukawa and Obata (1994) report through personal communication with Mateer (1992) that an indeterminate allosaurid was discovered in the Aptian-Albian Zouyun Formation of Mongolia.
Reference- Matsukawa and Obata, 1994. Cretaceous, a contribution to dinosaur facies in Asia based on molluscan paleontology and stratigraphy. Cretaceous Research 101-125.

undescribed allosaurid (Serrano-Martinez, Ortega and Knoll, 2013)
Bathonian?, Middle Jurassic
Argiles de l'Irhazer of the Irhazer Group, Niger

Material- two teeth
Comments- Serrano-Martinez et al. (2013) noted these plot with allosaurids when examined morphometrically.
Reference- Serrano-Martinez, Ortega and Knoll, 2013. Isolated theropod teeth from the "Argiles de l'Irhazer" (Middle Jurassic) of Niger. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 210.

Antrodemus Leidy, 1870
A. valens (Leidy, 1870) Leidy, 1870
= Poekilopleuron valens Leidy 1870
= Megalosaurus valens (Leidy, 1870) Nopsca, 1901
= Allosaurus valens (Leidy, 1870) Gilmore, 1920
Morrison Formation?, Colorado, US
Late Jurassic?

Holotype- (USNM 218) posterior half of sixth? caudal centrum (~125 mm)
Diagnosis- Indeterminate at the level of Allosaurus at least.
Comments- Chure (2000) finds that this specimen is probably Allosaurus based on comparison to other Morrison genera, though I'd be curious to see how it compares to other carnosaurs. He states that it cannot be determined which species of Allosaurus it belongs to, so it is indeterminate at that level at least. One good reason Chure has for retaining the name Allosaurus is that even though its holotype is also indeterminate to the species level, there is a topotype from the same quarry. The exact provenence of Antrodemus on the other hand, is unknown.
References- Leidy, 1870. Remarks on Poicilopleuron valens, Clidastes intermedius, Leiodon proriger, Baptemys wyomingensis, and Emys stevensonianus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1870: 3-5.
Nopcsa, 1901. Synopsis und Abstammung der Dinosaurier. Foldt. Kozl. 31: 247-288.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. CX 1-154, 36 pls., 78 text-figs.

"Madsenius" Lambert, 1990
"M. trux" unpublished
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, US

Material- partial skull, other remains?
Comments- This was orginally reported in a children's book. Olshevsky (online, 2004) stated that Bakker’s type species for "Madsenius" will be "M. trux". Bakker is supposedly describing this taxon based on material previously referred to Allosaurus. As Bakker is known for being a splitter, this is quite possibly merely Allosaurus fragilis material.
References- Lambert, 1990. The Dinosaur Data Book.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/paleo_bio_dinosaur_ontology/message/6655

Saurophaganax Chure, 1995
= "Saurophagus" Stovall vide Ray, 1941
S. maximus Chure, 1995
= "Saurophagus maximus" Stovall vide Ray, 1941 (preoccupied Swainson, 1831)
= Allosaurus maximus (Chure, 1995) Smith, 1998
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Oklahoma, US

Holotype- (OMNH 1123) anterior dorsal neural arch
Paratypes- (OMNH 780) manual ungual I
(OMNH 1102) mid chevron
(OMNH 1135) atlas
(OMNH 1142) partial quadrate
(OMNH 1152) lateral tooth
(OMNH 1153) lateral tooth
(OMNH 1190) posterior dorsal centrum
(OMNH 1191) metatarsal III
(OMNH 1307) metatarsal II
(OMNH 1338) partial ilium, pedal ungual IV
(OMNH 1370) tibia (955 mm)
(OMNH 1396) metatarsal IV
(OMNH 1425) distal pubis
(OMNH 1438) mid chevron
(OMNH 1444) mid cervical vertebra
(OMNH 1680) lateral tooth
(OMNH 1681) distal metatarsal I
(OMNH 1685) mid chevron
(OMNH 1708) femur (1059 mm)
(OMNH 1737) proximal ischium
(OMNH 1771) postorbital
(OMNH 1935) humerus (545 mm)
(OMNH 2145) partial quadrate
(OMNH 4666; lectotype of "Saurophagus maximus") tibia
Referred- (OMNH 1104) mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1122) proximal caudal neural arch (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1124) metacarpal III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1126) pedal phalanx III-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1127) manual phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1128) incomplete manual ungual III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1180) partial mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1189) dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1192) metatarsal III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1193) metatarsal IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1306) metatarsal IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1364) radius (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1415) radius (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1424) proximal ischium (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1426) incomplete fibula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1433) two anterior sacral centra, sacral rib (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1434) incomplete ulna (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1439) mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1446) partial posterior cervical centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1447) dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1450) anterior dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1461) metatarsal II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1684) mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1693) distal humerus (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1694) incomplete fibula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1695) incomplete fibula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1703) proximal ischium (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1707) proximal pubis (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1904) proximal caudal vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1906) anterior dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1911) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1912) pedal ungual IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1913) pedal ungual IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1914) pedal ungua IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1915) pedal ungual I (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1916) pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1918) pedal phalanx II-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1919) pedal phalanx III-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1920) manual phalanx II-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1921) manual phalanx II-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1924) metatarsal III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1925) pedal phalanx III-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1927) mid caudal vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1928) mid caudal vertebra, metacarpal I (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1929) metacarpal II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1936) metatarsal IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1947) fifth sacral vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2114) femur (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2146) mid cervical vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2147) mid cervical vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2149) distal tibia (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2154) incomplete scapula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 4016) partial scapula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10357) proximal caudal vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10373) pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10375) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10376) pedal phalanx I-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10377) pedal phalanx I-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10381) femur (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10732) pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52384) pedal phalanx II-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52385) pedal phalanx II-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52386) pedal phalanx III-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52387) pedal phalanx III-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52388) pedal phalanx III-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52389) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52390) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52391) pedal phalanx IV-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52392) pedal phalanx IV-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52393) pedal ungual II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52394) pedal ungual II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52395) pedal ungual III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH coll.) posterior dorsal centra, metatarsal II, pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
Diagnosis- (after Chure, 1995) atlas lacks prezygapophysis for proatlas, does not roof over neural canal; horizontal lamina along base of each side of anterior dorsal neural spines arising from spine base anteriorly, free posteriorly; chevrons anteroposteriorly expanded distally.
(after Chure, 2000) postorbital lacks rugosity; some cervicals with nearly vertical postzygapophyses; pleurocoels well developed further posteriorly than Allosaurus; femur bowed laterally; no astragalar butress on anterodistal tibia; distomedial crest of tibia more strongly developed than Allosaurus; metatarsal IV less divergent distally than Allosaurus.
Comments- At least four individuals are represented by the OMNH material. Chure (1995) originally mentioned anterior cervicals, caudal centra and a tridactyl manus, which would be paratype material if their specimen numbers could be determined.
References- Ray, 1941. Big for his day. Natural History. 48, 36-39.
Camp, Welles and Green, 1953. Bibliography of fossil vertebrates 1944-1948. Geological Society of America Memoir. 57, 465 pp.
Chure, 1995. A reassessment of the gigantic theropod Saurophagus maximus from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Oklahoma, USA. Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota. 103-106.
Smith, 1998. A morphometric analysis of Allosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(1), 126-142.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 964 pp.

"Wyomingraptor" Bakker, 1997
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Material- (TATE coll.) (juvenile?) humerus, ulna, radius, semilunate carpal, manus
Description- arm 25-30% shorter compared to body than in Allosaurus; very robust; radius and ulna shorter than manual ungual I; manual ungual I long and straight with large flexor tubercle.
Comments- This name was published in the column "Dr. Bob's Dinofacts" in response to a question from a reader. It is suggested (though not formally proposed) as a new generic name for a carnosaur presently on display at the Tate Museum under the label Allosaurus. A photo is online here.
References- Bakker, 1997. Dr. Bob's Dinofacts. Tate Geological Times 5(2) March/April 1997: p. 3.
Hand and Bakker, 2000. Implications of the functional morphology of a new allosaurid forearm from the Como Bluffs. The Florida Symposium on Dinosaur Bird Evolution. Publications in Paleontology No.2, Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History 17.

Allosaurus Marsh, 1877
= Creosaurus Marsh, 1878
= Epanterias Cope, 1878
= Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879
Diagnosis- (modified from Chure, 2000) fenestrate dorsal wall of maxillary antrum; spindle-shaped foramen on lateral surface of sacral centrum 4; obturator process with long anteriorly directed lamina that extends to level of puboischiadic contact.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) tall, mediolaterally compressed lacrimal horn; reduced external mandibular fenestra; strongly downturned paraoccipital processes that terminate well ventral to basal tubera; antarticular bone in mandible; distal expansion of ischium suboval in lateral view.
Comments- It has become common (e.g. Paul, 1988; Britt, 1991) to recognize two types of normal-sized Morrison Allosaurus- one with a shorter snout and pointed lacrimal horns (usually called A. fragilis) and another with a long snout and rounded lacrimal horns (usually called A. atrox, and sometimes separated as Creosaurus). While A. fragilis sensu stricto has been based mainly on the A. fragilis topotype, the 'A. atrox' morphology has not been based on the Creosaurus atrox holotype. Thus, actual discussion of the latter specimen will appear further down, while the long-snouted morphotype will be called 'A. atrox' for this section. Regarding the supposedly shorter skull of A. fragilis, Chure (2000) notes the only short skull known is that of USNM 4734, which was found disarticulated. When it was reconstructed by Gilmore (1920), he had to "comprimise in regard to the exact articulation of the elements". There are large plaster filled gaps in the specimen, the contact between the maxilla, jugal and lacrimal is missing, the dentary is from another specimen (USNM 8335), the other mandible is
plaster, the palate is fragmentary, and the postorbital regions are distorted judging by their asymmetry. Chure notes the maxilla is reconstructed too far posteriorly, as the lacrimal articulation of the dorsal process is projecting into the antorbital fenestra. The angle between the maxillary body and its dorsal process is similar to other Allosaurus specimens, which wouldn't make sense if the snout were shorter. Similarily, the angle between the anterior and ventral lacrimal processes is in the middle of the range Allosaurus exhibits, with Cleveland-Lloyd 'A.atrox' specimens showing marked variation. The nasal of USNM 4734 is
broken and the anterior part moved dorsally and rotated ventrally. The lacrimal horn shape shows many intermediates between tall and triangular (USNM 4734) and low and rounded (DINO 2650). There is an example of a triangular lacrimal on a long skull (MOR 693). Contra Paul, triangular lacrimals are known from the Cleveland-Lloyd quarry (eg. UU 40-581). Though Paul claimed 'A. atrox' has a more robust neck, therte is no difference when cervical width/length ratios are compared. Similarily, though Paul claimed 'A. atrox' has a more robust forelimb, no difference was noted when humeral circumference and length were quantitatively compared (circumference/length ratio .45 in A. fragilis, .36-.49 in 'A. atrox'). Finally, both "species" are found in the same quarry, as evidenced by AMNH 600 (referred to A. fragilis by Paul) and AMNH 666 (which he referred to 'A. atrox'). This is contrary to the stratigraphic distinction supported by Bakker and others. In conclusion, there is no evidence for the fragilis/atrox dichotomy advocated by Paul and Bakker. All Allosaurus are long-snouted.
References- Marsh, 1877. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles from the Jurassic formation. Amer. Jour. Sci. 3 pp. 514-516.
Cope, 1878. On the saurians of the Dakota Cretaceous of Colorado. Nature 18: 476.
Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. Am. J. Sci. (ser. 3)15: 241-244.
Marsh, 1879, Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part 1: American Journal of Science, 3rd series, v. 16, p. 411-416.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. CX 1-154, 36 pls., 78 text-figs.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 37 p. 1-72.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
A. "jimmadseni" Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member?, Salt Wash Member of Morrison Formation, Utah, Wyoming, US

Material- ?(BYU 571/8901) (adult) incomplete skull (lacking dorsal snout), mandible, atlas, axis, partial scapula, coracoid, humerus (420 mm), pubis, femur, tibia, metatarsal II (Smith et al., 1999)
(DINO 11541; intended holotype) (5.6 m, 614 kg, subadult) right half of skull (630 mm), stapes, partial sclerotic ring, mandible, (presacral column 1.814 m) second through eleventh cervical vertebrae, sixth through eighth cervical ribs, first through twelfth dorsal vertebrae, second through twelfth dorsal ribs, eighteen rows of gastralia, sacrum (438 mm), firsth through eighth caudal vertebrae (722 mm), midcaudal vertebra, sixteen distal caudal vertebrae (991 mm), seventeen chevrons, scapulae, coracoids (133 mm), furcula, humeri, radius, ulna, carpus, manus, keratinous sheath of manual ungual I, ilia, pubes, ischia (454 mm), femora (~658 mm), tibiae, fibulae, astragalus, calcaneum, distal tarsals 3, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I, metatarsal II (182 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, metatarsal III (225 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, metatarsal IV (195 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV (Chure, 2000)
(NAMAL coll.) (4 m; juvenile) (skull 360 mm) maxilla, prefrontal, postorbital, jugals, quadratojugals, squamosals, quadrates, vomer, palatine, pterygoids, partial braincase, dentaries, splenials, surangulars, prearticulars, articular, hyoids, cervical vertebrae 3-10, dorsal vertebrae 1-13, ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal vertebrae except some mid caudals, pectoral girdle, forelimbs, hindlimb, skin impression (300^2 mm) (Pinegar, Loewen, Cloward, Hunter and Weege, 2003)
(NAMAL coll.) (8.8 m; adult) material including pubis (Pinegar, Loewen, Cloward, Hunter and Weege, 2003)
Diagnosis- (after Chure, 2000) compared to A. fragilis- cranial narial fossa less well defined; row of neurovascular foramina below antorbital fenestra in maxilla; large foramen between lacrimal and jugal at posteroventral corner of antorbital fossa; larger maxillary antrum; rounded lacrimal horn (distortion?); lateral pneumatic recess of lacrimal absent (distortion?); lateral vertical ridge on lacrimal horn; lacrimal horn not rugose; straight ventral margin of jugal; parietals fused posteriorly; parietals taller than wide in posterior view; basipterygoid recess well marked and invasive; myohyloid foramen nearly enclosed ventrally; retroarticular process shorter posteriorly; teardrop-shaped internal mandibular fenestra; nineteen dentary teeth; axial intercentrum rotated dorsally; axial intercentrum with flared rim; odontoid process of axis tall and narrow in anterior view; third cervical neural spine slanted posteriorly; fourth through sixth neural spines more anteroposteriorly elongate; cervical pleurocoels change in size throughout the vertebral column; cervical epipophyses mediolaterally compressed; eleven cervical vertebrae; main hypapophysis on presacral 11; accessory ossifications on the anterior and posterior edges of proximal caudal neural spines; more pronounced notch between acromion process and anterior coracoid edge; scapular blade not as expanded distally; coracoid extremely thin anteriorly; more gracile ulna; longer thinner olecranon process; ulnar entocondyle lower; straighter ulnar shaft; proximal and distal ulnar ends offset by about 45 degrees; low vertical ridge above acetabulum; anteroposteriorly elongate obturator notch in pubis delimited by triangular processes; pubic boot less tall and massive; femoral head is directed ventromedially; strongly developed mediodistal crest on femur; less curved cnemial crest; elongate proximolateral corner of pedal phalanx III-2.
Comments- DINO 11541 is intended as the holotype. This was discovered in 1990, though the skull was not located until 1996. The only other fossil in the quarry is DINO 16456, which consists of six proximal caudals and chevrons of a much larger theropod. It is unfortunately difficult to continue collection of this specimen. Names in theses aren't usually listed in this website, and this one is only because it was later published by Glut (2003). Glut's work includes a caveat to the effect that it is not available to establish new taxonomy however, so the name remains unofficial.
Description- Only the left half of the skull is preserved, but every element is represented except the vomer. The sclerotic ring is preserved, as it is in A. fragilis specimen MOR 693. It probably contained around 32 plates. The ninth cervical centrum has two pairs of pleurocoels. There is uncertainty regarding the number of cervicals versus dorsals. No ribs were found in the transition area, but Chure (2000) identifies presacral 11 as being a cervical based on the parapophysis, which is located entirely on the centrum. I think it may be a dorsal because it has a hypapophysis. The accessory ossifications on the caudal neural spines are compared to laminar spinous processes in Alligator cervicals, and hypothesized to be the result of a well developed ligamentum elasticum interlaminare. I feel A. fragilis may have had similar structures, though they were unossified. This is because A. fragilis has a similar step in the anterior edge of its caudal neural spines, which are filled with the accessory ossifications in A. "jimmadseni". There are eighteen rows of gastralia in the complete series. The first is composed of only two elements, but the rest are composed of four. Gilmore (1920) erroneously thought there were seven elements in each row in A. fragilis because USNM 4734 sustained an injury in that area that broke many gastralia, forming false joints between them. His "single median gastralium" was a furcula. The humeri are dissimilar from each other, though only partially due to postmotrem deformation it seems. The manus is complete except for the distal portions of unguals I and III. Manual ungual III has a weak proximodorsal lip. There is a nutrient foramen on the ilium, above the acetabulum and anterior to the vertical ridge. Chure suggests the supposedly pneumatic foramen in Piatnitzkysaurus' ilium is actually neurovascular, and cites a Megalosaurus ilium (BMNH R1100) with a similar structure. The obturator process of the ischium has a remarkably elongate proximal corner, extending anteriorly past the pubic peduncle. Examination of other Allosaurus specimens indicates this was the normal condition, and that the thin lamina had broken off in most specimens.
Smith et al. (1999) described a specimen from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Utah which I tentatively refer to A. "jimmadseni" based on the straight ventral jugal margin, dorsally rotated axial intercentrum and slightly flared axial intercentral rim. It has a perhaps pathologically fused ectopterygoid and pterygoid (right side only), less disinct coracoid tuber, and humerus with greater torsion than A. fragilis. Bybee and Smith (1999) note it has an ossified sphenethmoid, very thin parasphenoid rostrum, posteriorly oriented basisphenoid recess, coalesced cranial nerve foramina at base of occipital condyle, and more horizontally oriented paroccipital processes than A. fragilis.
Skin impressions found with the juvenile consist of 2-3mm wide scales (Pinegar et al., 2003).
References- Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. CX 1-154, 36 pls., 78 text-figs.
Chure and Madsen, 1996. On the presence of furculae in some non-maniraptoran theropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(3): 573-577.
Glut, 1997. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 1076pp.
Chure, 1999. The wrist of Allosaurus and the evolution of the semilunate carpal. JVP 19(3) 38A.
Bybee and Smith, 1999. A large, unusual allosaurid skull from Eastern Utah. SVP 19(3) 35A.
Smith, Richmond and Bybee, 1999. Morphological variation in a large specimen of Allosaurus fragilis, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Eastern Utah. in Gillette, ed. Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. pp. 135-141.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
Chure, 2000. New Data on the Gastral Basket of Allosaurus. The Florida Symposium on Dinosaur Bird Evolution. Publications in Paleontology No.2, Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History 13.
Glut, 2003. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia - Supplement 3. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC.
Pinegar, Loewen, Cloward, Hunter and Weege, 2003. A juvenile allosaur with preserved integument from the basal Morrison Formation of Central Wyoming. JVP 23(3), 87A-88A.
unnamed clade (atrox + fragilis + europaeus < "jimmadseni")
Diagnosis- ventral margin of jugal deflected at midlength.
A. atrox (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987
= Creosaurus atrox Marsh, 1878
= Antrodemus atrox (Marsh, 1878) Gilmore, 1920
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Holotype- (YPM 1890) premaxilla with teeth, jugal, three teeth, hyoid, anterior dorsal neural spine, proximal rib of posterior dorsal, second and third sacral centra, third sacral rib, two incomplete proximal caudal neural arches, two mid caudal centra, four ends of distal caudal centra, incomplete distal caudal vertebra, sternum? (lost), ilium (710 mm), astragalus, distal tarsal III, pedal phalanx II-1, pedal phalanx III-1, pedal ungual III, pedal phalanx IV-1
Diagnosis- second and third sacral centra with V-shaped venter; vertical ridge over acetabulum like A. "jimmadseni".
Comments- This specimen is from the Late Kimmeridgian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming. The jugal shows an A. fragilis-like ventral deflection, but the ilium has an A. "jimmadseni"-like vertical ridge that Chure (2000) states "is not present on any A. fragilis specimen". Chure never mentions either of these characters in reference to systematic position and merely refers A. atrox to Allosaurus sp.. Indeed, he says there are no characters to differentiate it from either species. Odd. A. atrox also has a fossa on the dorsal jugal process that is apparently natural. An A. fragilis specimen (AMNH 5753) has a similarily placed, but shallower fossa. Finally, Chure notes that the second and third sacrals of A. atrox are V-shaped ventrally in section, unlike those of either Allosaurus species. The fourth and fifth sacrals of A. "jimmadseni" have this type of venter, but the fourth sacral centra of all Allosaurus specimens have a large (pneumatic?) lateral foramen, unlike these sacrals. So the sacrum is different from other Allosaurus specimens, no matter which vertebrae are represented. I think there is a possibility Allosaurus atrox is a valid species, but will withold final judgement until Chure's work is published without the typos and inconsistant statements in this thesis.
References- Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. Am. J. Sci. (ser. 3)15: 241-244.
Paul, 1987. The science and art of restoring the life appearance of dinosaurs and their relatives: a rigorous how-to guide. In Dinosaurs Past and Present. Volume II (S.J. Czerkas and E.E. Olson, Eds.), pp. 4 -49. Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History/Univ. of Washington Press. Seattle.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. CX 1-154, 36 pls., 78 text-figs.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
A. fragilis Marsh, 1877
pr= Allosaurus lucaris Marsh, 1878
= Epanterias amplexus Cope, 1878
= Camptonotus amplus Marsh, 1879
pr= Labrosaurus lucaris (Marsh, 1878) Marsh, 1879
= Labrosaurus ferox Marsh, 1884
= Camptosaurus amplus (Marsh, 1879) Marsh, 1885
= Allosaurus ferox Marsh, 1896
= Labrosaurus fragilis (Marsh, 1877) Nopsca, 1901
pr= Antrodemus lucaris (Marsh, 1878) Hay, 1902
= Antrodemus fragilis (Marsh, 1877) Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957
= Antrodemus ferox (Marsh, 1896) Ostrom and McIntosh, 1966
= Allosaurus amplexus (Cope, 1878) Paul, 1988
= Allosaurus "whitei" Pickering, 1996
pr= Allosaurus "carnegeii" Levin, 2003
Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, New Mexico, Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Utah, Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US

Diagnosis- (modified from Chure, 2000) two large laterally open lacrimal foramina; proportionally shorter metacarpal I than A. "jimmadseni".
Holotype- (YPM 1930) tooth (55 mm), incomplete cervical or anterior dorsal centrum; incomplete posterior dorsal centrum (85 mm), posterior dorsal centrum (105 mm), two dorsal rib fragments, humeral fragment, pedal phalanx III-1 (109 mm)
Referred- (AMNH 507) premaxilla, maxilla, teeth (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 600) skull (810 mm) (Osborn, 1900)
(AMNH 666; intended holotype of Allosaurus "whitei") skull (885 mm), hyoid, second through ninth cervical vertebrae, first through thirteenth dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, ilium pubes, proximal ischia (Osborn, 1900)
(AMNH 680) (9.7 m; 2.3 tons) dorsals 5-7, four proximal caudal vertebrae, ilium, pubes, ischia, femur (1.008 m), tibiae, fibulae, astragali, calcaneum, metatarsus, pedal phalanges (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 704) dorsals, ribs, sacrum, nine caudals, pelvis, (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 728) pubes (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 813) two anterior dorsal vertebrae, five posterior dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, sacrum, two proximal caudal vertebrae, ilium, pubes, ischium (Chure, Fiorillo and Jacobsen, 2000)
(AMNH 851) mandible, teeth (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 5753; =4753 of Glut, 1997) partial skull (maxilla, jugal, quadratojugal, quadrate, ectopterygoid, partial pterygoid, braincase), second through ninth cervical vertebrae, first through fourteenth dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, mid caudal, chevron, scapula, coracoid, furcula, ilium, pubes, ischium, femur (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 5767; holotype of Epanterias amplexus) axis, sixth or seventh cervical centrum, first dorsal neural arch, coracoid (328 mm long), distal metatarsal IV (Cope, 1878)
(AMNH 6125) (Chure, 2000)
(AMNH 14554) squamosal (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(BYU 2028) premaxilla, partial maxilla, nasal, dentary (Smith and Lisak, 2001)
(BYU 4981) (Chure, 2000)
(BYU 5125) lacrimal (Britt, 1991)
(BYU 5524) ischium (Perez-Moreno et al., 1999)
(BYU 8901) (Chure, 2000)
(CM 11844) skull, mandible, incomplete skeleton lacking forelimbs (McIntosh, 1981)
....(CM 11868) partial skull, cervical vertebrae, ribs, scapulocoracoid (McIntosh, 1981)
....(DNM 171) fibula (McIntosh, 1981)
(DINO 2560, =UUVP 6000) (7.9 m, 1.32 tons) complete skull (845 mm), nearly complete skeleton (lacking caudal vertebra 1, chevrons, forearms, several pedal phalanges) femora (880, 850 mm), tibiae (730, 745 mm), metatarsi (375, 372 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(MCZ 3897) premaxilla, femur (Madsen, 1976)
(NMMNH P-26083) sacral vertebrae 4 and 5, caudal vertebrae 1-4, chevrons 1-4, ilium, ischia, femur (1.04 m), tibia (910 mm), fibula, pedal phalanges (Williamson and Chure, 1996)
(UMNH 10781; = UUVP 3811) neural spines, transverse processes (Carpenter, Sanders, McWhinney and Wood, 2005)
(USNM 2315; holotype of Labrosaurus ferox; probably the same individual as USNM 4734- Bakker, 2000) dentary, teeth (Marsh, 1884)
(USNM 4734) (7.4 m, 1.01 tons) skull (682 mm), atlas (28 mm), axis (85 mm), third cervical vertebra (105 mm), third cervical rib (268 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (102 mm), fourth cervical rib, fifth cervical vertebra (109 mm), fifth cervical rib, sixth cervical vertebra (111 mm), sixth cervical rib, seventh cervical vertebra (115 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (115 mm), eighth cervical rib, ninth cervical vertebra (123 mm), ninth cervical rib, tenth cervical vertebra, (dorsal series ~1107 mm) first dorsal vertebra (88 mm), second dorsal vertebra (77 mm), third dorsal vertebra (74 mm), fourth dorsal centrum (72 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (74 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (81 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (~81 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra (85 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (94 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (93 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (99 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (106 mm), dorsal ribs, gastralia, (sacrum 536 mm) first sacral vertebra (116 mm), second sacral vertebra (104 mm), third sacral vertebra (104 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (108 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (104 mm), thirty-three caudal vertebrae, scapulae, coracoids, furcula, humerus (310 mm), radius (222 mm), ulna (263 mm), intermedium, radiale, ulnare, distal carpal II, distal carpal III, metacarpal I (73 mm), phalanx I-1 (136,138 mm), manual ungual I (118, 120 mm), metacarpal II (125, 122 mm), phalanx II-1 (94, 94 mm), phalanx II-2 (102 mm), manual ungual II (95 mm), metacarpal III (105, 97 mm), phalanx III-1 (50, 42 mm), phalanx III-2 (41, 43 mm), phalanx III-3 (52, 55 mm), manual ungual III (61, 59 mm), ilia (672, 720 mm), pubes (680 mm), ischia (575 mm), femora (770 mm), tibia (690 mm), fibula (623 mm), astragalus (132 mm wide, 115 mm high), calcaneum, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I (85 mm), phalanx I-1 (70 mm), pedal ungual I (~70 mm), metatarsal II (270 mm), phalanx II-1 (120 mm), phalanx II-2 (80 mm), metatarsal III (327 mm), phalanx III-1 (110 mm), phalanx III-2 (~90 mm), phalanx III-3 (66 mm), metatarsal IV (275 mm), phalanx IV-1 (75 mm), phalanx IV-2 (50 mm), phalanx IV-3 (30 mm), phalanx IV-4 (29 mm) (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8335) maxilla, teeth, dentary (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8367) atlas, axis (89 mm), third cervical vertebra (105 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (106 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (111 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (121 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (125 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (120 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (122 mm), tenth cervical vertebra, partial cervical ribs 2-10, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra (89 mm), third dorsal vertebra (78 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (85 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (80 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (88 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (87 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (94 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (96 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (99 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra, thirteenth dorsal vertebra (102 mm), eleven dorsal ribs, gastralia, fourth sacral vertebra (152 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (132 mm), first caudal vertebra (121 mm), first chevron, second caudal vertebra (123 mm), second chevron, third caudal vertebra (125 mm), third chevron, fourth caudal vertebra (120 mm), fourth chevron (252 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (118 mm), fifth chevron, sixth caudal vertebra (120 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (120 mm), seventh chevron, mid caudal vertebra (144 mm), partial ilium, pubes (740 mm), ischia (650 mm) (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8423) maxillae, five dorsal centra, (sacrum 540 mm), first sacral vertebra (~90 mm), second sacral vertebra (99 mm), third sacral vertebra (104 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (120 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (114 mm), three caudal centra, manual bones, partial ilia, broken pubes, broken ischia, femora (805 mm), metatarsal II (320 mm), phalanx II-1 (122 mm), metatarsal III (353 mm), phalanx III-1 (116 mm), phalanx III-2 (94 mm), phalanx III-3 (74 mm), metatarsal IV (324 mm), phalanx IV-2 (72 mm), pedal ungual IV (~75 mm) (Gilmore, 1920)
(UUVP 3) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 10-245) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 30-76) ulna (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 30-293) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-723) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-778) humerus (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 30-783) metatarsal IV (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 33) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 40) basicranium, pedal phalanx III-1 (Madsen, 1976; Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 40-453) fifth sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 40-601) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-603) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-604) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-722) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 71-1) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 71-3) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 71-151) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 86) radius (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 139) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 169) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 177) two distal caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 181) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 200) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 273) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 294) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 387) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 652) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 669) mid chevron (143 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 687) radius (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 699) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 702) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 740) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 778) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 837) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 856) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 915) distal chevron (69 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 919) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 1010) proximal caudal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 1086) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1169) humerus (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 1403) jugal (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1414) epipterygoid (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 1528) scapula (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1622) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1657) pedal phalanx III-1 (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1685) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1847) posterior dorsal rib (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1848) phalanx (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1849) three distal caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1850) caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1851) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1852) premaxilla (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1853) pedal ungual II (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1854) metacarpal (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1855) metacarpal (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1856-1858) bone (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1862) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1863) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1865) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1866) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1869) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1872) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1873) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1875) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1876) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1878) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1879) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1895) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1896) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1898) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1900) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1903) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1904) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1905) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1906) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1907) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1908) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1909) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1910) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1927) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1934) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1936) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1945) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1991) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2001) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2067) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 2175) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2226) fifth sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 2252) cervical rib (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 2350) distal chevron (64 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 2456) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2545) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2550) mid chevron (107 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 2600) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2753) dorsal rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 2758) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2843) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2850) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 2903) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2939) pedal phalanx (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 2997) phalanx (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 3036) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3082) quadrate, braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 3133) seventh cervical rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 3203) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 3243) ischium (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 3287) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 3304) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 3389) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 3435) humerus (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 3529) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3607) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 3670) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3694) femur (905 mm)
(UUVP 3724) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3758) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 3771) two mid caudal vertebrae, chevron (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3773) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 3810) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 3811) dorsal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 3943) fifth sacral rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 3995) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4029) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4122) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4159) phalanx (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4201) bone (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4320) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4387) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4556) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4596) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4674) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4792) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4895) caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4908) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4946) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5160) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5186) mid chevron (175 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5198) lacrimal (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5256) two caudal vertebrae, chevron (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5315) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5346) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5391) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5410) fifth sacral rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5427) premaxilla, fifth sacral vertebra (Madsen, 1976; Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5490) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5496) humerus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5499) maxilla (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5501) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5566) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5582) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5583) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5599) scapula (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 5626) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 5658) distal caudal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5659) distal caudal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5660) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5661) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5669) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5748) pterygoid, dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5753) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5748) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5754) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5843) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5849) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5942) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5943) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5958) postorbital (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5961) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5969) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5985) ilium, ischium (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 6023) scapula, femur (245 mm) (Rothschild and Tanke, 2005)
(UUVP 6100) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6101) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6102) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6132) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6625) proximal caudal vertebra (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6737) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6740) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6788) pedal phalanx III-1 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 6912) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6979) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 7145) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 7163) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 10016) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 10093) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10111) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10136) cervical vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 10154) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10161) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10173) jugal (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10220) pedal phalanx II-1 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 10250) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10908) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 11497) scapula (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11498) scapula (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11499) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11500) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11690) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 16645) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 40607) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 40609) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 40610) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP A1-1) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP Q-6) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP Q-19) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP X31) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP coll.) rib (Hanna, 2002)
?(YPM 1879; holotype of Camptonotus amplus) distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (295 mm), phalanx II-1 (120 mm), phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (345 mm), phalanx III-1 (140 mm), phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, metatarsal IV (305 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4 (Marsh, 1879)
(YPM 1893; holotype of Allosaurus ferox) partial skull (premaxillae, partial maxilla, partial jugal, nasal fragment,skull roof or palatal fragments, teeth), partial dentaries, partial surangular, dorsal central fragment, dorsal rib fragments, scapular fragment, incomplete pedal ungual (Marsh, 1884)
(YPM 1931; holotype of Allosaurus lucaris) three posterior cervical vertebrae, second pectoral vertebra, fourth and fifth pectoral vertebrae (fused), mid-dorsal vertebra, neural spines and zygopophyses, proximal scapulae, incomplete coracoids, humeri (~322 mm), partial ulna, proximal metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, proximal phalanx II-2 (Marsh, 1878)
....(YPM 46147) manual ungual
(YPM 6223) (Chure, 2000)
(YPM 6224) (Chure, 2000)
(YPM 6293) (Chure, 2000)
(YPM coll.) surangular, prearticular, articular, hyoid, three teeth, ninth cervical centrum, first through third dorsal centrum, two partial posterior dorsal vertebrae, incomplete posterior dorsal rib, five proximal caudal vertebrae, three distal caudal centra, fragments of ten distal caudal centra, base of neural arch, vertebral transverse process, zygopophyseal fragments (Chure, 2000)
Comments- Unfortunately, the holotype cannot be identified as A. fragilis or A. "jimmadseni", although it is definitely Allosaurus. Madsen (1976) tried to designate DINO 2560 (then UUVP 6000) as a neotype, but this is not allowed when the holotype is still extant (ICZN Article 75.3.4). The nearly complete specimen USNM 4734 was designated the topotype by Chure (2000) as it comes from the same quarry as the holotype, but the ICZN does not recognize topotypes as official and the publication is a thesis. Most recently, Paul and Carpenter (2010) have petitioned the ICZN to make USNM 4734 the neotype of Allosaurus fragilis, which was still being voted on as of 3-24-14.
The holotype is from the Late Kimmeridgian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Colorado.
Allosaurus lucaris is from the Late Kimmeridgian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Colorado. It was originally diagnosed by the opisthocoelous anterior dorsal centra with ventral keels and anteriorly placed parapophyses that are the usual characters of Allosaurus. The holotype is a partial mandible, hyoid, partial posterior cervical, dorsal and caudal vertebrae, many vertebral fragments, a humerus and a partial forelimb. It shows no unique characters, and Chure (2000) refers it to A. fragilis without specifying why it is not A. "jimmadseni".
Epanterias amplexus
is from the Early Tithonian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Colorado. The taxon is based on an axis, mid cervical centrum, first dorsal neural arch, coracoid and distal metatarsal IV. The axial intercentrum is not dorsally rotated, without a flared rim, and an anteriorly semicircular odontoid process. These are like A. fragilis, not A. "jimmadseni". Compared to Saurophaganax, it has differently oriented cervical parapophyses, and no dorsal paraspinal lamina. Thus, Chure (2000) refers Epanterias to Allosaurus fragilis, though he says Epanterias has a less laterally compressed axial centrum, less rectangular distal outline of metatarsal IV and better developed lateral condyle in that element. I provisionally agree, but Chure never adresses the differences he finds, which is confusing.
Allosaurus ferox is based on YPM 1893 (partial skull, partial dentaries, partial surangular, dorsal central fragment, dorsal rib
fragments, scapular fragment, incomplete pedal ungual). Marsh (1896) diagnosed it by the presence of a maxillary fenestra, which is now known to be present in all Allosaurus specimens. The few unique features (sinuous ventral premaxillary margin, convex ventral maxillary margin) are caused by incorrect restoration, though the antorbital fossa is better developed than most
specimens. The deflected ventral jugal margin shows it is synonymous with A. fragilis.
Allosaurus "whitei" was based on a skull with hyoid, presacral column, sacrum and pelvis (AMNH 666). It was diagnosed by the same characters Paul (1988) used to distinguish 'A. atrox', so is invalid for the same reasons. Chure (2000) rejects the validity of the name, as Pickering (1996) didn't follow ICZN Article 7 Recommendation 7a, Article 8a or Recommendation 8A. It is therefore a nomen nudum in addition to being a junior synonym of A. fragilis.
Allosaurus "carnegeii" was used in a caption for the cover of the June 2003 issue of Discover Magazine (Levin, 2003). Pending examination of the photo to determine which specimen it represents, it is assumed to be A. fragilis here.
The holotype of Hysirophus discurus (Cope, 1878) does not contain Allosaurus elements, contra Glut, 1997 (Chure, 2000). The holotype of "Laelaps" trihedrodon (Cope, 1877) is lost, so cannot be assigned to Allosaurus or another genus (Chure, 2000).
NMMNH P-26083 (Williamson and Chure, 1996) from the Late Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in New Mexico is assigned to Allosaurus because the femoral shaft is straight in anterior view and the tibial facet for the astragalar ascending process is well marked. It is assigned to A. fragilis based on the apparent lack of accessory ossifications on the anterior and posterior edges of proximal caudal neural spines, dorsal directed femoral head, more curved cnemial crest, and lack of an elongate proximolateral corner on pedal phalanx III-2. The strongly curved cnemial crest, twisted tibial shaft, and flattened medial surface of the medial tibial condyle are unique characters.
References- Marsh, 1877. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles from the Jurassic formation. Amer. Jour. Sci. 3 pp. 514-516.
Cope. 1878. A new opisthocoelous dinosaur. American Naturalist 12(6):406
Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. Am. J. Sci. (ser. 3)15: 241-244.
Marsh, 1879. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part 1: American Journal of Science, 3rd series, v. 16, p. 411-416.
Marsh, 1884. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VIII. The order of Theropoda. Amer. Jour. Sci. 3 pp. 329-340.
Marsh, 1885.
Marsh, 1896. The dinosaurs of North America. U.S. Geological Survey, 16th Annual Report, 1894-95, pp. 133-244.
Osborn, 1900, Reconsideration of the evidence for a common Dinosaur-Avian stem in the Permian: American Naturalist, v. 34, n. 406, p. 777-799.
Nopcsa, 1901. Synopsis und Abstammung der Dinosaurier. Foldt. Kozl. 31: 247-288.
Hay, 1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. CLXXIX 1-868.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. CX 1-154, 36 pls., 78 text-figs.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957. Les dinosauriens du Portugal. Mémoires du Service géologique du Portugal, 2:1-63.
Ostrom and McIntosh, 1966. Marsh's Dinosaurs,The collection from Como Bluff. Yale Univ. Press. New Haven, CT.
Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972. Preliminary studies of paleopathologies in the Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur collection: Utah Academy of Science Proceedings, v. 49, p. 45-47.
Madsen, 1976. Allosaurus fragilis: a revised osteology. Utah Geol. Mining Surv. Bull., 109: 1-163.
McIntosh, 1981. Annotated catalogue of the Dinosaurs (Reptilia, Archosauria) in the Collections of Carnegie Museum of Natural History: Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, n. 18, p. 1-67.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 37 p. 1-72.
Molnar, 1991. The Cranial morphology of Tyrannosaurus rex: Palaeontographica Abt. A, v. 217, lfg. 4-6, p. 137-176.
Chure and Madsen, 1996. The furcula in allosaurid theropods and its implication for determining bird origins. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. P. 28A.
Chure and Madsen, 1996. Variation in aspects of the tympanic pneumatic system in a population of Allosaurus fragilis from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). JVP 16(1): 63-66.
Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996. The theropod dinosaur Allosaurus Marsh from the upper part of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) near Green River, Utah. in Huffman, Lund and Godwin (eds.). Geology and Resources of the Paradox Basin. Utah Geological Association Guidebook 25, 339-349.
Pickering, 1996."King Kong. Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry". A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, pp. 5-13.
Williamson and Chure, 1996. A large allosaurid from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation (Brushy Basin Member), West-Central New Mexico. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60: 73-79.
Glut, 1997. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 1076pp.
Breithaupt, Chure and Southwell, 1999. AMNH 5753: The world’s first free-standing theropod skeleton. JVP 19(3) 33A.
Smith, Richmond and Bybee, 1999. Morphological variation in a large specimen of Allosaurus fragilis, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Eastern Utah. in Gillette, ed. Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. pp. 135-141.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1-964.
Chure, Fiorillo and Jacobsen, 2000. Prey bone utilization by predatory dinosaurs in the late Jurassic of North America, with comments on prey bone use by dinosaurs throughout the Mesozoic: In: Aspects of Theropod Paleobiology, edited by Perez-Moreno, B. P., Holtz, T. Jr., Sanz, J. L., and Moratalla, J., Gaia, n. 15, p. 227-232.
Loewen and Sampson, 2000. Femoral ontogeny in Allosaurus fragilis (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) from the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah. JVP 20(3) 54A.
Rayfield, 2000. Allosaurus fragilis: Mechanical behavior of the skull and implications for feeding strategy. JVP 20(3) 63A.
Rayfield, Norman, Horner, Horner, Smith, Thomason and Upchurch, 2001. Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 409: 1033-1037.
Smith and Lisak, 2001. An unusual specimen of Allosaurus from southeastern Utah: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 46, p. 93-98.
Hanna, 2002. Multiple injury and infection in a sub-adult theropod dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis with comparisons to allosaur pathology in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry collection: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 22, n. 1, p. 76-90.
Levin, 2003. Dinosaur family values. Discover. 24(6) 34-41.
Baziak, 2004. Intraspecific variation and ontogeny in cranial elements of Allosaurus fragilis from the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur quarry of Central Utah. JVP 24(3).
Carpenter, Sanders, McWhinney and Wood, 2005. Evidence for predator-prey relationships, examples for Allosaurus and Stegosaurus: In: The Carnivorous Dinosaurs, Edited by Carpenter, K., III. Theropods as living animals, p. 325-350.
Rothschild and Tanke, 2005. Theropod Paleopathology, state-of-the-art review: In: The Carnivorous Dinosaurs, Edited by Carpenter, K., III. Theropods as living animals, p. 351-365.
Demirjian, 2010. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(4), 332.
Kirkland, 2010. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(2), 178-178.
Loewen and Chure, 2010. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(3), 255-256.
Paul and Carpenter, 2010. Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(1), 53-56.
Demirjian, 2011. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 68(1), 72.
Eddy and Clarke, 2011. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). PLoS ONE. 6(3), e17932.
Bykowski, 2013. Assessing the potential for ontogenetic ecomorphology in theropods: A case study using Allosaurus fragilis from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 98.
A. europaeus Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Porto Novo Member of Lourinha Formation, Portugal

Holotype- (ML 415) posterior skull, sclerotic ring, posterior mandible, fourth to sixth cervical vertebrae, fourth to sixth cervical ribs
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Camadas de Alcobaca Formation, Portugal
Referred
- ?(MNHNUL/AND.001) lacrimal?, partial frontal, partial quadrate, teeth, last dorsal vertebra, several dorsal ribs, gastralia, first sacral vertebra, proximal caudal vertebra, mid-caudal vertebra, five distal caudal vertebrae, chevrons, partial ilium, pubes, ischium (~410 mm), femur, tibia, fibula, astragalus?, calcaneum?, metatarsal II, metatarsal III, metatarsal IV (Perez-Moreno et al., 1999)
Diagnosis- (modified from Mateus et al., 2006) jugal participation in the antorbital fenestra; maxilla forked posteriorly; truncated ventroposterior process of the maxilla; nasal with two pneumatic foramina (the anterior foramen twice the size of the posterior); posteroventral projection of the jugal more than twice the posterodorsal projection; large anterior surangular foramen; squamosal contacts the quadratojugal by a sigmoidal suture; squamosal projects ventrally into laterotemporal fenestra; lacrimal horn narrow in lateral view; rugose dorsal rim of the nasal; the occipital condyles above the squamosal-quadratojugal contact; the anterior tip of quadratojugal is anterior to the laterotemporal fenestra; the lateral lamina of lacrimal is subtle; palatine contacts the pterygoid dorsoposteriorlly; and ventral tip of the postorbital reaches the lower rim of the orbit.
References- Perez-Moreno, Chure, Pires, Marques da Silva, Dos Santos, Dantas, Povoas, Cachão, Sanz and Galopin de Cavalho, 1999. On the presence of Allosaurus fragilis (Theropoda: Carnosauria) in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal: first evidence of an intercontinental species. Journal of the Geological Society of London 59, p. 449-452.
Antunes and Mateus, 2003. Dinosaurs of Portugal: Comptes Rendus Palevol, v. 2, p. 77-95.
Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006. The large theropod fauna of the Lourinha Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosaurus. in Foster and Lucas (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36, 123-129.
A. sp. indet.
Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Montana, US
Material
- (ANS 21123) (~5.3 m) (mandible ~723 mm) partial dentaries, partial articular, fifteen teeth (20-31 mm), partial fourteenth dorsal centrum (80 mm), twenty-three dorsal rib fragments, incomplete first sacral vertebra (84 mm), fused second and third sacral centra, partial fifth sacral vertebra, partial proximal caudal centrum, partial scapulae (~460 mm), partial coracoids, humeri (one incomplete; 293 mm), radii (182, 185 mm), ulnae (218 mm), radiale, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpals I, phalanges I-1, manual unguals I, metacarpals II, phalanges II-1, phalanges II-2, manual unguals II, metacarpals III, phalanges III-1, phalanges III-2, phalanges III-3, manual unguals III, ilial fragment, partial fused pubes (~550 mm), incomplete ischia (~500 mm), femur (742 mm), proximal tibia (~621 mm), fibulae (one incomplete, one proximal), partial astragalus, calcaneum, distal metatarsal III (Pirolli, 2004)
Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members, Morrison Formation, Colorado, Salt Wash Member, Morrison Formation, Montana, Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members, Morrison Formation, New Mexico, Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation, Oklahoma, Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members, Morrison Formation, South Dakota, Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members, Morrison Formation, Utah, Brushy Basin and Salt Wash Members, Morrison Formation, Wyoming, U
S
Material- (AMNH 275) femur (869 mm) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 290) (~9.5 m) hindlimb including femur (985 mm), tibia (810 mm), metatarsus (423 mm) (Osborn, 1899)
(AMNH 324) hindlimb including metatarsus (352 mm) (Osborn, 1899)
(AMNH 496) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 530) femur, tibia, fibula
(AMNH 726) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 736) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 737) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 5752) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 6128) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 5780) five tooth crowns (Chure, 2001)
(AMNH coll.) twelve teeth (Brown, 1935)
(BMS E25840) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 671/8901) skull including braincase, pterygoid and epipterygoid (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(BYU 725) jugal (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/5126) maxilla (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(BYU 725/17879) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(BYU 4878) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 5097) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 5098) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 5099) humerus (Rothschild and Tanke, 2005)
(BYU 9249) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 9466) incomplete specimen (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 10296) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 10602) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU coll.) nearly 200 elements (Britt, 1991)
(CEU 1719) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(CM 82) proximal caudal centrum (Steel, 1970)
(CM 1254) premaxilla, two teeth, two sacral vertebrae, humerus, ischia, four metatarsals, several phalanges (Steel, 1970)
(CM 2045) femur (Steel, 1970)
(CM 3382) tooth (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 3383) vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 3387) humerus (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 10002) proximal tibia, proximal fibula (Steel, 1970)
(CM 11843) (juvenile) skull, several vertebral centra, ribs, coracoid (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21703) skull, presacral vertebraecaudal vertebrae, ilium, ischium (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21705) caudal centrum (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21713) ischium, metatarsal, other material (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21721) ischium, metatarsal, other material (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21726) femur (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21736) scapulocoracoid (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21757) three caudal vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21769) distal femur (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33901) several vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33903) gastralia (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33957) two caudal vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33965) two proximal caudal centra, four neural spines (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 36037) caudal vertebra (Steel, 1970)
(CM 37004) distal metatarsal (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 38341) caudal vertebra, ungual (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 38349) several incomplete metatarsals (McIntosh, 1981)
(CMNH 10936) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
?(CPS 99; referred to Epanterias amplexus) proximal and distal caudal vertebrae (Bakker, 1988)
(DNM C4) femur
(DNM D4) femora
(DNM 4741) ilium (Meyer and Hoops, 1993)
(DNM 4818) humerus (Meyer and Hoops, 1993)
(DNM 4822) (juvenile) ulna (Meyer and Hoops, 1993)
(DNM coll.) (Leader and Small, 1999)
(KUVP 1392) pectoral girdle, partial limb (Williston, 1901)
(LACM coll.)
(MOR 693; Big Al) incomplete (95%) skeleton including skull, sclerotic ring, mandibles, cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, gastralia, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, scapula, humerus (318 mm), ulna (254 mm), manus including manual phalanx I-1 and metacarpal II (118 mm), ilium, femur (742 mm), metatarsals III and V, pedal phalanx III-1 and pedal ungual II (Breithaupt, 1996)
?(MWC coll.) eggs (Hirsch, 1994)
(NMC 38454) dentary, humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(NMMNH P-26071) tooth (Lucas et al., 1996)
(NMMNH P-26073) tooth (Lucas et al., 1996)
(NMMNH P-26074) tooth (Lucas et al., 1996)
(PU 3) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(PU 4) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(PU 6) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(PU 7) postorbital, humerus(Smith et al., 1999)
(PU 11) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(PU 12) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(PU 14554) femora (780, 786 mm) (Pirolli, 2004)
(ROM 5091) dentary, humerus, metacarpal I, metacarpal II, metacarpal III (Smith et al., 1999)
(SDSM 25248) premaxilla, jaw fragment, teeth (Foster and Martin, 1994)
(SMA 0005) (adult) almost complete skeleton including dorsal ribs, scapula, ischium and pedal phalanx (Evers et al., 2013)
(SMM 66-42-1) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(TATE 542-544) (adult) three teeth (Bakker, 1997)
(TATE 550) (juvenile) tooth (Bakker, 1997)
(UDSH C-LQ 004) distal caudal (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 066) rib (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 068) tibia (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 077) manual unguals (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 109) radius (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 113) pubis (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ coll.) sixty-one elements (Reid, 1990)
(UMEM coll.) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UMNH 5918) proximal pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5919) distal scapula (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5920) partial ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5921) fifth sacral rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5922) partial eighth or ninth cervical rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5923) incomplete fifth sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5924) sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5925) partial distal chevron (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5926) mid chevron (145 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UNL 50038) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UNL 50039) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UNL coll.) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(USNM 2323) eight cervical centra, eleven dorsal centra, two sacral centra, many cervical and dorsal neural processes, ribs, ilium, ischia (490 mm), femur (645 mm) (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 2328) ilium (Hay, 1909)
(USNM 7336) astragalus (208 mm wide, 172 mm high) (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8257) manual ungual II (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8302) manual ungual III (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8405) (sacrum 575 mm), first sacral vertebra (120 mm), second sacral vertebra (96 mm), third sacral vertebra (107 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (125 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (118 mm), manual phalanges, metatarsal, pedal phalanges (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8423) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UW coll.) several dorsal vertebrae, pelvic elements, hindlimb, partial pes (Hunter and Breithaupt, 2005)
(WDIS 011) quadrate (Bakker, 2000)
(WDIS 536) maxillary tooth (Bakker, 2000)
(WDIS 911) fragmentary quadrate (Bakker, 2000)
(WDIS coll.) two dorsal vertebrae (Rothschild and Tanke, 2005)
(YPM 4944) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(YPM 55898) two fragmentary teeth (Chure, 2000)
(YPM coll.) maxilla, jugal, partial dentary
partial tibia (Gregory, 1938)
tooth (Stokes, 1964)
incomplete postcranial skeleton (Paton, 1975)
teeth (Rigby, 1982)
teeth (Lucas and Hunt, 1985)
fragmentary skeletons (Armstrong et al., 1987)
teeth (Chure and Englemann, 1989)
ribs, eighteen caudal vertebrae, scapula, metatarsal (Holt, 1990)
tooth (Bollan, 1991)
teeth, skeletal elements (Kirkland and Armstrong, 1992)
teeth, caudal centra, phalanx (Foster and Martin, 1994)
tooth (Fiorillo and May, 1996)
teeth, caudal vertebra, femur, distal metatarsal IV (Forster, 1996)
?(referred to Epanterias amplexus) skull (Bakker,1997)
partial skeleton including caudal vertebra, ilium (811 mm), pubis (Fiorillo and Madsen, 1997)
incomplete skeleton including ilium (811 mm) and pubis (Chure and Fiorillo, 1997)
tibia, fibula, three metatarsals, phalanx (Cooley and Schmidt, 1998)
teeth (Turner and Peterson, 1999)
(juvenile) metatarsals (Bader, 2003)
220 teeth (5-23 mm), elements (Foster, 2005)
(embryos) bones including two premaxillae, eggshells, nest (Carrano, Mateus and Mitchell, 2013)
Comments- This material has not been examined in light of A. "jimmadseni", though most is probably A. fragilis. Some is probably indeterminate at the level of Allosaurus or Allosauridae.
The referred eggs are Prismatoolithus coloradensis (Hirsch, 1994), as shown by Carrano et al. (2013).
Kirkland and Carpenter (1994) reported Allosaurus remains from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Colorado, which were described in more detail by Foster (2005).
In addition, abundant unspecified Allosaurus material (not listed above) has been reported from the localities listed above, but has not been described or illustrated. Refer to Turner and Patterson (1999), Ostrom and McIntosh (1999) and Foster (2003) for specifics.
References- Osborn, 1899. Fore and hind limbs of carnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs from the Jurassic of Wyoming. Dinosaur contributions, no. 3: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 13, p. 161-172.
Hay, 1909. On certain genera and species of Carnivorous Dinosaurs, with special reference to Ceratosaurus nasicornis Marsh: Proceedings of the United States National Museum, v. 35, p. 351-366.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. CX 1-154, 36 pls., 78 text-figs.
Brown, 1935. Sinclair Dinosaur Expedition 1934: Natural History, v. 36, p. 3-15.
Gregory, 1938. The San Juan County, A geographic and geologic reconnaissance of Southeastern Utah: United States Geological Survey professional paper, v. 188, p. 59.
Stokes, 1964. Fossilized Stomach Contents of a Sauropod Dinosaur: Science, v. 143, p. 576-577.
Steel, 1970. Saurischia: Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie, teil 14, p. 1-87.
Paton, 1975. A catalogue of fossil vertebrates in the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, Part Four/Amphibia & Reptilia: Royal Scottish Museum, Information Series in Geology, n. 3, p. 1-33.
McIntosh, 1981. Annotated catalogue of the Dinosaurs (Reptilia, Archosauria) in the Collections of Carnegie Museum of Natural History: Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, n. 18, p. 1-67.
Lucas and Hunt, 1985. Dinosaurs From the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in New Mexico: New Mexico Journal of Science, v. 25, p. 1-12.
Armstrong, Averett, Averett, McReynolds and Wolny, 1987. Mid-Mesozoic Paleontology of the Rabbit Valley area, Western Colorado: In: Dinosaur Triangle Paleontological Field Trip, 1987, p. 37-43.
Chure and Englemann, 1989. The Fauna of the Morrison Formation in Dinosaur National Monument: Mesozoic/Cenozoic Vertebrate Paleontology: Classic Localities, Contemporary Approaches, Salt Lake City, Utah to Billings, Montana, July 19-27, 1989. Field Trip Guidebook T322, p. 8-14.
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